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Total Starch Assay Kit (AA/AMG)

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0:05  Introduction
2:11    Principle
3:26   Reagent and Sample Preparation
6:22   RTS Method (Solubilization & Hydrolysis of Starch)
12:56  RTS-NaOH Method (Solubilization & Hydrolysis of Starch)
15:41   Calculation

Total Starch Assay Kit AA/AMG K-TSTA Scheme
Product code: K-TSTA-100A



100 assays

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Content: 50 assays / 100 assays
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: Total Starch
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 510
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 4 to 100 μg of D-glucose per assay
Limit of Detection: 0.18 g/100 g total starch “as is”
Total Assay Time: ~ 90 min
Application examples: Cereal flours, food products and other materials.
Method recognition: AACC Method 76-13.01, AOAC Method 996.11, ICC Standard Method No. 168 and RACI Standard Method

The Total Starch (AA/AMG) Assay Kit is used for the determination of total starch in cereal flours and food products.  AOAC Method 996.11, AACC Method 76-13.01.

This kit now contains an improved α-amylase that allows the amylase incubations to be performed at pH 5.0 (as well as pH 7.0). 

See our full range of dietary fiber and starch assay kits.

Scheme-K-TSTA-100A TSTA Megazyme

  • Very competitive price (cost per test) 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation 
  • Rapid reaction 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included
Validation of Methods
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Product Performance
Megazyme publication

Measurement of available carbohydrates, digestible, and resistant starch in food ingredients and products.

McCleary, B. V., McLoughlin, C., Charmier, L. M. J. & McGeough, P. (2019). Cereal Chemistry, 97(1), 114-137.

Background and objectives: The importance of selectively measuring available and unavailable carbohydrates in the human diet has been recognized for over 100 years. The levels of available carbohydrates in diets can be directly linked to major diseases of the Western world, namely Type II diabetes and obesity. Methodology for measurement of total carbohydrates by difference was introduced in the 1880s, and this forms the basis of carbohydrate determination in the United States. In the United Kingdom, a method to directly measure available carbohydrates was introduced in the 1920s to assist diabetic patients with food selection. The aim of the current work was to develop simple, specific, and reliable methods for available carbohydrates and digestible starch (and resistant starch). The major component of available carbohydrates in most foods is digestible starch. Findings: Simple methods for the measurement of rapidly digested starch, slowly digested starch, total digestible starch, resistant starch, and available carbohydrates have been developed, and the digestibility of phosphate cross‐linked starch has been studied in detail. The resistant starch procedure developed is an update of current procedures and incorporates incubation conditions with pancreatic α‐amylase (PAA) and amyloglucosidase (AMG) that parallel those used AOAC Method 2017.16 for total dietary fiber. Available carbohydrates are measured as glucose, fructose, and galactose, following complete and selective hydrolysis of digestible starch, maltodextrins, maltose, sucrose, and lactose to glucose, fructose, and galactose. Sucrose is hydrolyzed with a specific sucrase enzyme that has no action on fructo‐oligosaccharides (FOS). Conclusions: The currently described “available carbohydrates” method together with the total dietary fiber method (AOAC Method 2017.16) allows the measurement of all carbohydrates in food products, including digestible starch. Significance and novelty: This paper describes a simple and specific method for measurement of available carbohydrates in cereal, food, and feed products. This is the first method that provides the correct measurement of digestible starch and sucrose in the presence of FOS. Such methodology is essential for accurate labeling of food products, allowing consumers to make informed decisions in food selection.

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Megazyme publication

Measurement of Starch: Critical evaluation of current methodology.

McCleary, B. V., Charmier, L. M. J. & McKie, V. A. (2018). Starch‐Stärke, 71(1-2), 1800146.

