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|Storage Temperature:||Below -10oC|
|Stability:||> 10 years under recommended storage conditions|
|Substrate For (Enzyme):||exo-1,3-β-Glucanase, β-Glucosidase|
High purity Laminaribiose for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.
Versatile high resolution oligosaccharide microarrays for plant glycobiology and cell wall research.
Pedersen, H. L., Fangel, J. U., McCleary, B., Ruzanski, C., Rydahl, M. G., Ralet, M. C., Farkas, V., Von Schantz, L., Marcus, S. E., Andersen, M.C. F., Field, R., Ohlin, M., Knox, J. P., Clausen, M. H. & Willats, W. G. T. (2012). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(47), 39429-39438.
Microarrays are powerful tools for high throughput analysis, and hundreds or thousands of molecular interactions can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Nucleotide microarrays are well established in plant research, but carbohydrate microarrays are much less established, and one reason for this is a lack of suitable glycans with which to populate arrays. Polysaccharide microarrays are relatively easy to produce because of the ease of immobilizing large polymers noncovalently onto a variety of microarray surfaces, but they lack analytical resolution because polysaccharides often contain multiple distinct carbohydrate substructures. Microarrays of defined oligosaccharides potentially overcome this problem but are harder to produce because oligosaccharides usually require coupling prior to immobilization. We have assembled a library of well characterized plant oligosaccharides produced either by partial hydrolysis from polysaccharides or by de novo chemical synthesis. Once coupled to protein, these neoglycoconjugates are versatile reagents that can be printed as microarrays onto a variety of slide types and membranes. We show that these microarrays are suitable for the high throughput characterization of the recognition capabilities of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and other oligosaccharide-binding proteins of biological significance and also that they have potential for the characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes.Hide Abstract
Taxogenomic assessment and genomic characterisation of Weissella cibaria strain 92 able to metabolise oligosaccharides derived from dietary fibres.
Anna, M., Phebe, V., Guðmundsdóttir, E. E., Santesson, S., Nilsson, A., Óli, H. G., Linares-Pasten, J. A. & Nordberg, K. E. (2020). Scientific Reports, 10(1), 5853.
The importance of the gut microbiota in human health has led to an increased interest to study probiotic bacteria. Fermented food is a source of already established probiotics, but it also offers an opportunity to discover new taxa. Four strains of Weissella sp. isolated from Indian fermented food have been genome sequenced and classified into the species W. cibaria based on whole-genome phylogeny. The genome of W. cibaria strain 92, known to utilise xylooligosaccharides and produce lactate and acetate, was analysed to identify genes for oligosaccharide utilisation. Clusters including genes involved in transportation, hydrolysis and metabolism of xylooligosaccharides, arabinooligosaccharides and β-glucosides were identified. Growth on arabinobiose and laminaribiose was detected. A 6-phospho-β-glucosidase clustered with a phosphotransferase system was found upregulated during growth on laminaribiose, indicating a mechanism for laminaribiose utilisation. The genome of W. cibaria strain 92 harbours genes for utilising the phosphoketolase pathway for the production of both acetate and lactate from pentose and hexose sugars but lacks two genes necessary for utilising the pentose phosphate pathway. The ability of W. cibaria strain 92 to utilise several types of oligosaccharides derived from dietary fibres, and produce lactate and acetate makes it interesting as a probiotic candidate for further evaluation.Hide Abstract
Amorphization and Semi-Dry Conversion of Crystalline Cellulose to Oligosaccharides by Impregnated Phosphoric Acid.
Hirayama, J., Kobayashi, H., & Fukuoka, A. (2020). Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 93(2), 273-278.
Efficient conversion of crystalline cellulose to useful chemicals is a grand challenge in biorefining. In this work, we report that amorphization and semi-dry conversion of crystalline cellulose to oligosaccharides is achieved by impregnated H3PO4. Specifically, the impregnation of crystalline cellulose with H3PO4 under 5 MPa of He and subsequent drying at room temperature produces amorphous cellulose. The impregnated H3PO4 likely permeates bulk phase cellulose by dissociating the hydrogen bonding network of cellulose during the treatment. The resulting swollen solid is depolymerized to oligosaccharides in 40% yield with 72% selectivity by heat-treatment at 100°C with no solvent. The analysis of obtained oligosaccharides using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy reveals that the products are oligomers of glucose linked by various kinds of glycosidic bonds that may be useful as prebiotics.Hide Abstract
Kinetic and molecular dynamics study of inhibition and transglycosylation in Hypocrea jecorina family 3 β-glucosidases.
