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β-Glucan Assay Kit (Mixed Linkage)

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00:03    Introduction
00:48    Principle
01:37    Reagent Preparation
04:50    Weighing of samples
06:20    Gelatinisation of sample
07:08    Lichenase depolymerisation of β-Glucan
08:30    pH adjustment & incubation with β-Glucosidase
10:30    Glucose Determination (GOPOD Reagent)
12:04    Calculations
14:30    Further information

beta-Glucan Assay Kit Mixed Linkage K-BGLU Scheme
Product code: K-BGLU

100 assays per kit

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Content: 100 assays per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: β-Glucan
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 510
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 4 to 100 μg of D-glucose per assay
Limit of Detection: 0.5 g/100 g
Total Assay Time: ~ 100 min
Application examples: Oats, barley, malt, wort, beer, food and other materials.
Method recognition: AACC Method 32-23.01, AOAC Method 995.16, AOAC Method 992.28, CODEX Method Type II, EBC Method 3.10.1, ICC Standard No. 166 and RACI Standard Method

The Beta-Glucan test kit is suitable for the measurement and analysis of Beta-Glucan (Mixed Linkage).

For the measurement of 1,3:1,4-β-D-glucan in cereal grains, milling fractions, wort, beer and other food products.

See our complete range of polysaccharide assay kits.

Scheme-K-BGLU BGLU Megazyme

  • Very cost effective 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years as supplied 
  • Only enzymatic kit available 
  • Very specific 
  • Simple format 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included
Validation of Methods
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Other automated assay procedures Product Performance Validation Report
Megazyme publication
Measurement of carbohydrates in grain, feed and food.

McCleary, B. V., Charnock, S. J., Rossiter, P. C., O’Shea, M. F., Power, A. M. & Lloyd, R. M. (2006). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86(11), 1648-1661.

Procedures for the measurement of starch, starch damage (gelatinised starch), resistant starch and the amylose/amylopectin content of starch, β-glucan, fructan, glucomannan and galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose and verbascose) in plant material, animal feeds and foods are described. Most of these methods have been successfully subjected to interlaboratory evaluation. All methods are based on the use of enzymes either purified by conventional chromatography or produced using molecular biology techniques. Such methods allow specific, accurate and reliable quantification of a particular component. Problems in calculating the actual weight of galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides in test samples are discussed in detail.

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Megazyme publication

Determination of β-glucan in barley and oats by streamlined enzymic method: summary of collaborative study.

McCleary, B. V. & Mugford, D. C. (1997). Journal of AOAC International, 80(3), 580-583.

A collaborative study was conducted involving 8 laboratories (including the authors’ laboratories) to validate the streamlined enzymatic method for determination of β-D-glucan in barley and oats. In the method, the flour sample is cooked to hydrate and gelatinize β-glucan, which is subsequently hydrolyzed to soluble fragments with the lichenase enzyme. After volume and pH adjustments and filtration, the solution is treated with β-glucosidase, which hydrolyzes β-gluco-oligosaccharides to D-Glucose. D-Glucose is measured with glucose oxidase–peroxidase reagent. Other portions of lichenase hydrolysate are treated directly with glucose oxidase-peroxidase reagent to measure free glucose in test sample. If levels of free glucose are high, the sample is extracted first with 80% ethanol. For all samples analyzed, the repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values ranged from 3.1 to 12.3% and the reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDr) values ranged from 6.6 to 12.3%. The streamlined enzymatic method for determination of β-D-glucan in barley and oats has been adopted first action by the AOAC INTERNATIONAL.

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Megazyme publication
Measurement of total starch in cereal products by amyloglucosidase-alpha-amylase method: collaborative study.

McCleary, B. V., Gibson, T. S. & Mugford, D. C. (1997). Journal of AOAC International, 80, 571-579.

An American Association of Cereal Chemists/AOAC collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of an enzyme assay kit procedure for measurement of total starch in a range of cereal grains and products. The flour sample is incubated at 95 degrees C with thermostable alpha-amylase to catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to maltodextrins, the pH of the slurry is adjusted, and the slurry is treated with a highly purified amyloglucosidase to quantitatively hydrolyze the dextrins to glucose. Glucose is measured with glucose oxidase-peroxidase reagent. Thirty-two collaborators were sent 16 homogeneous test samples as 8 blind duplicates. These samples included chicken feed pellets, white bread, green peas, high-amylose maize starch, white wheat flour, wheat starch, oat bran, and spaghetti. All samples were analyzed by the standard procedure as detailed above; 4 samples (high-amylose maize starch and wheat starch) were also analyzed by a method that requires the samples to be cooked first in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSD(r)) ranged from 2.1 to 3.9%, and relative standard deviations for reproducibility (RSD(R)) ranged from 2.9 to 5.7%. The RSD(R) value for high amylose maize starch analyzed by the standard (non-DMSO) procedure was 5.7%; the value was reduced to 2.9% when the DMSO procedure was used, and the determined starch values increased from 86.9 to 97.2%.