Most commonly used methods for the measurement of starch in food, feeds and ingredients employ the combined action of α‐amylase and amyloglucosidase to hydrolyse the starch to glucose, followed by glucose determination with a glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. Recently, a number of questions have been raised concerning possible complications in starch analytical methods. In this paper, each of these concerns, including starch hydrolysis, isomerisation of maltose to maltulose, effective hydrolysis of maltodextrins by amyloglucosidase, enzyme purity and hydrolysis of sucrose and β‐glucans have been studied in detailed. Results obtained for a range of starch containing samples using AOAC Methods 996.11 and 2014 .10 are compared and a new simpler format for starch measurement is introduced. With this method that employs a thermostable α-amylase (as distinct from a heat stable α-amylase) which is both stable and active at 100°C and pH 5.0, 10 samples can be analysed within 2 h, as compared to the 6 h required with AOAC Method 2014.10.

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Megazyme publication
Measurement of carbohydrates in grain, feed and food.

McCleary, B. V., Charnock, S. J., Rossiter, P. C., O’Shea, M. F., Power, A. M. & Lloyd, R. M. (2006). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86(11), 1648-1661.

Procedures for the measurement of starch, starch damage (gelatinised starch), resistant starch and the amylose/amylopectin content of starch, β-glucan, fructan, glucomannan and galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose and verbascose) in plant material, animal feeds and foods are described. Most of these methods have been successfully subjected to interlaboratory evaluation. All methods are based on the use of enzymes either purified by conventional chromatography or produced using molecular biology techniques. Such methods allow specific, accurate and reliable quantification of a particular component. Problems in calculating the actual weight of galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides in test samples are discussed in detail.

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Megazyme publication
Measurement of total starch in cereal products by amyloglucosidase-alpha-amylase method: collaborative study.

McCleary, B. V., Gibson, T. S. & Mugford, D. C. (1997). Journal of AOAC International, 80, 571-579.

An American Association of Cereal Chemists/AOAC collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of an enzyme assay kit procedure for measurement of total starch in a range of cereal grains and products. The flour sample is incubated at 95 degrees C with thermostable alpha-amylase to catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to maltodextrins, the pH of the slurry is adjusted, and the slurry is treated with a highly purified amyloglucosidase to quantitatively hydrolyze the dextrins to glucose. Glucose is measured with glucose oxidase-peroxidase reagent. Thirty-two collaborators were sent 16 homogeneous test samples as 8 blind duplicates. These samples included chicken feed pellets, white bread, green peas, high-amylose maize starch, white wheat flour, wheat starch, oat bran, and spaghetti. All samples were analyzed by the standard procedure as detailed above; 4 samples (high-amylose maize starch and wheat starch) were also analyzed by a method that requires the samples to be cooked first in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSD(r)) ranged from 2.1 to 3.9%, and relative standard deviations for reproducibility (RSD(R)) ranged from 2.9 to 5.7%. The RSD(R) value for high amylose maize starch analyzed by the standard (non-DMSO) procedure was 5.7%; the value was reduced to 2.9% when the DMSO procedure was used, and the determined starch values increased from 86.9 to 97.2%.

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Megazyme publication

Collaborative evaluation of a simplified assay for total starch in cereal products (AACC Method 76-13).

McCleary, B. V., Gibson, T. S. & Mugford, D. C. (1997). Cereal Foods World, 42, 476-480.

A procedure for the quantitative analysis of total starch in plant materials has been developed and subjected to a comprehensive interlaboratory study involving 32 laboratories, in accordance with the protocol for collaborative studies recommended by American Association of Cereal Chemists and AOAC International. The method involved treatment of a sample at approximately 95°C with thermostable α-amylase to obtain starch depolymerization and solubilisation. The slurry is then treated with purified amyloglucosidase to give quantitative hydrolysis of the starch fragments to glucose, which is measured with glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. Test samples used in the interlaboratory study included modified and native starches, cereal flours and brans, processed cereal products, animal feeds, and plant material. Results were statistically analysed according to AOAC International guidelines (1). The procedure was shown to be highly repeatable (relative standard deviation 2.1-3.9%) and reproducible (relative standard deviation 2.9-5.0%), and on the basis of these results has gained first approval status with AACC (AACC Method 76-13) and approval as AOAC Method 986.11. The method is more robust than a method previously reported (AACC Method 76-12), and 20 samples can be analysed within 2 hr.

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Megazyme publication
Total starch measurement in cereal products: interlaboratory evaluation of a rapid enzymic test procedure.

