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β-Amylase Assay Kit (Betamyl-3)

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Theory of the Analytical Procedure
Chapter 3: Kit content
Chapter 4: Reagent Preparation
Chapter 5: Milling of Samples
Chapter 6: Weighing Samples
Chapter 7: Enzyme Extraction
Chapter 8: Assay of Beta Amylase
Chapter 9: Calculations
beta-Amylase Assay Betamyl-3 K-BETA3 Scheme
Product code: K-BETA3

100 / 200 assays per kit

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Content: 100 / 200 assays per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: β-Amylase
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 400
Signal Response: Increase
Limit of Detection: 0.05 U/mL
Reproducibility (%): ~ 3%
Reaction Time (min): ~ 10 min
Application examples: Cereal flours, malts and other materials.
Method recognition: Modification of RACI Standard Method

The Betamyl-3; β-Amylase test kit is suitable for the specific measurement and analysis of β-amylase in malt flour.

See more of our amylase assay kits and other kit products for measurement of enzyme activities.

Scheme-K-BETA3 BETA3 Megazyme

  • Very cost effective 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years as supplied 
  • Only enzymatic kit available 
  • Very specific 
  • Simple format 
  • Rapid reaction 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included
Validation of Methods
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
Assay Protocols Assay Protocol Data Calculator Validation Report
Megazyme publication

A novel enzymatic method discriminating wheat pre-harvest sprouting from Late Maturity alpha-amylase. 

Mangan, D., Draga, A., Ivory, R., Cornaggia, C., Blundell, M., Howitt, C., McCleary, B. V. & Ral, J. P. (2022). Journal of Cereal Science, 105, 103480.

The primary quality assessor of wheat grain is the Hagberg Falling Number (FN) method. This is a viscometric test surrogate for α-amylase activity. Despite being used for over sixty years, FN has been increasingly scrutinised due to its low throughput, poor reproducibility and inability to differentiate between the causes of low FN including Pre-harvest Sprouting (PHS) and Late Maturity α-Amylase (LMA). Our study describes initial efforts to analyse a specific wheat flour set tailored for the identification of enzymatic candidates that would allow discrimination between PHS and LMA affected grains. Using the sensitive enzyme-coupled assay substrate R-AMGR3, results suggest that α-glucosidase (exo-α-glucosidase) is a potential enzyme marker candidate to specifically detect sprouted but not LMA-affected grain.

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Megazyme publication

Diastatic power and maltose value: a method for the measurement of amylolytic enzymes in malt.

Charmier, L. M., McLoughlin, C. & McCleary, B. V. (2021). Journal of the Institute of Brewing, In Press.

A simple method for measurement of the amylolytic activity of malt has been developed and fully evaluated. The method, termed the Maltose Value (MV) is an extension of previously reported work. Here, the MV method has been studied in detail and all aspects of the assay (sample grinding and extraction, starch hydrolysis, maltose hydrolysis and determination as glucose) have been optimised. The method is highly correlated with other dextrinising power methods. The MV method involves extraction of malt in 0.5% sodium chloride at 30°C for 20 minutes followed by filtration; incubation of an aliquot of the undiluted filtrate with starch solution (pH 4.6) at 30°C for 15 min; termination of reaction with sodium hydroxide solution; dilution of sample in an appropriate buffer; hydrolysis of maltose with a specific α-glucosidase; glucose determination and activity calculation. Unlike all subsequent reducing sugar methods, the maltose value method measures a defined reaction product, maltose, with no requirement to use equations to relate analytical values back to Lintner units. The maltose value method is the first viable method in 130 years that could effectively replace the 1886 Lintner method.

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Megazyme publication

Prediction of potential malt extract and beer filterability using conventional and novel malt assays.

Cornaggia, C., Evans, D. E., Draga, A., Mangan, D. & McCleary, B. V. (2019). Journal of Institute of Brewing, 125(3), 294-309.