Geronimo, I., Ntarima, P., Piens, K., Gudmundsson, M., Hansson, H., Sandgren, M. & Payne, C. M. (2019). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 294(9), 3169-3180.
β-Glucosidases enhance enzymatic biomass conversion by relieving cellobiose inhibition of endoglucanases and cellobiohydrolases. However, the susceptibility of these enzymes to inhibition and transglycosylation at high glucose or cellobiose concentrations severely limits their activity and, consequently, the overall efficiency of enzyme mixtures. We determined the impact of these two processes on the hydrolytic activity of the industrially relevant family 3 β-glucosidases from Hypocrea jecorina, HjCel3A and HjCel3B, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms through kinetic studies, binding free energy calculations, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. HjCel3B had a 7-fold higher specificity for cellobiose than HjCel3A but greater tendency for glucose inhibition. Energy decomposition analysis indicated that cellobiose has relatively weak electrostatic interactions with binding site residues, allowing it to be easily displaced by glucose and free to inhibit other hydrolytic enzymes. HjCel3A is, thus, preferable as an industrial β-glucosidase despite its lower activity caused by transglycosylation. This competing pathway to hydrolysis arises from binding of glucose or cellobiose at the product site after formation of the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. MD simulations revealed that binding is facilitated by hydrophobic interactions with Trp-37, Phe-260, and Tyr-443. Targeting these aromatic residues for mutation to reduce substrate affinity at the product site would therefore potentially mitigate transglycosidic activity. Engineering improved variants of HjCel3A and other structurally similar β-glucosidases would have a significant economic effect on enzymatic biomass conversion in terms of yield and production cost as the process can be consequently conducted at higher substrate loadings.Hide Abstract
β-Glucosidase BGL1 from Coprinopsis cinerea Exhibits a Distinctive Hydrolysis and Transglycosylation Activity for Application in the Production of 3-O-β-D-Gentiobiosyl-D-laminarioligosaccharides.
Kang, L., Zhang, X., Wang, R., Liu, C., Yi, L., Liu, Z., Zhang, Z. & Yuan, S. (2019). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 67(38), 10744-10755.
We previously reported that β-glucosidase BGL1 at low concentration (15 µg mL-1) from Coprinopsis cinereal exhibited hydrolytic activity only toward laminarioligosaccharides but not toward cellooligosaccharides and gentiobiose. This study shows that BGL1 at high concentration (200 µg mL-1) also hydrolyzed cellobiose and gentiobiose, which accounted for only 0.83 and 2.05% of its activity toward laminaribiose, respectively. Interestingly, BGL1 at low concentration (1.5 µg mL-1) showed transglycosylation but BGL1 at high concentration (200 µg mL-1) did not. BGL1 utilizes only laminarioligosaccharides but not glucose, gentiobiose, and cellobiose to synthesize the higher oligosaccharides. BGL1 transferred one glucosyl residue from substrate laminarioligosaccharide to another laminarioligosaccharide as an acceptor in a β(1 → 3) or β(1 → 6) fashion to produce higher laminarioligosaccharides or 3-O-β-D-gentiobiosyl-D-laminarioligosaccharides. The BGL1-digested laminaritriose exhibited approximately 90% enhancement in the anti-oxidant activity compared to that of untreated laminaritriose, implying a potential application of BGL1-based transglycosylation for the production of high value-added rare oligosaccharides.Hide Abstract
Comparative analysis and biochemical characterization of two endo-β-1, 3-glucanases from the thermophilic bacterium Fervidobacterium sp.
Burkhardt, C., Schäfers, C., Claren, J., Schirrmacher, G. & Antranikian, G. (2019). Catalysts, 9(10), 830.