McCleary, B. V., Gibson, T. S., Solah, V. & Mugford, D. C. (1994). Cereal Chemistry, 71(5), 501-505.

The precision of an enzymatic procedure for analysis of total starch in cereal flours and products was determined in a comprehensive inter-laboratory study involving 29 laboratories. Test samples represented a range of sample types, including modified and native starches, cereal flours and brans, processed cereal products, animal feeds, and plant material. Results were statistically analyzed according to AOAC guidelines. The procedure was shown to be highly repeatable (relative standard deviation 1.5-7.3%) and reproducible (relative standard deviation 4.1-11.3%). It is now available, in a slightly modified form, as an assay kit. The assay, therefore, provides a convenient alternative to existing procedures for quantitative measurement of starch in cereal products.

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Megazyme publication
Quantitative measurement of total starch in cereal flours and products.

McCleary, B. V., Solah, V. & Gibson, T. S. (1994). Journal of Cereal Science, 20(1), 51-58.

A rapid and quantitative method has been developed for the determination of total starch in a wide range of materials, including high-amylose maize starches and food materials containing resistant starch. The method allows the analysis of 20 samples in 3 h. A single assay can be performed in 2 h. For a range of samples, the total starch values obtained with this method were significantly higher than those obtained with current standard methods. Two assay formats have been developed. In assay format 1, the sample is incubated solubilised with the chaotropic agent dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) to gelatinise the starch, which is then solubilised and partially depolymerised by controlled incubation at ∼ 100°C with a defined level of thermostable alpha-amylase. This allowed near-complete solubilisation of most starches. The remaining starch is then solubilised and the starch fragments are converted to maltose and maltotriose by the combined action of highly purified pullulanase and beta-amylase. After volume adjustment and filtration (if necessary), the maltooligo-saccharides are hydrolysed by high-purity amyloglucosidase to glucose, which is measured with a glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. This assay format gave quantitative starch determination in all native starch samples, including high-amylose maize starches. In assay format 2, which is applicable to most starches and cereal flours, the DMSO pre-treatment step is omitted. Samples containing glucose and/or maltosaccharide are pre-washed with aqueous ethanol before analysis.

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Causal relations among starch fine molecular structure, lamellar/crystalline structure and in vitro digestion kinetics of native rice starch.

Li, C., Hu, Y., Gu, F. & Gong, B. (2021). Food & FunctionIn Press.

Native rice starch is a source of slowly digestible starch in e.g. low-moisture baked products, while the molecular and lamellar/crystalline structure giving rise to this low-digestibility property is still largely unknown. In this study, the in vitro digestion kinetics of 11 rice starches with a wide range of amylose content were investigated. Applying the logarithm of slope (LOS) plot to the starch digestograms suggested that only a single first-order kinetics phase existed. More importantly, results for the first time showed that rice starches with shorter amylopectin short chains (DP 10-26) had more perfectly aligned crystalline lamellae and much slower digestion rates than the other starches. Interestingly, no correlations were found between the starch lamellar thicknesses with its digestion rate. It suggests that lamellar perfection plays a dominant role in the determination of native starch digestibility. Furthermore, starches with relatively shorter amylose short and medium chains showed a significantly higher amount of V-type amylose-lipid complex, and smaller maximum digestion extent. These results could help the rice industry develop a new generation of rice products with slower starch digestion rate and more desirable nutritional values.

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Thermal inactivation of pectin methylesterase from different potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.).

Moens, L. G., De Laet, E., Van Ceunebroeck, J. C., Van Loey, A. M. & Hendrickx, M. E. (2021). LWT, 138, 110600.

Pectin methylesterase (PME) is an important enzyme that can alter the texture of potato products during processing and storage. To manage the textural properties of potato based products, low and/or high temperature blanching can be used to promote or inactivate PME, respectively. However, the many potato cultivars being used for processing may contain PMEs with a different thermal stability. Therefore, the thermal inactivation of PME extract from three different potato cultivars (Fontane, Royal and Innovator) was studied. A thermostable and thermolabile enzyme fraction were found in all three cultivars, being inactivated at temperatures from 45°C and 57.5°C on, respectively. Innovator may contain a lower level of thermostable PME than the other cultivars tested. The inactivation rate constant of the thermostable PME fraction was lower than the rate constant of the labile fraction at a reference temperature of 55°C, but no significant differences between the respective rate constants of the different cultivars were found. The thermal inactivation kinetics of PME extract from Fontane were investigated in detail and represented by a first order model that allows the calculation of temperature-time combinations to reach a target residual PME activity.