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Megazyme publication
Measurement of (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucan in barley and oats: A streamlined enzymic procedure.

McCleary, B. V. & Codd, R. (1991). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 55(2), 303-312.

A commercially available enzymic method for the quantitative measurement of (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucan has been simplified to allow analysis of up to 10 grain samples in 70 min or of 100–200 samples by a single operator in a day. These improvements have been achieved with no loss in accuracy or precision and with an increase in reliability. The glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent has been significantly improved to ensure colour stability for periods of up to 1 h after development. Some problems experienced with the original method have been addressed and resolved, and further experiments to demonstrate the quantitative nature of the assay have been designed and performed.

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Megazyme publication
Purification of (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucan from Barley Flour.

McCleary, B. V. (1988). “Methods in Enzymology”, Volume 160, (H. Gilbert, Ed.), Elsevier Inc., pp. 511-514.

The major endosperm cell wall polysaccharide in barley and oats is a linear (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucan. In barley, it represents approximately 75% of the carbohydrate in endosperm cell walls. It is generally considered that the majority of the polysaccharide consists of two or three 1,4-β-linked D-glucosyl residues, joined by single 1,3-β-linkages. Barley flour contains mixed-linkage β-glucan fractions that vary in their ease of extraction. Methods employed for the extraction and purification of barley β-glucan are generally modifications of the procedure described by Preece and Mackenzie. Extraction efficiency may be related to the time and conditions of storage of the grain or flour or to conditions of pretreatment of the grain before extraction. Exhaustive extraction procedures have been applied to isolated endosperm cell wall preparations that are essentially devoid of starch and protein. This chapter describes a modification of the method of Preece and Mackenzie that allows the large scale, essentially quantitative extraction of mixed-linkage β-glucan from barley flour.

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Megazyme publication
Measurement of (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucan.

McCleary, B. V., Shameer, I. & Glennie-Holmes, M. (1988). Methods in Enzymology, 160, 545-551.

The major carbohydrate component of the endosperm cell walls of barley and oat grain is a mixed-linkage (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucan commonly termed barley β-glucan. Barley β-glucan forms highly viscous aqueous solutions and gelatinous suspensions. In the brewing industry it can lead to diminished rates of wort and beer filtration and to the formation of hazes, precipitates, and gels in stored beer. In an attempt to alleviate the problems caused by barley β-glucan in the brewing and animal feed industries, various approaches have been adopted including the breeding of barley varieties low in this component, the use of only well-modified malts in brewing, and the addition of enzymes active on barley β-glucan. None of these methods has been adopted as a standard procedure. Reasons for this include the lack of specificity or reliability of the assay or the tedious nature of the assay format that limits the number of samples that can be processed in a given time. This chapter describes an assay procedure that overcomes these limitations. In this assay, highly purified endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase (lichenase) and β-glucosidase are employed. The glucan is depolymerized by lichenase to oligosaccharides, these oligosaccharides are quantitatively hydrolyzed by β-glucosidase to glucose, and this is specifically measured using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. This method is suitable for the routine analysis of mixed-linkage β-glucan in cereal flours, malt, wort, and beer.

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Megazyme publication
Measurement of (1→3)(1→4)-β-D-glucan in malt, wort and beer.

McCleary, B. V. & Nurthen, E. (1986). Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 92(2), 168-173.

A method developed for the quantification of (1→3)(1→4)-β-D-glucan in barley flour has been modified to allow its use in the measurement of this component in malt, wort, beer and spent grain. For malt samples, free D-glucose was first removed with aqueous ethanol. Quantification of the polymer in wort and beer samples involved precipitation of the β-glucan with ammonium sulphate followed by washing with aqueous ethanol to remove free D-glucose. Spent grain was lyophilised and milled and then analysed by the method developed for malt. In all cases, the β-glucan was depolymerised with lichenase and the resultant β-gluco-oligosaccharides hydrolysed to D-glucose with β-D-glucosidase. The released D-glucose was then specifically determined using glucose oxidase-peroxidase reagent.