Laminarinases exhibit potential in a wide range of industrial applications including the production of biofuels and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we present the genetic and biochemical characteristics of FLamA and FLamB, two laminarinases derived from a metagenomic sample from a hot spring in the Azores. Sequence comparison revealed that both genes had high similarities to genes from Fervidobacterium nodosum Rt17-B1. The two proteins showed sequence similarities of 62% to each other and belong to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 16. For biochemical characterization, both laminarinases were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. FLamA and FLamB exhibited similar properties and both showed highest activity towards laminarin at 90° C and pH 6.5. The two enzymes were thermostable but differed in their half-life at 80° C with 5 h and 1 h for FLamA and FLamB, respectively. In contrast to other laminarinases, both enzymes prefer β-1,3-glucans and mixed-linked glucans as substrates. However, FLamA and FLamB differ in their catalytic efficiency towards laminarin. Structure predictions were made and showed minor differences particularly in a kink adjacent to the active site cleft. The high specific activities and resistance to elevated temperatures and various additives make both enzymes suitable candidates for application in biomass conversion.Hide Abstract
HPAEC-PAD and Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis reveal a novel mode of action of endo-β-1,3(4)-D-glucanase Eng16A from coprinopsis cinerea on barley β-glucan.
Xiong, Y., Wang, Y., Li, M., Kang, L., Zhou, J., Liu, C., Liu, Z., Zhang, Z. & Yuan, S. (2019). Food Chemistry, 287, 160-166.
We previously reported that an endo-β-1,3(4)-d-glucanase, Eng16A, from C. cinerea shows a higher degradation activity toward barley β-glucan than laminarin. HPAEC-PAD and Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses show that Eng16A-digestion products of barley β-glucan not only contain some oligosaccharides with (1 → 3)-β-linkage adjacent to the reducing end, which is consistent with β-1,3(4)-glucanase-digestion products, but also include some oligosaccharides containing (1 → 4)-β-linkage adjacent to the reducing end which is consistent with cellulase-digestion products. Thus, Eng16A possesses both cellulase and β-1,3(4)-glucanase activities. Because Eng16A does not degrade cellulose, we propose that the insertion of a (1 → 3)-β-linkage among the groups of (1 → 4)-β-linkages may make these (1 → 4)-β-linkages prone to cleavage by Eng16A. Furthermore, Eng16A also possesses transglycosylation activity which leads to some products containing one or a few consecutive (1 → 3)-β-linkages adjacent to the non-reducing end. Therefore, HPAEC-PAD and Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses provide an efficient approach to reveal complicated modes of action of some endo-β-1,3(4)-d-glucanases on barley β-glucan.Hide Abstract
Molecular recognition of the beta‐glucans laminarin and pustulan by a SusD‐like glycan‐binding protein of a marine Bacteroidetes.
Mystkowska, A. A., Robb, C., Vidal‐Melgosa, S., Vanni, C., Fernandez‐Guerra, A., Höhne, M. & Hehemann, J. H. (2018). The FEBS journal, 285(23), 4465-4481.
Marine bacteria catabolize carbohydrate polymers of algae, which synthesize these structurally diverse molecules in ocean surface waters. Although algal glycans are an abundant carbon and energy source in the ocean, the molecular details that enable specific recognition between algal glycans and bacterial degraders remain largely unknown. Here we characterized a surface protein, GMSusD from the planktonic Bacteroidetes‐Gramella sp. MAR_2010_102 that thrives during algal blooms. Our biochemical and structural analyses show that GMSusD binds glucose polysaccharides such as branched laminarin and linear pustulan. The 1.8 Å crystal structure of GMSusD indicates that three tryptophan residues form the putative glycan‐binding site. Mutagenesis studies confirmed that these residues are crucial for laminarin recognition. We queried metagenomes of global surface water datasets for the occurrence of SusD‐like proteins and found sequences with the three structurally conserved residues in different locations in the ocean. The molecular selectivity of GMSusD underscores that specific interactions are required for laminarin recognition. In conclusion, our findings provide insight into the molecular details of β‐glucan binding by GMSusD and our bioinformatic analysis reveals that this molecular interaction may contribute to glucan cycling in the surface ocean.Hide Abstract
Hsu, Y., Koizumi, H., Otagiri, M., Moriya, S. & Arioka, M. (2018). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 1-11.