Colourimetric assays were used to measure the activities of six key hydrolases endogenous to barley: β‐glucanase, xylanase, cellulase, α-amylase, beta‐amylase and limit dextrinase. The analysed barley malt samples were previously characterised by 27 conventional malt quality descriptors. Correlations between enzymatic activities and brewing parameters such as extract yield, fermentability, viscosity and filterability were investigated. A single extraction protocol for all six hydrolases was optimised and used for multi‐enzyme analysis using fully automatable assay formats. A regression analysis between malt parameters was undertaken to produce a relationship matrix linking enzyme activities and conventional malt quality descriptors. This regression analysis was used to inform a multi‐linear regression approach to create predictive models for extract yield, apparent attenuation limit, viscosity and filterability using the Small‐scale Wort rapId Filtration Test (SWIFT) and two different mashing protocols – Congress and a modified infusion mash at 65oC (MIM 65oC). It was observed that malt enzyme activities displayed significant correlations with the analysed brewing parameters. Both starch hydrolases and cell wall hydrolase activities together with modification parameters (i.e. Kolbach index) were found to be highly correlated with extract yield and apparent attenuation limit. Interestingly, it was observed that xylanase activity in malts was an important predictor for wort viscosity and filterability. It is envisaged that the automatable measurement of enzyme activity could find use in plant breeding progeny selection and for routine assessment of the functional brewing performance of malt batches. This analytical approach would also contribute to brewing process consistency, product quality and reduced processing times.

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Megazyme publication
Measurement of β-amylase in cereal flours and commercial enzyme preparations.

McCleary, B. V. & Codd, R. (1989). Journal of Cereal Science, 9(1), 17-33.

A procedure previously developed for the assay of cereal-flour β-amylase has been improved and standardised. The improved procedure uses the substrate p-nitrophenyl maltopentaose (PNPG5) in the presence of near saturating levels of α-glucosidase. PNPG5 is rapidly hydrolysed by β-amylase but less readily by cereal α-amylases. The substrate is hydrolysed by β-amylase to maltose and p-nitrophenyl maltotriose (PNPG3). With the levels of α-glucosidase used in the substrate mixture, PNPG3 is rapidly cleaved to glucose and p-nitrophenol, whereas PNPG5 is resistant to hydrolysis by the α-glucosidase. The assay procedure has been standardised for several β-amylases and the exact degree of interference by cereal α-amylases determined. The procedure can be readily applied to the selective measurement of β-amylase activity in cereal and malted cereal-flours.

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β-Glucan from mushrooms and dates as a wall material for targeted delivery of model bioactive compound: Nutraceutical profiling and bioavailability.

Shah, A., ul Ashraf, Z., Gani, A., Masoodi, F. A. & Gani, A. (2022). Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 82, 105884.

Rutin was nano-encapsulated in date [En-Ru(D)] and mushroom [En-Ru(M)] β-glucan matrix to protect it from the harsh gastrointestinal environment and to enhance its bioavailability and biological activity upon digestion. The encapsulation was carried using green technology i.e., ultra-sonication. The En-Ru(D) and En-Ru (M) showed the hydrodynamic diameter of 314.04 and 482.21 nm with polydispersity index of 0.21 and 0.33. The in vitro release behaviour followed the Higuchi model. The antimicrobial activity of En-Ru(D) and En-Ru(M) were evaluated against gram negative E. coli (ATCC 25922) and gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Furthermore, En-Ru(D) and En-Ru(M) exhibited increased bioavailability of rutin in intestinal fluid with retention of anti-obesity and antioxidant activities after digestion (p < 0.05). Therefore, β-glucan matrix can efficiently encapsulate flavonoids and regulate the release of functional bioactive ingredients in the simulated human digestive conditions.

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Retention of bioactive compounds during extrusion processing and storage.

Kour, J., Singh, S. & Saxena, D. C. (2022). Food Chemistry, X, 13, 100191.