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Black bean protein concentrate ameliorates hepatic steatosis by decreasing lipogenesis and increasing fatty acid oxidation in rats fed a high fat-sucrose diet.

Hernandez-Velazquez, I., Sanchez-Tapia, M., Ordaz-Nava, G., Torres, N., Tovar, A. R. & Galvez, A. (2021). Food & Function, 12, 2020.

The black bean is a legume widely consumed in Latin America, however its consumption has decreased significantly in recent decades. There is evidence that its consumption generates beneficial health effects due in part to the type of protein, resistant starches and polyphenols. Thus, their use in food formulation could impact health status. Therefore, the purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effects of the consumption of a bean protein concentrate (BPC) and a whole cooked bean flour (WCB) on body composition, glucose metabolism and energy expenditure in Wistar rats fed a control diet or high-fat diets with 5% sucrose in the drinking water. With this aim, rats were fed the experimental diets for 10 weeks. The results showed that consumption of either BPC or WCB reduced weight gain and body fat despite the consumption of a high-fat diet. This change was associated with a significant increase in energy expenditure and the capacity to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability. As a result, rats fed a bean-based diet had lower circulating glucose and insulin concentrations and normal glucose tolerance, which was associated with decreased expression of lipogenic genes in the liver. These results suggest that the type of protein and bioactive compounds particularly phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in BPC are suitable to improve the formulations used in dietary strategies for subjects with obesity or type 2 diabetes. The addition of legumes to the diet of subjects with insulin resistance, including black beans, could improve their metabolic status.

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Identification of saprophytic microorganisms and analysis of changes in sensory, physicochemical, and nutritional characteristics of potato and wheat steamed bread during different storage periods.

Ma, M., Mu, T. & Zhou, L. (2020). Food Chemistry, 348, 128927.

Due to its nutritional value and no gluten, potato flour has recently been used as a new type of material to make steamed bread. However, compared to traditional wheat steamed bread, its shelf life is considerably shorter, the dominant microorganisms and storage properties also differ. High-throughput sequencing combined with molecular biology assay revealed that Bacillus methylotrophic and Bacillus subtilis were the dominant bacteria in the crumb of potato and wheat steamed bread, respectively. Moreover, Meyerozyma, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium citrinum, and Aspergillus parasiticus were the main fungi in the crusts. Ethanol was the most volatile compound in fresh potato and wheat steamed bread. Following storage for 48 h, 2,3-butanediol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were established as the most volatile compounds. Although decreased sourness was observed, the specific volume, brightness, and nutritional composition remained nearly unchanged. These findings provide a valuable theoretical basis for the development of potato and wheat steamed bread preservation technologies.

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Thermal processing influences the physicochemical properties, in vitro digestibility and prebiotics potential of germinated highland barley.

Huang, L. U., Dong, J. L., Zhang, K. Y., Zhu, Y. Y., Shen, R. L. & Qu, L. B. (2020). LWT, 110814.

This study determined the effects of four thermal processing methods for germinated highland barley (GHB) on its nutritional composition, physicochemical properties, in vitro starch and protein digestibility, and in vitro prebiotic effects. The contents of total dietary fiber (TDF) and total phenols were significantly increased by steaming, microwave, baking and extrusion processing, while the contents of ash, starch and resistant starch were decreased. Except for baking, the other three methods improved the water hydration properties by increasing the water absorption index, water solubility index and swelling power. Thermally processed samples, especially those extruded, exhibited better thermal stability, pasting properties and in vitro protein digestibility, possibly because of the damage to the whole grain powder particles. The thermally processed digesta of GHB promoted the proliferation of Lactobacillus plantarum and L. delbrueckii in a dose-dependent manner, especially for those extruded, followed by those processed by steaming, microwave and baking. A Pearson correlation analysis showed that the prebiotic effect was positively correlated with the content of TDF in the different samples. Overall, thermal processing increased the quality and digestibility of GHB, with extrusion being the most suitable for industrial processing.