Symbiotic protists in the hindgut of termites provide a novel enzymatic resource for efficient lignocellulytic degradation of plant biomass. In this study, two β-mannanases, RsMan26A and RsMan26B, from a symbiotic protist community of the lower termite, Reticulitermes speratus, were successfully expressed in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. Biochemical characterization experiments demonstrated that both RsMan26A and RsMan26B are endo-acting enzymes and have a very similar substrate specificity, displaying a higher catalytic efficiency to galactomannan from locust bean gum (LBG) and glucomannan than to β-1,4-mannan and highly substituted galactomannan from guar gum. Homology modeling of RsMan26A and RsMan26B revealed that each enzyme displays a long open cleft harboring a unique hydrophobic platform (Trp79) that stacks against the sugar ring at subsite - 5. The Km) values of W79A mutants of RsMan26A and RsMan26B to LBG increased by 4.8-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively, compared with those for the native enzymes, while the kcat) remained unchanged or about 40% of that of the native enzyme, resulting in the decrease in the catalytic efficiency by 4.8-fold and 9.1-fold, respectively. The kinetic values for glucomannan also showed a similar result. These results demonstrate that the Trp residue present near the subsite - 5 has an important role in the recognition of the sugar ring in the substrate.Hide Abstract
Mitsuya, D., Sugiyama, T., Zhang, S., Takeuchi, Y., Okai, M., Urano, N. & Ishida, M. (2018). Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 126(2), 169-175.
We isolated a laminarin-degrading cold-adapted bacterium strain LA from coastal seawater in Sagami Bay, Japan and identified it as a Pseudoalteromonas species. We named the extracellular laminarinase LA-Lam, and purified and characterized it. LA-Lam showed high degradation activity for Laminaria digitata laminarin in the ranges of 15-50°C and pH 5.0-9.0. The major terminal products degraded from L. digitata laminarin with LA-Lam were glucose, laminaribiose, and laminaritriose. The degradation profile of laminarioligosaccharides with LA-Lam suggested that the enzyme has a high substrate binding ability toward tetrameric or larger saccharides. Our results of the gene sequence and the SDS-PAGE analyses revealed that the major part of mature LA-Lam is a catalytic domain that belongs to the GH16 family, although its precursor is composed of a signal peptide, the catalytic domain, and three-repeated unknown regions.Hide Abstract
Li, K., Chen, W., Wang, W., Tan, H., Li, S. & Yin, H. (2018). Carbohydrate Polymers, 201, 122-130.
Curdlan is a water-insoluble microbial exo-polysaccharide that is hardly degraded. The gene CcGluE encoding an endo-β-1 →3-glucanase consisting of 412 amino acids (44 kDa) from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans E4-5 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant CcGluE hydrolysed curdlan powder effectively. CcGluE shows high endo-β-1 →3 glucanase activity and low β-1,4 and β-1,6 glucanase activities with broad substrate specificity for glucan, including curdlan, laminarin and β-1 →3/1 →6-glucan, and the highest catalytic activity for curdlan. Moreover, the hydrolytic products of curdlan were glucan oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerisation of 2-13, and the main products were glucobiose and glucotriose. Degradation mode analysis indicated that CcGluE is more likely to hydrolyse glucopentaose and revealed that CcGluE was an endo-glucanase. Furthermore, upon combination with a homogenising pre-treatment method with curdlan, the degradation efficiency of CcGluE for curdlan powder was greatly improved 7.1-fold, which laid a good foundation for the utilisation of curdlan.Hide Abstract
Choi, J., Klingeman, D. M., Brown, S. D. & Cox, C. D. (2017). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 10(1), 163.