Retention of bioactive compounds (beta-glucans, lignans and gamma oryzanol) was analyzed after extrusion and during storage period of three months under four relative humidities using saturated salt solutions such as potassium carbonate (43.26%), magnesium nitrate (52.60%), potassium chloride (84.36%) and potassium nitrate (93.58%). The control sample comprising a corn and rice flour blend (50 g each) was substituted with beta-glucans at 3 g/100 g and 6 g/100 g, flaxseed lignans at 6.67 g/kg and 11.67 g/kg and gamma oryzanol at 1.5 g/100 g and 3.0 g/100 g at low and high levels, respectively. After extrusion, beta-glucan was retained up to 82.67 and 90.83%, lignans were retained at 86.31 and 66.66% whereas retention of gamma oryzanol was 71.33 and 51.67% at low and high level of substitution, respectively. Retention of bioactive compounds was the lowest along with a decrease in L* and b* values and an increase in a* value was observed under higher relative humidity (84.36% and 93.58%) storage conditions.

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Profiling Malt Enzymes Related to Impact on Malt Fermentability, Lautering and Beer Filtration Performance of 94 Commercially Produced Malt Batches.

Evans, D. E., Stewart, S., Stewart, D., Han, Z., Han, Y. & Able, J. A. (2021). Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 1-14.

A largely defined series of hydrolytic enzymes active during malting and/or mashing, substantially determine the quality, profitability, and efficiency of the brewing process. These enzymes potentially hydrolyze starch, proteins and cell wall non-starch polysaccharides including β-glucan and arabinoxylan. Commercial malts (94) were assayed for the DP enzymes (limit dextrinase, beta/α-amylase), and NSP hydrolyzing enzymes (β-glucanase, xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, β-glucosidase). The levels of enzyme activity were related to conventional measures of malt quality such as extract, fermentability, protein, KI, DP, friability, wort viscosity, FAN, and β-glucan. These parameters were interrelated with less conventional measures of malt quality including coarse extract and fermentability (modified infusion mash 65 °C), lautering efficiency, the Small-scale Wort ‘I’ Filtration Test (SWIFT), and viscosity. Substantial variation was observed between the malt samples for all enzymes assayed. Australian barley, whether malted in Australia (n = 61) or China (n = 24), was observed to be of comparable quality. A limited set of Canadian barley samples (n = 9) were malted in China and produced malts with somewhat higher levels of extract, AAL, and some enzymes. Remarkably, the level of limit dextrinase was observed to be almost double that from previous investigations. Greater levels of steep water aeration were proposed to explain this dramatic increase. The interrelationships between the enzyme activities and malt quality identified, enable potential selection of novel malt quality parameters that are more predictive of a malt’s brewing performance (efficiency and quality) than current measures to provide a malt quality assessment system based on ‘functional’ malt quality.

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Brief Insight into the Underestimated Role of Hop Amylases on Beer Aroma Profiles.

Werrie, P. Y., Deckers, S. & Fauconnier, M. L. (2021). Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 1-9.

The current trend in craft breweries is to carry out heavy dry-hopping by increasing the hopping rate. This practice sometimes leads to uncontrolled and aberrant aroma profile production. The aim of this work was to determine whether part of the enzymatic content of hop (α-amylase and β-amylase) could impact yeast metabolism, resulting in aroma profile modification during secondary fermentation. In this research, spectrophotometric methods were used to assess the amylase activity within hop. Moreover, liquid chromatographic methods (HPLC-ELSD) showed modification of the beer sugar profile by production of glucose and maltose as well as by the degradation of a higher degree of polymerization sugar by hop enzymes. Furthermore, gas chromatographic techniques (GC-ECD/FID) were used to assess yeast metabolism using vicinal diketones (diacetyl/pentanedione) as a marker of the secondary fermentation. Finally, a principal component analysis (PCA) of the yeast main aromas (esters, higher alcohols, and aldehydes) demonstrated the significance of this yeast-hop interaction on the beer’s aroma profile.

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Impact of exogenous maltogenic α-amylase and maltotetraogenic amylase on sugar release in wheat bread.