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Role of sedoheptulose-1, 7 bisphosphatase in low light tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Kumar, A., Panda, D., Mohanty, S., Biswal, M., Dey, P., Dash, M., Sah, R. P., Kumar, S., Baig, M. J, & Behera, L. (2020). Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 1-21.

Rice grain yield is drastically reduced under low light especially in kharif (wet) season due to cloudy weather during most part of crop growth. Therefore, 50-60% of yield penalty was observed. To overcome this problem, identification of low light tolerant rice genotypes with a high buffering capacity trait such as photosynthetic rate has to be developed. Sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphatase, a light-regulated enzyme, plays pivotal role in the Calvin cycle by regenerating the substrate (RuBP) for RuBisCo and therefore, indirectly regulates the influx of CO2 for this crucial process. We found a potential role of SBPase expression and activity in low light tolerant and susceptible rice genotypes by analyzing its influence on net photosynthetic rate and biomass. We observed a significant relationship of yield with photosynthesis, SBPase expression and activity especially under low light conditions. Two tolerant and two susceptible rice genotypes were used for the present study. Tolerant genotypes exhibited significant but least reduction compared to susceptible genotypes in the expression and activity of SBPase, which was also manifested in its photosynthetic rate and finally in the grain yield under low light. However, susceptible genotypes showed significant reduction in SBPase activity along with photosynthesis and grain yield suggesting that tracking the expression and activity of SBPase could form a simple and reliable method to identify the low light tolerant rice cultivars. The data were analyzed using the Indostat 7.5, Tukey-Kramer method through Microsoft Excel 2019 and PAST4.0 software. The significant association of SBPase activity with the grain yield, net assimilation rate, electron transfer rate, biomass and grain weight were observed under low light stress. These traits should be considered while selecting and breeding for low light tolerant cultivars. Thus, SBPase plays a major role in the low light tolerance mechanism in rice.

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In vitro fermentation of legume cells and components: effects of cell encapsulation and starch/protein interactions.

Bhattarai, R. R., Dhital, S., Williams, B. A., Yang, H. J., Mikkelsen, D., Flanagan, B. M. & Gidley, M. J. (2020). Food Hydrocolloids, 113, 106538.

Intact legume cotyledon cell walls (CW) hinder the access of digestive enzymes and maintain the physical integrity of cellular structures under in vitro and in vivo conditions, resulting in the transport of cellular structures and their contents from food legumes to the large intestine. The subsequent colonic fermentation of intact legume cells and polymer components is not well understood. In vitro fermentation of intact cells, broken cells, isolated starch, and cell walls from low (60°C; LHT) and high (95°C; HHT) heat-treated pea, and mungbean was carried out for 72 h after inoculation with mixed faeces from five pigs fed a controlled (legume-free) diet. The rate and extent of cumulative gas production, short chain fatty acid end-products, as well as alpha-amylase and protease activities, were found to be dependent on cellular integrity, botanical origin, and thermal treatment. For isolated CW and starch substrates, similar fermentation behaviour was found across the three legume types, including a decrease in starch molecular order during the fermentation process. However three different fermentation extents were observed for intact and broken cells: intact > broken for mungbean, intact ~ broken for HHT pea, and intact < broken for LHT pea. These differences can be rationalised on the basis of substrate differences in cell wall porosity and starch/protein interactions. The fermentability of processed legumes containing intact or broken cells therefore cannot be predicted from a knowledge of the fermentation behaviour of constituent starch and cell wall components and depends on both botanical origin and processing history.

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Characterization and properties of purple yam (Dioscorea trifida) powder obtained by refractance window drying.

Santos, S. D. J. L., Canto, H. K. F., da Silva, L. H. M. & Rodrigues, A. M. D. C. (2020). Drying Technology, 1-11.