Background: Clostridium thermocellum utilizes a wide variety of free and cellulosomal cellulases and accessory enzymes to hydrolyze polysaccharides present in complex substrates. To date only a few studies have unveiled the details by which the expression of these cellulases are regulated. Recent studies have described the auto regulation of the celC operon and determined that the celC-glyR3-licA gene cluster and nearby manB-celT gene cluster are co-transcribed as polycistronic mRNA. Results: In this paper, we demonstrate that the GlyR3 protein mediates the regulation of manB. We first identify putative GlyR3 binding sites within or just upstream of the coding regions of manB and celT. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we determined that a higher concentration of GlyR3 is required to effectively bind to the putative manB site in comparison to the celC site. Neither the putative celT site nor random DNA significantly binds GlyR3. While laminaribiose interfered with GlyR3 binding to the celC binding site, binding to the manB site was unaffected. In the presence of laminaribiose, in vivo transcription of the celC-glyR3-licA gene cluster increases, while manB expression is repressed, compared to in the absence of laminaribiose, consistent with the results from the EMSA. An in vitro transcription assay demonstrated that GlyR3 and laminaribiose interactions were responsible for the observed patters of in vivo transcription. Conclusions: Together these results reveal a mechanism by which manB is expressed at low concentrations of GlyR3 but repressed at high concentrations. In this way, C. thermocellum is able to co-regulate both the celC and manB gene clusters in response to the availability of β-1,3-polysaccharides in its environment.Hide Abstract
Mechelke, M., Herlet, J., Benz, J. P., Schwarz, W. H., Zverlov, V. V., Liebl, W. & Kornberger, P. (2017). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 1-13.
The rising importance of accurately detecting oligosaccharides in biomass hydrolyzates or as ingredients in food, such as in beverages and infant milk products, demands for the availability of tools to sensitively analyze the broad range of available oligosaccharides. Over the last decades, HPAEC-PAD has been developed into one of the major technologies for this task and represents a popular alternative to state-of-the-art LC-MS oligosaccharide analysis. This work presents the first comprehensive study which gives an overview of the separation of 38 analytes as well as enzymatic hydrolyzates of six different polysaccharides focusing on oligosaccharides. The high sensitivity of the PAD comes at cost of its stability due to recession of the gold electrode. By an in-depth analysis of the sensitivity drop over time for 35 analytes, including xylo- (XOS), arabinoxylo- (AXOS), laminari- (LOS), manno- (MOS), glucomanno- (GMOS), and cellooligosaccharides (COS), we developed an analyte-specific one-phase decay model for this effect over time. Using this model resulted in significantly improved data normalization when using an internal standard. Our results thereby allow a quantification approach which takes the inevitable and analyte-specific PAD response drop into account.Hide Abstract
Deng, Y., Li, M., Chen, L. X., Chen, X. Q., Lu, J. H., Zhao, J. & Li, S. P. (2017). Carbohydrate Polymers, In Press.
The chain conformation, chemical characters and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharide from Dendrobium devonianum (DDP) were investigated.Results showed that molecular weights, polydispersity index, radius of gyrations of DDP were 3.99 × 105 Da, 1.27, 74.1 nm, respectively. By applying the polymer solution theory, the exponent (v) values of <S2>z 1/2 = kMwv was calculated as 0.38, which revealed that DDP existed as a globular shape in aqueous solution, and further confirmed by AFM analysis. Furthermore, the main monosaccharide compositions were Man and Glc with the ratio of 29.61:1.00. Indeed, the main glycosidic linkages were β-1,4-Manp, and substituted with acetyl groups at O-2 and O-3 position. Notably, DDP could promote the immune functions of macrophages including NO release and phagocytosis. Thus, DDP could be explored as a natural immune-stimulating agent in the health and functional food area as well as pharmaceutical industries.Hide Abstract
Wang, D., Kim, D. H., Yoon, J. J. & Kim, K. H. (2017). Process Biochemistry, 52, 233-237.