Rebholz, G. F., Sebald, K., Dirndorfer, S., Dawid, C., Hofmann, T. & Scherf, K. A. (2021). European Food Research and Technology, 247(6), 1425-1436.

The use of exogenous maltogenic α-amylases or maltotetraogenic amylases of bacterial origin is common in wheat bread production, mainly as antistaling agents to retard crumb firming. To study the impact of maltogenic α-amylase and maltotetraogenic amylase on straight dough wheat bread, we performed a discovery-driven proteomics approach with commercial enzyme preparations and identified the maltotetraogenic amylase P22963 from Pelomonas saccharophila and the maltogenic α-amylase P19531 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, respectively, as being responsible for the amylolytic activity. Quantitation of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides and residual amylase activity in bread crumb during storage for up to 96 h clarified the different effects of residual amylase activity on the sugar composition. Compared to the control, the application of maltogenic α-amylase led to an increased content of maltose and especially higher maltooligosaccharides during storage. Residual amylase activity was detectable in the breads containing maltogenic α-amylase, whereas maltotetraogenic amylase only had a very low residual activity. Despite the residual amylase activities and changes in sugar composition detected in bread crumb, our results do not allow a definite evaluation of a potential technological function in the final product. Rather, our study contributes to a fundamental understanding of the relation between the specific amylases applied, their residual activity and the resulting changes in the saccharide composition of wheat bread during storage.

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Analysis of β-amylase gene (Amyβ) variation reveals allele associated with low enzyme activity and increased firmness in cooked sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) from East Africa.

Banda, L., Kyallo, M., Entfellner, J. B. D., Moyo, M., Swanckaert, J., Mwanga, R. O., Onyango, A., Magiri, E., Gemenet, D. C., Yao, N., Pelle, R. & Muzhingi, T. (2021).  Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 4, 100121.

β-amylase is a thermostable enzyme that hydrolyses starch during cooking of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) storage roots, thereby influencing eating quality. Its activity is known to vary amongst genotypes but the genetic diversity of the beta-amylase gene (Amyβ) is not well studied. Amyβ has a highly conserved region between exon V and VI, forming part of the enzyme's active site. To determine the gene diversity, a 2.3 kb fragment, including the conserved region of the Amyβ gene was sequenced from 25 sweetpotato genotypes. The effect of sequence variation on gene expression, enzyme activity, and firmness in cooked roots was determined. Six genotypes carrying several SNPs within exon V, linked with an AT or ATGATA insertion in intron V were unique and clustered together. The genotypes also shared an A336E substitution in the amino acid sequence, eight residues upstream of a substrate-binding Thr344. The genotypes carrying this allele exhibited low gene expression and low enzyme activity. Enzyme activity was negatively correlated with firmness (R = -0.42) in cooked roots. This is the first report of such an allele, associated with low enzyme activity. These results suggest that genetic variation within the AmyB locus can be utilized to develop markers for firmness in sweetpotato breeding.

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Ethylene regulates post-germination seedling growth in wheat through spatial and temporal modulation of ABA/GA balance.

Sun, M., Tuan, P. A., Izydorczyk, M. S. & Ayele, B. T. (2020). Journal of Experimental Botany, 71(6), 1985-2004.

This study aimed to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of ethylene in regulating germination and seedling growth in wheat by combining pharmacological, molecular, and metabolomics approaches. Our study showed that ethylene does not affect radicle protrusion but controls post-germination endospermic starch degradation through transcriptional regulation of specific α-amylase and α-glucosidase genes, and this effect is mediated by alteration of endospermic bioactive gibberellin (GA) levels, and GA sensitivity via expression of the GA signaling gene, TaGAMYB. Our data implicated ethylene as a positive regulator of embryo axis and coleoptile growth through transcriptional regulation of specific TaEXPA genes. These effects were associated with modulation of GA levels and sensitivity, through expression of GA metabolism (TaGA20ox1TaGA3ox2, and TaGA2ox6) and signaling (TaGAMYB) genes, respectively, and/or the abscisic acid (ABA) level and sensitivity, via expression of specific ABA metabolism (TaNCED2 or TaCYP707A1) and signaling (TaABI3) genes, respectively. Ethylene appeared to regulate the expression of TaEXPA3 and thereby root growth through its control of coleoptile ABA metabolism, and root ABA signaling via expression of TaABI3 and TaABI5. These results show that spatiotemporal modulation of ABA/GA balance mediates the role of ethylene in regulating post-germination storage starch degradation and seedling growth in wheat.