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Megazyme publication
Enzymic hydrolysis and industrial importance of barley β-glucans and wheat flour pentosans.

McCleary, B. V., Gibson, T. S., Allen, H. & Gams, T. C. (1986). Starch, 38(12), 433-437.

Mixed linkage β-glucane and pentosanes (mainly arabinoxylanes) are the major endosperm cell-wall polysaccharides of barley and wheat respectively. These polysaccharides, although minor components of the whole grain, significantly affect the industrial utilization of these cereals. The modification of barley corns during malting requires the dissolution of the β-glucan in the cell-wall of the starch endosperm. High β-glucane concentration in wort and beer effect the rate of filtration and can also lead to precipitate or gel formation in the final product. In a similar manner, pentosane is thought to cause filtration problems with wheat starch hydrolysates by increasing viscosity and by producing gelatinous precipitate which blocks filters. Ironically, it is this same viscosity building and water binding capacity which is considered to render pentosanes of considerable value in dough development and bread storage (anti-staling functions). In the current paper, some aspects of the beneficial and detrimental effects of pentosans and β-glucan in the industrial utilization of wheat and barley are discussed. More specifically, enzymic methods for the preparation, analysis and identification of these polysaccharides and for the removal of their functional properties, are described in detail.

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Megazyme publication
Enzymic quantification of (1→3) (1→4)-β-D-glucan in barley and malt.

McCleary, B. V. & Glennie-Holmes, M. (1985). Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 91(5), 285-295.

A simple and quantitative method for the determination of (1→3) (1→4)-β-D-glucan in barley flour and malt is described. The method allows direct analysis of β-glucan in flour and malt slurries. Mixed-linkage β-glucan is specifically depolymerized with a highly purified (1→3) (1→4)-β-D-glucanase (lichenase), from Bacillus subtilis, to tri-, tetra- and higher degree of polymerization (d.p.) oligosaccharides. These oligosaccharides are then specifically and quantitatively hydrolysed to glucose using purified β-D-glucosidase. The glucose is then specifically determined using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. Since barley flours contain only low levels of glucose, and maltosaccharides do not interfere with the assay, removal of low d.p. sugars is not necessary. Blank values are determined for each sample allowing the direct measurement of β-glucan in values are determined for each sample allowing the direct measurement of β-glucan in malt samples. α-Amylase does not interfere with the assay. The method is suitable for the routine analysis of β-glucan in barley samples derived from breeding programs; 50 samples can be analysed by a single operator in a day. Evaluation of the technique on different days has indicated a mean standard error of 0-1 for barley flour samples containing 3-8 and 4-6% (w/w) β-glucan content.

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Megazyme publication

Enzymic modification and quantification of polymers based on a (1→4)-β-D-glucan backbone.

McCleary, B. V. (1985). “Gums and Stabilisers for the Food Industry”, Volume 3, (G. O. Philips, D. J. Wedlock and P. A. Williams, Eds.), Pergamon Press, pp. 17-28.

In this paper, examples of the use of enzymes in the modification, quantification and investigation of fine-structural details of mixed-linkage (1+3)(1+4)-β-D-glucans, xyloglucans, glucomannans and xanthan are presented and discussed.

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A dominant mutation in β-AMYLASE1 disrupts nighttime control of starch degradation in Arabidopsis leaves.

Feike, D., Pike, M., Gurrieri, L., Graf, A. & Smith, A. M. (2021). Plant Physiology, kiab603.

Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves possess a mechanism that couples the rate of nighttime starch degradation to the anticipated time of dawn, thus preventing premature exhaustion of starch and nighttime starvation. To shed light on the mechanism, we screened a mutagenized population of a starvation reporter line and isolated a mutant that starved prior to dawn. The mutant had accelerated starch degradation, and the rate was not adjusted to time of dawn. The mutation responsible led to a single amino acid change (S132N) in the starch degradation enzyme BETA-AMYLASE1 (BAM1; mutant allele named bam1-2D), resulting in a dominant, gain-of-function phenotype. Complete loss of BAM1 (in bam1-1) did not affect rates of starch degradation, while expression of BAM1(S132N) in bam1-1 recapitulated the accelerated starch degradation phenotype of bam1-2D. In vitro analysis of recombinant BAM1 and BAM1(S132N) proteins revealed no differences in kinetic or stability properties, but in leaf extracts, BAM1(S132N) apparently had a higher affinity than BAM1 for an established binding partner required for normal rates of starch degradation, LIKE SEX FOUR1 (LSF1). Genetic approaches showed that BAM1(S132N) itself is likely responsible for accelerated starch degradation in bam1-2D and that this activity requires LSF1. Analysis of plants expressing BAM1 with alanine or aspartate rather than serine at position 132 indicated that the gain-of-function phenotype is not related to phosphorylation status at this position. Our results strengthen the view that control of starch degradation in wild-type plants involves dynamic physical interactions of degradative enzymes and related proteins with a central role for complexes containing LSF1.