We report the first hydrothermal hydrolysis of curdlan, a water insoluble β-1,3-glucan, to produce β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides, which are high-value materials with health-benefiting activities. In this study, hydrothermal hydrolysis was tested for the liquefaction and saccharification of curdlan. The optimal hydrothermal hydrolysis conditions were 180°C and 60 min, respectively, resulting in a high degree of liquefaction (98.4%) and low byproduct formation. Under the optimal conditions, 17.47 g/L of β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides was produced from 20 g/L of curdlan, representing a conversion yield of 87.4% (w/w). Using this process, β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides were conveniently produced in a one-step reaction without any chemicals or enzymes. This hydrothermal hydrolysis for curdlan exhibited the best performance among various hydrolysis processes reported to date. This method can be applied to large-scale production of β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides for the functional food and biopharmaceutical industries.Hide Abstract
Wu, D. T., Cheong, K. L., Deng, Y., Lin, P. C., Wei, F., Lv, X. J., Long, Z. R., Zhoa, J., Ma, S. C. & Li, S. P. (2015). Carbohydrate polymers, 134, 12-19.
Water-soluble polysaccharides from 51 batches of fruits of L. barbarum (wolfberry) in China were investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, partial acid hydrolysis, single and composite enzymatic digestion, followed by polysaccharide analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) analysis and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis, respectively. Results showed that multiple PACE and HPTLC fingerprints of partial acid and enzymatic hydrolysates of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in China were similar, respectively. In addition, results indicated that β-1,3-glucosidic, α-1,4-galactosiduronic and α-1,5-arabinosidic linkages existed in polysaccharides from L. barbarum collected in China, and the similarity of polysaccharides in L. barbarum collected from different regions of China was pretty high, which are helpful for the improvement of the performance of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in functional/health foods area. Furthermore, polysaccharides from Panax notoginseng, Angelica sinensis, and Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus were successfully distinguished from those of L. barbarum based on their PACE fingerprints. These results were beneficial to improve the quality control of polysaccharides from L. barabrum and their products, which suggested that saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC analysis could be a routine approach for quality control of polysaccharides.Hide Abstract
Periasamy, A., Shadiac, N., Amalraj, A., Garajová, S., Nagarajan, Y., Waters, S., Mertens, H. D. T. & Hrmova, M. (2013). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Biomembranes, 1828(2), 743-757.
A membrane-embedded curdlan synthase (CrdS) from Agrobacterium is believed to catalyse a repetitive addition of glucosyl residues from UDP-glucose to produce the (1,3)-β-D-glucan (curdlan) polymer. We report wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis (WG-CFPS) of full-length CrdS containing a 6xHis affinity tag and either Factor Xa or Tobacco Etch Virus proteolytic sites, using a variety of hydrophobic membrane-mimicking environments. Full-length CrdS was synthesised with no variations in primary structure, following analysis of tryptic fragments by MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry. Preparative scale WG-CFPS in dialysis mode with Brij-58 yielded CrdS in mg/ml quantities. Analysis of structural and functional properties of CrdS during protein synthesis showed that CrdS was co-translationally inserted in DMPC liposomes during WG-CFPS, and these liposomes could be purified in a single step by density gradient floatation. Incorporated CrdS exhibited a random orientation topology. Following affinity purification of CrdS, the protein was reconstituted in nanodiscs with Escherichia coli lipids or POPC and a membrane scaffold protein MSP1E3D1. CrdS nanodiscs were characterised by small-angle X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation and the data obtained were consistent with insertion of CrdS into bilayers. We found CrdS synthesised in the presence of the Ac-AAAAAAD surfactant peptide or co-translationally inserted in liposomes made from E. coli lipids to be catalytically competent. Conversely, CrdS synthesised with only Brij-58 was inactive. Our findings pave the way for future structural studies of this industrially important catalytic membrane protein.Hide Abstract
Nunes, C., Silva, L., Fernandes, A. P., Guiné, R. P. F., Domingues, M. R. M. & Coimbra, M. A. (2012). Carbohydrate Polymers, 87(1), 620-626.