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High amylose wheat starch structures display unique fermentability characteristics, microbial community shifts and enzyme degradation profiles.

Bui, A., Williams, B., Hoedt, E., Morrison, M., Mikkelsen, D. & Gidley, M. (2020). Food & Function, 6.

A slower rate of starch digestion in the small intestine increases the amount of resistant starch (RS) entering the large intestine, which is associated with health benefits. Although increasing the amylose (AM) content of dietary starch intake is one way to increase RS, the processes involved in gut microbial hydrolysis and fermentation of high AM-RS substrates are poorly understood. In this study, five high AM wheat (HAW) starches ranging from 47% AM to 93% AM and a wild type (37% AM), in both native granular and cooked forms, were subjected to in vitro fermentation with a porcine faecal inoculum. Fermentation kinetics, temporal microbial changes, amylolytic enzyme activities and residual starch were determined. All granular starches showed similar fermentation characteristics, independent of AM level, whereas cooking accelerated fermentation of lower AM but slowed fermentation of high AM starches. HAW starches with a very high AM content (>85%) all had similar fermentation kinetics and short-chain fatty acid end-product profiles. Microbial α-amylase, β-amylase, pullulanase and amyloglucosidase enzymatic activities were all detected and followed fermentation kinetics. HAW starch promoted shifts in the microbial community, with increases of the family Lachnospiraceae and the genus Treponema observed, while the genera Prevotella and Streptococcus were reduced in comparison to 37% AM. Overall, these findings suggest that any HAW starch incorporated into high RS food products would be expected to have beneficial microbiota-mediated effects in terms of fermentation kinetics and end products.

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Exploring diverse sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) accessions for malt amylase activity.

Disharoon, A., Boyles, R., Jordan, K. & Kresovich, S. (2020).  Journal of the Institute of Brewing, In Press.

Sorghum is a climate resilient grain cereal crop originating from Africa that has traditionally been used to make a variety of fermented beverages such as pito and baijiu. In Western markets, the use of sorghum to produce beers and beverages has recently risen due to the visibility of a gluten sensitive/intolerant market and a growing interest in unique inputs for beverage production. As such, there is a developing body of research on sorghum as a malted input into beverages. A major limitation to the wider adoption of sorghum as a substrate in mashing is its low activity of amylolytic enzymes, either the result of insufficient activity or inhibition by endogenous compounds. A collection of 42 diverse accessions representing the grain sorghum diversity panel, was evaluated for associations between alpha and beta amylase content, race, origin, and seed colour as well as two classes of amylase inhibitors, phenols and tannins. Among these accessions are several commonly used genetic resources, including reference line BTx623. Notable findings include accessions with high alpha amylase content, sources that may harbour additional high amylase sorghums, associations with grain colour, and populations which may be used to genetically map the trait.

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Starch hydrolysis during mashing: A study of the activity and thermal inactivation kinetics of barley malt α-amylase and β-amylase.

De Schepper, C. F., Michiels, P., Buvé, C., Van Loey, A. M. & Courtin, C. M. (2020). Carbohydrate Polymers, 117494.

Hydrolysis of starch is key in several industrial processes, including brewing. Here, the activity and inactivation kinetics of amylases throughout barley malt mashing are investigated, as a prerequisite for rational optimisation of this process. Varietal differences were observed in the activity of α- and β-amylases as a function of temperature for six barley and malt varieties. These differences were not reflected in the resulting wort composition after mashing, using three isothermal phases of 30 min at 45°C, 62°C and 72°C with intermediate heating by 1°C/min. Thermal inactivation kinetics parameters determined for α- and β-amylases of an industrially relevant malt variety in a diluted system showed that enzymes were inactivated at lower temperatures than expected. The obtained kinetic parameters could predict α-amylase, but not β-amylase inactivation in real mashing conditions, suggesting that β-amylase stability is enhanced during mashing by components present or formed in the mash.