Purple yam, Dioscorea trifida (DT), is characterized by its valuable nutritional properties and as powder it could be used as an ingredient in various foods. In this research, the DT paste was dried by refractance window (RW) at 70, 80, and 90°C for 40 min, a technique for obtaining powders with microbiological stability (aw < 0.35), good fluidity and low cohesiveness. In the powders obtained from DT, carbohydrate was the major constituent (85.66 to 86.47%) with starch content higher than 69.0%. Among the technological properties, the oil absorption index of the powder was strongly dependent on the RW drying temperature. The highest retention rates of bioactive compounds (>50%) in powders occurred at temperatures of 70 and 80°C. The drying by RW was promising and presented industrial potential to produce DT powder with technological and nutritional quality to be applied in food.

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Composition, functional and nutritional quality of marama (Tylosema esculentum) storage root.

Adeboye, A. S. & Emmambux, N. M. (2020). Journal of Food Science and Technology, 1-12.

Marama root is known to be the major source of nutrition for the first settlers (the Herero, Tswana and Khoisan people) of Sub-Sahara Africa, but it is not yet domesticated. The potential of Marama (Tylosema esculentum) root in food and nutrition security may pave way for the domestication of the plant in Sub-Saharan Africa. Marama storage roots collected from two locations, Omipanda and Okomumbonde in Namibia were analysed and compared to commercial potato and waxy potato tuber as well as sweet potato root. Fresh weight (FW) marama roots had mean water content, crude protein, fat, ash, and starch content of about 866, 24, 2, 22, and 56 g/kg root, respectively. Marama root showed higher total soluble solids (4.3°) compared to potato, waxy potato and sweet potato. The swelling index (3 g/g) and water absorption capacity (1.5 g/g) of marama root were close to those of sweet potato, but lower than those of the potato and waxy potato. The soluble and insoluble dietary fibre of marama root (4.8, and 15%, db, respectively) were higher than those of the commercial potatoes; and the in vitro-starch digestibility of marama root was close to those of potatoes. Marama root has potential as prebiotic and its food value is similar to sweet potato in functional properties and nutritional composition. The high soluble solids of marama root can enhance the energy density of complimentary food, but will require compositing with high protein legume flour. There is a prospect of a protein-energy dense composite flour from a blend of the bean and root.

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Physicochemical and multi-scale structural alterations of pea starch induced by supercritical carbon dioxide+ ethanol extraction.

Vatansever, S., Whitney, K., Ohm, J. B., Simsek, S. & Hall, C. (2020). Food Chemistry, 344, 128699.

The objective of this study was to establish the impacts of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) processing on the physicochemical properties of pea flour and the structure of isolated pea starch. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in protein content and reduction in several pasting and thermal parameters as measured by rapid visco-analyzer and differential scanning calorimeter were observed after SFE. Additionally, SFE increased starch digestibility as determined by an in vitro starch digestion assay. An increased amylopectin content and crystallinity along with the loss of double helix content was supported by size exclusion chromatography and FT-IR data, respectively. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed minimal alterations of starch, by SFE, in long-range crystalline and morphological structure of starch granules, respectively. The data demonstrated SFE influenced the physicochemical and structural characteristics of pea starch. These outcomes illustrated that SFE might be a green and novel technology for starch modification.

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Soaking induced discrepancies in oenological properties, flavor profiles, microbial community and sensory characteristic of Huangjiu (Chinese rice wine).

Yang, Y., Xia, Y., Hu, W., Tao, L., Liu, H., Xie, C., Bai, W. & Ai, L. (2020). LWT, 110575.