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Rapid Determination of β-Glucan Content of Hulled and Naked Oats Using near Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Chemometrics.

Meenu, M., Zhang, Y., Kamboj, U., Zhao, S., Cao, L., He, P. & Xu, B. (2021). Foods, 11(1), 43.

The quantification of β-glucan in oats is of immense importance for plant breeders and food scientists to develop plant varieties and food products with a high quantity of β-glucan. However, the chemical analysis of β-glucan is time consuming, destructive, and laborious. In this study, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with Chemometrics was employed for rapid and non-destructive prediction of β-glucan content in oats. The interval Partial Least Square (iPLS) along with correlation matrix plots were employed to analyze the NIR spectrum from 700–1300 nm, 1300–1900 nm, and 1900–2500 nm for the selection of important wavelengths for the prediction of β-glucan. The NIR spectral data were pre-treated using Savitzky Golay smoothening and normalization before employing partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis. The PLSR models were established based on the selection of wavelengths from PLS loading plots that present a high correlation with β-glucan content. It was observed that wavelength region 700–1300 nm is sufficient for the satisfactory prediction of β-glucan of hulled and naked oats with R2c of 0.789 and 0.677, respectively, and RMSE < 0.229.

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Effect of Heat-Moisture Treatments on Digestibility and Physicochemical Property of Whole Quinoa Flour.

Dong, J., Huang, L., Chen, W., Zhu, Y., Dun, B., & Shen, R. (2021). Foods, 10(12), 3042.

The starch digestion processing of whole grain foods is associated with its health benefits in improving insulin resistance. This study modified the digestibility of whole quinoa flour (WQ) via heat-moisture treatment (HMT), HMT combined with pullulanase (HMT+P), HMT combined with microwave (HMT+M), and HMT combined with citric acids (HMT+A), respectively. Results showed that all the treatments significantly increased (p < 0.05) the total dietary fiber (TDF) content, amylose content, and resistant starch (RS) content, however, significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the amylopectin content and rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content of WQ. HMT+P brought the highest TDF content (15.3%), amylose content (31.24%), and RS content (15.71%), and the lowest amylopecyin content (30.02%) and RDS content (23.65%). HMT+M brought the highest slowly digestible starch (SDS) content (25.09%). The estimated glycemic index (eGI) was respectively reduced from 74.36 to 70.59, 65.87, 69.79, and 69.12 by HMT, HMT+P, HMT+M, and HMT+A. Moreover, a significant and consistent reduction in the heat enthalpy (ΔH) of WQ was observed (p < 0.05), after four treatments. All these effects were caused by changes in the starch structure, as evidenced by the observed conjunction of protein and starch by a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), the decrease in relative crystallinity, and transformation of starch crystal.

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Malting Quality of ICARDA Elite Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Germplasm Grown in Moroccan Middle Atlas.

Bouhlal, O., Affricot, J. R., Puglisi, D., El-Baouchi, A., El Otmani, F., Kandil, M., Hafidi, A., Keser, M., Sanchez-Garcia, M. & Visioni, A. (2021). Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 1-12.

The use of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Morocco is still limited to food and feed despite the amplified demand by local industries for imported malt. This study aims to evaluate 36 barley elite lines for major grain physicochemical parameters and malt quality traits. Analysis of variance, Pearson correlation, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were performed. The results showed significant genotypic variation among genotypes for individual grain and malt traits. High broad sense heritability was obtained for all traits except for plump grain percentage, malt friability, and germination capacity. Starch, malt extract, Kolbach index, grain area, and test weight correlated significantly and negatively with barley protein. Malt extract correlated positively with Kolbach index and starch, but a negative correlation with soluble protein and malt protein was found. Based on 12 characters, 77% of the total genotypic variation was explained by the three first principal components following PCA and four clusters were depicted based on HCA. Genotypes of high interest with desirable levels of quality standards were identified to be used as a malt quality traits donor while designing crossing programs.