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Effects of post-heading high temperature on some quality traits of malt barley.

Ni, S. J., Zhao, H. F. & Zhang, G. P. (2020). Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(11), 2674-2679.

Global change is bringing barley with more frequency of suffering from high temperature. However, little has been known about the influence of high temperature on malt quality traits. In this study, we investigated the impact of 1-wk heat stress (32°C/26°C, day/night, 12 h/12 h) initiating from the 7th (HT7) and 14th (HT14) days after heading on some grain and malt quality traits of two barley cultivars. In comparison with normal temperature (24°C/18°C, day/night, 12 h/12 h), heat stress significantly reduced kernel weight, seed setting rate and grains per spike: HT7 having a larger effect than HT14. Meanwhile, total protein and β-glucan contents, and β-amylase and limit dextrinase activities were significantly increased under high temperature, with HT7-treated plants showing larger changes. Moreover, the different changes of four protein fractions under heat stress were found in the two barley cultivars, indicating the possibility of breaking positive association between protein content and enzyme activity.

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Effect of Sprouting on Proteins and Starch in Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

Suárez-Estrella, D., Bresciani, A., Iametti, S., Marengo, M., Pagani, M. A. & Marti, A. (2020). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 75(4), 635-641.

This study aims at understanding the relation among sprouting time (from 12 up to 72 h), changes in protein and starch components, and flour functionality in quinoa. Changes related to the activity of sprouting-related proteases were observed after 48 h of sprouting in all protein fractions. Progressive proteolysis resulted in relevant modification in the organization of quinoa storage proteins, with a concomitant increase in the availability of physiologically relevant metals such as copper and zinc. Changes in the protein profile upon sprouting resulted in improved foam stability, but in impaired foaming capacity. The increased levels of amylolytic enzymes upon sprouting also made starch less prompt to gelatinize upon heating. Consequently, starch re-association in a more ordered structure upon cooling was less effective, resulting in low setback viscosity. The nature and the intensity of these modifications suggest various possibilities as for using flour from sprouted quinoa as an ingredient in the formulation of baked products.

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Transcriptome and metabolome analysis reveals regulatory networks and key genes controlling barley malting quality in responses to drought stress.

Hong, Y., Ni, S. J. & Zhang, G. P. (2020). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 152, 1-11.

Malting quality will be greatly deteriorated when barley plants suffer from post-anthesis drought stress, however there is a marked difference among barley genotypes in the responses of malting quality to drought stress, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the genotypic difference remain unclear. We made transcriptome and metabolome analysis on the developing grains of two barley genotypes differing in the responses to drought stress. Post-anthesis drought treatments led to decreased grain weight and β-glucan content, increased grain protein content and β-amylase activity. Drought stress enhanced H2O2 and heat-shock protein accumulation in the two barley genotypes, with the drought-tolerant genotype showing higher capacity of scavenging H2O2 and reducing misfolded protein accumulation than the drought-susceptible genotype. Moreover, the drought-tolerant genotype was more efficient in redistributing assimilates stored in the vegetative tissues into the developing grains. After re-watering to relieve drought stress, the drought-tolerant genotype can further modify auxin transport and ethylene signaling, enhancing redistribution of assimilates into grains. Transcriptome comparisons and weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) identified some key genes regulating the responses of malting quality traits to drought stress, such as RLK-LRR, β-glucosidase and HSP . In conclusion, less change of main malting quality traits in the drought-tolerant genotype under post-anthesis drought stress is attributed to its higher capacity of alleviating the stress injury through scavenging ROS and redistributing the metabolites stored in the vegetative organs into the developing grains.

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Symplasmic phloem unloading and post-phloem transport during bamboo internode elongation.