Soaking is a crucial process in adjusting initial fermentation acidity and achieving desired flavor quality of rice wines. Effects of soaking time on physicochemical characteristic of rice, flavor profiles, microbial community and sensory characteristic of Huangjiu were investigated. Soaking caused significantly changes in amylopectin content, and rice with high amylopectin content was conducive to produce esters and aldehydes during Hungjiu brewing. High-throughput sequencing showed that bacteria types were more abundant than fungi during brewing, suggesting that bacterial community might be primarily responsible for Huangjiu flavor. Differential analysis revealed that Weissella and Enterobacter contributed greatly to the accumulation of alcohols, esters and aldehydes during Huangjiu brewing, while Clostridium, Acinetobacter, Cyanobacteria, Zymomonas and Exiguobacterium were responsible for the rancidity. Based on spearman's correlation analysis, Lactococcus, Weissella, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus were the key microbial genera responsible for the flavor characteristic of Huangjiu. While favorable soaking caused an increased intensity in alcohol-aroma, full body and continuation of resultant Huangjiu, insufficient soaking led to a higher intensity of bitter taste. Summarily, soaking acidity ranged from 2 to 3 g/L was beneficial for preventing rancidity and improving the production of flavor compounds in Huangjiu.

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The effect of the inclusion of pea in lamb fattening concentrate on in vitro and in situ rumen fermentation.

Joy, M., Rufino‐Moya, P., Lobón, S. & Blanco, M. (2020). Journal of the Science of Food and AgricultureIn Press.

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the proportion of pea (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%), as a partial replacement for soybean meal (SBM) in the fattening concentrate, on ruminal fermentation in lambs. Gas and methane (CH4) production, in vitro dry matter degradability (IVDMD), ammonia (NH3‐N), and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production after 24 h of incubation were evaluated. The concentrates were also incubated in the rumen of the wethers for 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 h to evaluate the effects of pea inclusion on in situ dry matter degradability (DMD), organic matter degradability (OMD), nitrogen degradability (ND), NH3‐N, and VFA production. Results: In the in vitro assay, the inclusion of pea only affected gas production (mL day−1 degraded dry matter), CH4 production (mL day−1 degraded dry matter), and IVDMD (P < 0.05), and tended to affect NH3‐N content (P < 0.10) without affecting VFA production. In the in situ assay, the inclusion of pea increased DMD, OMD, and ND linearly (P < 0.001), whereas pea inclusion decreased NH3‐N content linearly (P < 0.05). Neither total VFA production nor the proportion of acetic acid were affected by pea inclusion (P > 0.05), but the propionic proportion increased with the proportion of pea included. Conclusions: The best level of pea inclusion in the concentrate could not be established based on the results of this study. However, the results showed that the inclusion of pea provides a good alternative protein source.

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Production and development of vinegar fermentation from broken Riceberry rice using raw starch-degrading enzyme hydrolysis.

Sangngern, N., Puangnark, T., Nguansangiam, W., Saithong, P., Kitpreechavanich, V. & Lomthong, T. (2020). 3 Biotech, 10(12), 1-9.

Broken Riceberry rice was used as a substrate for sugar syrup production by the hydrolysis of raw starch-degrading enzyme as a low-temperature amylase (iKnowZyme® LTAA, Thailand). Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite design (CCD) showed that an optimized substrate concentration of 250 g/L yielded 13°Brix of total soluble solid (TSS) content when incubated at 50°C for 12 h. The major product from the broken Riceberry rice hydrolysis was glucose with lesser amounts of maltose and maltotriose. Maximum alcohol content (16% w/v) for broken Riceberry rice wine was obtained after fermentation with two mixed strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 10 days. Scanning electron micrographs showed that yeast strains could grow on the solid residue of broken Riceberry rice that supported yeast cell survival under stress conditions. Broken Riceberry rice wine was used as the substrate for vinegar fermentation by Acetobacter aceti TISTR 354. Maximum acetic acid concentration was achieved at 5.4% when incubated at room temperature for 6 days, containing 10.92 mg/L and 965.53 ± 7.74 mL sample/g DPPH of anthocyanin content and antioxidant assay, respectively. Our finding revealed the feasibility of broken Riceberry rice substrate for sugar syrup, wine and vinegar production by raw starch-degrading enzyme hydrolysis which increased the value of low-cost agricultural crops through biotechnological processes.

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Safety Information
Symbol : GHS05, GHS08
Signal Word : Danger
Hazard Statements : H314, H315, H319, H334
Precautionary Statements : P260, P261, P264, P280, P284, P301+P330+P331, P302+P352, P303+P361+P353, P304+P340, P342+P311, P501
Safety Data Sheet
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