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Genotype and Environment Affect the Grain Quality and Yield of Winter Oats (Avena sativa L.).

Howarth, C. J., Martinez-Martin, P. M., Cowan, A. A., Griffiths, I. M., Sanderson, R., Lister, S. J., Langdon, T., Clarke, S,. Fradgley, N. & Marshall, A. H. (2021). Foods, 10(10), 2356.

The extent to which the quality and yield of plant varieties are influenced by the environment is important for their successful uptake by end users particularly as climatic fluctuations are resulting in environments that are highly variable from one growing season to another. The genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI) of milling quality and yield was studied using four winter oat varieties in multi-locational trials over 4 years in the U.K. Significant differences across the 22 environments were found between physical grain quality and composition as well as grain yield, with the environment having a significant effect on all of the traits measured. Grain yield was closely related to grain number m−2 whereas milling quality traits were related to grain size attributes. Considerable genotype by environment interaction was obtained for all grain quality traits and stability analysis revealed that the variety Mascani was the least sensitive to the environment for all milling quality traits measured whereas the variety Balado was the most sensitive. Examination of environmental conditions at specific within-year stages of crop development indicated that both temperature and rainfall during grain development were correlated with grain yield and β-glucan content and with the ease of removing the hull (hullability).

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Influence of Oat β-Glucan on the Survival and Proteolytic Activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in Milk Fermentation: Optimization by Response Surface.

Chávez de la Vega, M. I., Alatorre-Santamaría, S., Gómez-Ruiz, L., García-Garibay, M., Guzmán-Rodríguez, F., González-Olivares, L. G., Guzmán-Rodríguez, F., González-Olivares, L. G., Cruz-Guerrero, A. E. & Rodríguez-Serrano, G. M. (2021). Fermentation, 7(4), 210.

β-glucans come from cereals that have been located within compounds with prebiotic activity. They have presented several bioactivities that have determined their high functional value. The aim of this study was to identify the influence of oat β-glucan on the survival and proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in a milk fermentation through an experimental design to optimize the process. For β-glucan extraction after dry milling of oats, two methods were applied: with and without enzymatic inactivation of the semolina. The highest extraction yield (45.25 g/L) was obtained with enzymatic inactivation. For the optimization of survival and proteolytic activity, a central design composed of axial points with two factors on three levels was used. Control factors were β-glucan and inoculum concentrations. According to response surface, the best survival growth rate of probiotic was observed with 4.38% of inoculum and 22.46 g/L of β-glucan, and the highest production of free amino groups was observed with 4.18% of inoculum and 22.71 g/L of β-glucan. Thus, β-glucan promotes the proteolytic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG in milk fermentation.

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Sulfation and characterization of polysaccharides from Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) extracted using subcritical water.

Rizkyana, A. D., Ho, T. C., Roy, V. C., Park, J. S., Kiddane, A. T., Kim, G. D. & Chun, B. S. (2022). The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 179, 105412.

In this study, polysaccharides from oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) were extracted using subcritical water (SW) from 120°C to 200°C. Polysaccharides obtained at the different conditions were used for chemical modification. Results showed that SW at 180°C recovered the highest amount of polysaccharides (20.35%) and sulfated polysaccharides (PS) obtained in this condition exhibited better anticoagulant activity than other conditions in intrinsic pathway. The degree of substitution of PS was 1.83. The molecular weight of polysaccharides decreased after chemical modification. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the success of modification process with the peaks of sulfite groups seen at 796 cm–1, 1223 cm–1, and 1379 cm–1. In vitro anticoagulant activity showed that PS significantly improved the plasma clot form inhibition activity by intrinsic and extrinsic pathways compared to native polysaccharides. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of PS against two normal cell lines was relatively low. The findings in the present study proposed that sulfated oyster mushroom (P. ostreatus) polysaccharides could be considered an alternative to anticoagulant therapy.

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Comparison of distribution and physicochemical properties of β-glucan extracted from different fractions of highland barley grains.

Li, Y., You, M., Liu, H. & Liu, X. (2021). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 189, 91-99.