Deng, L., Li, P., Chu, C., Ding, Y. & Wang, S. (2020). Tree Physiology, 40(3), 391-412.

In traditional opinions, no radial transportation was considered to occur in the bamboo internodes but was usually considered to occur in the nodes. Few studies have involved the phloem unloading and post-phloem transport pathways in the rapid elongating bamboo shoots. Our observations indicated a symplastic pathway in phloem unloading and post-unloading pathways in the culms of Fargesiayunnanensis Hsueh et Yi, based on a 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate tracing experiment. Significant lignification and suberinization in fiber and parenchyma cell walls in maturing internodes blocked the apoplastic transport. Assimilates were transported out of the vascular bundles in four directions in the inner zones but in two directions in the outer zones via the continuum of parenchyma cells. In transverse sections, assimilates were outward transported from the inner zones to the outer zones. Assimilates transport velocities varied with time, with the highest values at 0):00 h, which were affected by water transport. The assimilate transport from the adult culms to the young shoots also varied with the developmental degree of bamboo shoots, with the highest transport velocities in the rapidly elongating internodes. The localization of sucrose, glucose, starch grains and the related enzymes reconfirmed that the parenchyma cells in and around the vascular bundles constituted a symplastic pathway for the radial transport of sugars and were the main sites for sugar metabolism. The parenchyma cells functioned as the ‘rays’ for the radial transport in and between vascular bundles in bamboo internodes. These results systematically revealed the transport mechanism of assimilate and water in the elongating bamboo shoots.

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The influence of drought stress on malt quality traits of the wild and cultivated barleys.

Hong, Y. & Zhang, G. P. (2020). Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(8), 2009-2015.

As a major abiotic stress, drought causes instability and deterioration of malt barley quality. There is distinct difference among barley cultivars in the responses of the main malt quality traits to drought stress. In the previous study, we identified some Tibetan wild barley accessions with relatively less change of malt quality traits under drought. In this study, we examined the impact of drought stress during grain filling stage on grain weight and several important malt quality traits, including total protein content, β-glucan content, limit dextrinase activity, β-amylase activity, and protein fractions in four barley genotypes (two Tibetan wild accessions and two cultivars). Drought treatment reduced grain weight, β-glucan content, and increased total protein content, β-amylase activity. These changes differed among barley genotypes and treatments, and are closely associated with grain filling process and kernel weight. All the results indicated Tibetan wild barley had great potential for developing drought tolerant barley cultivars. Relatively stable kernel weight or filling process under water stress should be highlighted in malt barley breeding in order to reduce the effect of water stress on malt barley quality.

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Identification of Proteomic Components Associated with Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in Rye.

Perlikowski, D., Wiśniewska, H., Góral, T., Ochodzki, P., Majka, M., Pawłowicz, I., Belter, J. & Kosmala, A. (2019). The Plant Pathology Journal, 35(4), 313.

Rye was used here to dissect molecular mechanisms of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) and to go deeper with our understanding of that process in cereals. F. culmorum-damaged kernels of two lines different in their potential of resistance to FHB were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify resistance markers. The proteome profiling was accompanied by measurements of α- and β-amylase activities and mycotoxin content. The proteomic studies indicated a total of 18 spots with clear differences in protein abundance between the more resistant and more susceptible rye lines after infection. Eight proteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism of which six proteins showed a significantly higher abundance in the resistant line. The other proteins recognized here were involved in stress response and redox homeostasis. Three remaining proteins were associated with protease inhibition/resistance and lignin biosynthesis, revealing higher accumulation levels in the susceptible rye line. After inoculation, the activities of α- and β-amylases, higher in the susceptible line, were probably responsible for a higher level of starch decomposition after infection and a higher susceptibility to FHB. The presented results could be a good reference for further research to improve crop resistance to FHB.

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Safety Information
Symbol : GHS08
Signal Word : Danger
Hazard Statements : H334
Precautionary Statements : P261, P284, P304+P340, P342+P311, P501
Safety Data Sheet
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