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|Stability:||> 10 years under recommended storage conditions|
|Substrate For (Enzyme):||Amyloglucosidase, β-Amylase|
High purity Maltotriose for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.
Glycerol Free E-AMGDFPD - Amyloglucosidase (Aspergillus niger) Powder E-AMGFR-500MG - Amyloglucosidase (Aspergillus niger) E-TSAGS - α-Glucosidase (Bacillus stearothermophilus) (Recombinant) E-MAST - Malt Amylase Standard E-MALTS - α-Glucosidase (yeast maltase) E-AMGPU - Amyloglucosidase (Rhizopus sp.)
Diastatic power and maltose value: a method for the measurement of amylolytic enzymes in malt.
Charmier, L. M., McLoughlin, C. & McCleary, B. V. (2021). Journal of the Institute of Brewing, In Press.
A simple method for measurement of the amylolytic activity of malt has been developed and fully evaluated. The method, termed the Maltose Value (MV) is an extension of previously reported work. Here, the MV method has been studied in detail and all aspects of the assay (sample grinding and extraction, starch hydrolysis, maltose hydrolysis and determination as glucose) have been optimised. The method is highly correlated with other dextrinising power methods. The MV method involves extraction of malt in 0.5% sodium chloride at 30°C for 20 minutes followed by filtration; incubation of an aliquot of the undiluted filtrate with starch solution (pH 4.6) at 30°C for 15 min; termination of reaction with sodium hydroxide solution; dilution of sample in an appropriate buffer; hydrolysis of maltose with a specific α-glucosidase; glucose determination and activity calculation. Unlike all subsequent reducing sugar methods, the maltose value method measures a defined reaction product, maltose, with no requirement to use equations to relate analytical values back to Lintner units. The maltose value method is the first viable method in 130 years that could effectively replace the 1886 Lintner method.Hide Abstract
Measurement of Starch: Critical evaluation of current methodology.
McCleary, B. V., Charmier, L. M. J. & McKie, V. A. (2018). Starch‐Stärke, 71(1-2), 1800146.
Most commonly used methods for the measurement of starch in food, feeds and ingredients employ the combined action of α‐amylase and amyloglucosidase to hydrolyse the starch to glucose, followed by glucose determination with a glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. Recently, a number of questions have been raised concerning possible complications in starch analytical methods. In this paper, each of these concerns, including starch hydrolysis, isomerisation of maltose to maltulose, effective hydrolysis of maltodextrins by amyloglucosidase, enzyme purity and hydrolysis of sucrose and β‐glucans have been studied in detailed. Results obtained for a range of starch containing samples using AOAC Methods 996.11 and 2014 .10 are compared and a new simpler format for starch measurement is introduced. With this method that employs a thermostable α-amylase (as distinct from a heat stable α-amylase) which is both stable and active at 100°C and pH 5.0, 10 samples can be analysed within 2 h, as compared to the 6 h required with AOAC Method 2014.10.Hide Abstract
Soluble fibres as sucrose replacers: Effects on physical and sensory properties of sugar-reduced short-dough biscuits.
Rodriguez-Garcia, J., Ding, R., Nguyen, T. H., Grasso, S., Chatzifragkou, A. & Methven, L. (2022). LWT, 167, 113837.
Four different soluble fibres were evaluated as sugar replacers in short dough biscuits: two resistant dextrins (Nutriose® FM06 and Promitor® SGF 70R) and two inulin-derived fibres (Orafti® HSI and Fibruline™ Instant). The degree of polymerisation of the fibres was analysed, and dough viscoelastic properties were assessed. Weight loss during baking, dimensions, textural properties, surface colour and sensory profile were evaluated. Higher degree of polymerisation fibres (e.g. Fibruline) limited water availability for syrup formation, restricting dough expansion and resulting in smaller, more compact, and harder biscuits than control. Biscuits with inulin derived fibres with a lower degree of polymerisation (e.g. Orafti) showed similar dimensions to control biscuits. In general, sucrose reduction gave place to biscuits with lower resistance to penetration and fracture strength due to less sugar recrystallisation in the final biscuit. In contrast, when dextrin-type fibres were used the rheological behaviour of the dough, spreading during baking, and resistance to penetration were similar to the control as the fibres showed an anti-plasticising effect similar to sucrose. However, all reduced sugar biscuits were significantly firmer and crunchier in sensory profile suggesting further optimisation is needed, potentially by modification of the fibre structure or baking method.Hide Abstract
Functional characterization of recombinant raw starch degrading α-amylase from Roseateles terrae HL11 and its application on cassava pulp saccharification.
Prongjit, D., Lekakarn, H., Bunterngsook, B., Aiewviriyasakul, K., Sritusnee, W. & Champreda, V. (2022). Catalysts, 12(6), 647.