Highland barley grains were roller-milled to produce five different fractions (B-1, B-2, B-3, B-4, and B-5). The distribution and physicochemical properties of β-glucans from five roller-milled fractions were investigated. The B-4 fraction contained the highest concentration of β-glucan (4.40%), and the outermost bran (B-1) had the lowest β-glucan content (1.01%). Besides, β-glucans from inner core B-5 (BG-5) had higher Mw (6.482 × 105 g/mol), whereas β-glucans from outer bran B-1 (BG-1) showed lower Mw (5.859 × 104 g/mol) than those from other fractions. Accordingly, the viscosity of BG-5 was highest (0.038-0.365 Pa·s), and the water solubility index of BG-1 was highest (50.43-90.71%). BG-5 showed stronger foam stability and emulsifying properties but weaker foaming capability, while BG-1 exhibited stronger foaming capability. The foaming capability and emulsifying properties of β-glucan samples were better under the neutral condition (pH = 7). The foam capabilities of all β-glucan samples displayed higher values at 65°C, and emulsifying properties exhibited higher values at 45°C. This study is expected to promote the application of highland barley β-glucans in food industry.

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Comparing the efficacy of stimbiotic and a combination of xylanase and beta-glucanase, in broilers fed wheat-barley based diets with high or low AME.

Morgan, N. K., Gomes, G. A. & Kim, J. C. (2021). Poultry Science, 100(10), 101383.

A stimbiotic is defined as a product that stimulates a fiber-degrading microbiome to increase fiber fermentability. The aim of this study was to examine if it is more advantageous to feed a stimbiotic (xylanase + xylo-oligosaccharides [STB]) or a combination of xylanase and beta-glucanase (Xyl + BG) to broilers fed wheat-barley based diets with differing AME levels. Cobb 500 broilers (n = 480, 80 birds per treatment) were fed 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement; 2 AME levels, ‘High’ or ‘Low’, which differed by 100 kcal ME/kg, and 3 additive supplementations, with no supplemental additives, STB or Xyl + BG. Diets were fed as 3 phases, starter (d 0–14), grower (d 14–21) and finisher (d 21–35). On bird age d 14, 21 and 35, total pen body weight and feed intake were determined, and feed conversion ratio corrected for mortality (cFCR) was calculated. On d 21 and d 35 ileal viscosity and beta-glucan content and caecal SCFA concentration were determined. Additive suplementation had no impact on cFCR in birds fed the low AME diet, but in birds fed the high AME diet the cFCR value was reduced in the presence of the additives (P = 0.001 and P = 0.015, at d 14-21 and d 21-35, respectively). At d 21, cecal SCFA concentration was consistently higher (P = 0.015), and ileal beta-glucan level lower (P = 0.002), in birds fed the diet supplemented with STB compared to those without additives. At d 35, ileal viscosity was lower in birds fed STB compared to those fed the diet without supplementation of additives, irrespective of diet AME level (P = 0.017). These results suggest that both STB and Xyl + BG ameliorate the antinutritive effects of the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) present in wheat-barley based diets, resulting in improved bird performance. However, supplementation with STB induces a comparatively greater positive effect on NSP hydrolysis and SCFA production.

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Influence of particle size uniformity on the filter cake resistance of physically and chemically modified fine particles.

Hennemann, M., Gastl, M. & Becker, T. (2021). Separation and Purification Technology, 272, 118966.

The filter cake resistance determines the flow rate in cake filtration. The resistance depends not only on the mean size of the particles but also on their overall distribution. An example of where we have insufficient understanding of the effect of particle size is lautering-a separation process used in beer production. In this type of filtration, a layer of biological fine particles (<500 µm) with a high filter cake resistance forms on top of the cake and is responsible for a reduction in flow rate. Herein, differences in the resistance of fine particles based on alteration of their size distribution were investigated. An experimental setup was developed to isolate the fine particles from the filter cake, and their chemical and structural compositions were determined. To alter the particle size distribution, physical (heating, agitation) and chemical (prevention of oxidation, polyphenol addition, pH adjustment, ion concentration alteration) modifications were applied. The modifications affected the interparticle interactions, which influenced the size distribution and thus the resistance. The lowest resistance was achieved by heating (-88%) and the highest by agitation (+69%). Contrary to earlier findings, the results of this study show that not only the mean particle size determined resistance; low resistance also depended on high uniformity of the particle size distribution (R2 = 0.856). Compared with a uniform size distribution, a wide size distribution resulted in lower porosity, which was responsible for higher filter cake resistance. The universal validity of the results from the biological suspension was determined using glass beads as an inert model system.

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Safety Information
Symbol : GHS05, GHS08
Signal Word : Danger
Hazard Statements : H314, H315, H319, H334
Precautionary Statements : P260, P261, P264, P280, P284, P301+P330+P331, P302+P352, P303+P361+P353, P304+P340
Safety Data Sheet
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