The study carried out in this work concerns the structural characterization of pectic polysaccharides from plum (Prunus domestica L.) and pear (Pyrus communis L.) cell walls and commercial pectic polysaccharides, obtained from Citrus. The α-(1 → 4)-D-galacturonic acid backbone was submitted to a selective hydrolysis with endo-polygalacturonase (EPG) and the fractions with low molecular weight (+ ions of pectic oligosaccharides identified as belonging to different series, including oligosaccharides constituted only by galacturonic acid residues (GalAn, n = 1–5) and galacturonic acid residues substituted by pentose residues (GalA3Pentn, n = 1–2). Surprisingly, it was also observed the occurrence of galacturonic acid residues substituted by hexose residues (GalAnHexm, n = 2–4, m = 1–2). The fragmentation of the observed [M+Na]+ ions, obtained under ESI-MS/MS and MSn allowed to confirm the proposed structures constituent of these pectic oligosaccharides. Furthermore, the ESI-MSn spectra of the ions that could be identified as GalAnHexm (n = 2–4, m = 1–2) confirmed the presence of Hex or Hex2 residues linked to a GalA residue. Methylation analysis showed the presence, in all EPG treated samples, of terminally linked arabinose, terminally and 4-linked xylose, and terminally and 4-linked glucose. The occurrence of GalA substituted by Glc, and Glc-β-(1 → 4)–Glc are structural features that, as far as we know, have never been reported to occur in pectic polysaccharides.Hide Abstract
Zhang, D., Allen, A. B. & Lax, A. R. (2012). Journal of Insect Physiology, 58(1), 205-210.
The research was to elucidate the function of the β-glucosidase of Formosan subterranean termites in vitro and in vivo. The gene transcript was detected predominantly in the salivary gland tissue, relative to the midgut and the hindgut of the foraging worker caste, indicating salivary glands were the major expression sites of the β-glucosidase. Using recombinant β-glucosidase produced in Escherichia coli, the enzyme showed higher affinity and activity toward cellobiose and cellotriose than other substrates tested. In assessing impacts of specific inhibitors, we found that the β-glucosidase could be irreversibly inactivated by conduritol B epoxide (CBE) but not gluconolactone. Termite feeding assays showed that the CBE treatment reduced the glucose supply in the midgut and resulted in the body weight loss while no effect was observed for the gluconolactone treatment. These findings highlighted that the β-glucosidase is one of the critical cellulases responsible for cellulose degradation and glucose production; inactivation of these digestive enzymes by specific inhibitors may starve the termite.Hide Abstract
Sack, E. L. W., van der Wielen, P. W. J. J. & van der Kooij, D. (2011). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(19), 6931-6938.
Biopolymers are important substrates for heterotrophic bacteria in oligotrophic freshwater environments, but information on bacterial growth kinetics with biopolymers is scarce. The objective of this study was to characterize bacterial biopolymer utilization in these environments by assessing the growth kinetics of Flavobacterium johnsoniae strain A3, which is specialized in utilizing biopolymers at µg liter-1 levels. Growth of strain A3 with amylopectin, xyloglucan, gelatin, maltose, or fructose at 0 to 200 µg C liter-1 in tap water followed Monod or Teissier kinetics, whereas growth with laminarin followed Teissier kinetics. Classification of the specific affinity of strain A3 for the tested substrates resulted in the following affinity order: laminarin (7.9 × 10-2 liter·µg-1 of C·h-1) >> maltose > amylopectin ≈ gelatin ≈ xyloglucan > fructose (0.69 × 10-2 liter·µg-1 of C·h-1). No specific affinity could be determined for proline, but it appeared to be high. Extracellular degradation controlled growth with amylopectin, xyloglucan, or gelatin but not with laminarin, which could explain the higher affinity for laminarin. The main degradation products were oligosaccharides or oligopeptides, because only some individual monosaccharides and amino acids promoted growth. A higher yield and a lower ATP cell-1 level was achieved at ≤10 µg C liter-1 than at >10 µg C liter-1 with every substrate except gelatin. The high specific affinities of strain A3 for different biopolymers confirm that some representatives of the classes Cytophagia-Flavobacteria are highly adapted to growth with these compounds at µg liter-1 levels and support the hypothesis that Cytophagia-Flavobacteria play an important role in biopolymer degradation in (ultra)oligotrophic freshwater environments.Hide Abstract