Exploring new raw starch-hydrolyzing α-amylases and understanding their biochemical characteristics are important for the utilization of starch-rich materials in bio-industry. In this work, the biochemical characteristics of a novel raw starch-degrading α-amylase (HL11 Amy) from Roseateles terrae HL11 was firstly reported. Evolutionary analysis revealed that HL11Amy was classified into glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 32 (GH13_32). It contains four protein domains consisting of domain A, domain B, domain C and carbohydrate-binding module 20 (CMB20). The enzyme optimally worked at 50°C, pH 4.0 with a specific activity of 6270 U/mg protein and 1030 raw starch-degrading (RSD) U/mg protein against soluble starch. Remarkably, HL11Amy exhibited activity toward both raw and gelatinized forms of various substrates, with the highest catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) on starch from rice, followed by potato and cassava, respectively. HL11Amy effectively hydrolyzed cassava pulp (CP) hydrolysis, with a reducing sugar yield of 736 and 183 mg/g starch from gelatinized and raw CP, equivalent to 72% and 18% conversion based on starch content in the substrate, respectively. These demonstrated that HL11Amy represents a promising raw starch-degrading enzyme with potential applications in starch modification and cassava pulp saccharification.Hide Abstract
The molecular state of gelatinized starch in surplus bread affects bread recycling potential.
Immonen, M., Maina, N. H., Coda, R. & Katina, K. (2021). LWT, 150, 112071.
Surplus bread is a major bakery side stream that should be strictly kept within the human food chain to reduce waste and ensure resource efficiency in baking processes. Optimally, surplus bread should be recycled as a dough ingredient, however, this is known to be detrimental to the volume and texture of bread. The purpose of this study was to investigate how gelatinized starch in surplus bread, untreated or enzymatically hydrolyzed, affects dough development, bread volume and textural attributes. Starch was hydrolyzed to various degrees using commercial α-amylase and amyloglucosidase. Bread hydrolysates containing different carbohydrate profiles (untreated, 75%, 57%, and 26% starch remaining) were evaluated as dough ingredients. More complete starch hydrolysis resulted in better dough visco-elastic properties and higher dough level, and reduced dough water absorption by 13%. Nonetheless, breads containing hydrolysate with high-malto-oligosaccharides had the lowest intrinsic hardness and similar volume yield when compared to control bread. Furthermore, compared to untreated slurry, the hydrolysate with high-malto-oligosaccharides, reduced crumb hardness by 28% and staling rate by 42%, and increased specific volume by 8%. The present findings show that enzymatic hydrolysis dramatically transforms the impact of gelatinized starch. Thus, by selecting correct bioprocessing approaches, bread recycling performance may be significantly improved.Hide Abstract
Characterization and engineering of two new GH9 and GH48 cellulases from a Bacillus pumilus isolated from Lake Bogoria.
Ogonda, L. A., Saumonneau, A., Dion, M., Muge, E. K., Wamalwa, B. M., Mulaa, F. J. & Tellier, C. (2021). Biotechnology Letters, 1-10.
Objectives: To search for new alkaliphilic cellulases and to improve their efficiency on crystalline cellulose through molecular engineering. Results: Two novel cellulases, BpGH9 and BpGH48, from a Bacillus pumilus strain were identified, cloned and biochemically characterized. BpGH9 is a modular endocellulase belonging to the glycoside hydrolase 9 family (GH9), which contains a catalytic module (GH) and a carbohydrate-binding module belonging to class 3 and subclass c (CBM3c). This enzyme is extremely tolerant to high alkali pH and remains significantly active at pH 10. BpGH48 is an exocellulase, belonging to the glycoside hydrolase 48 family (GH48) and acts on the reducing end of oligo-β1,4 glucanes. A truncated form of BpGH9 and a chimeric fusion with an additional CBM3a module was constructed. The deletion of the CBM3c module results in a significant decline in the catalytic activity. However, fusion of CBM3a, although in a non native position, enhanced the activity of BpGH9 on crystalline cellulose. Conclusions: A new alkaliphilic endocellulase BpGH9, was cloned and engineered as a fusion protein (CBM3a-BpGH9), which led to an improved activity on crystalline cellulose.Hide Abstract
The structure of the AliC GH13 α-amylase from Alicyclobacillus sp. reveals the accommodation of starch branching points in the α-amylase family.
Agirre, J., Moroz, O., Meier, S., Brask, J., Munch, A., Hoff, T., Anderson, C., Wilson, K. S. & Davies, G. J. (2019). Acta Crystallographica Section D: Structural Biology, 75(1), 1-7.
α-Amylases are glycoside hydrolases that break the α-1,4 bonds in starch and related glycans. The degradation of starch is rendered difficult by the presence of varying degrees of α-1,6 branch points and their possible accommodation within the active centre of α-amylase enzymes. Given the myriad industrial uses for starch and thus also for α-amylase-catalysed starch degradation and modification, there is considerable interest in how different α-amylases might accommodate these branches, thus impacting on the potential processing of highly branched post-hydrolysis remnants (known as limit dextrins) and societal applications. Here, it was sought to probe the branch-point accommodation of the Alicyclobacillus sp. CAZy family GH13 α-amylase AliC, prompted by the observation of a molecule of glucose in a position that may represent a branch point in an acarbose complex solved at 2.1 Å resolution. Limit digest analysis by two-dimensional NMR using both pullulan (a regular linear polysaccharide of α-1,4, α-1,4, α-1,6 repeating trisaccharides) and amylopectin starch showed how the Alicyclobacillus sp. enzyme could accept α-1,6 branches in at least the -2, +1 and +2 subsites, consistent with the three-dimensional structures with glucosyl moieties in the +1 and +2 subsites and the solvent-exposure of the -2 subsite 6-hydroxyl group. Together, the work provides a rare insight into branch-point acceptance in these industrial catalysts.Hide Abstract