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|Stability:||> 10 years under recommended storage conditions|
|Synonyms:||Glucosyl-(1→3)-β-D-Cellobiose, 1,3:1,4-β-Glucotriose A|
|Substrate For (Enzyme):||β-Glucanase/Lichenase|
High purity 32-β-D-Glucosyl-cellobiose for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.
Trisaccharide produced on hydrolysis of 1:3,1:4-β-D-glucan by cellulase.
View our exensive range of oligosaccharides.
Versatile high resolution oligosaccharide microarrays for plant glycobiology and cell wall research.
Pedersen, H. L., Fangel, J. U., McCleary, B., Ruzanski, C., Rydahl, M. G., Ralet, M. C., Farkas, V., Von Schantz, L., Marcus, S. E., Andersen, M.C. F., Field, R., Ohlin, M., Knox, J. P., Clausen, M. H. & Willats, W. G. T. (2012). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(47), 39429-39438.
Microarrays are powerful tools for high throughput analysis, and hundreds or thousands of molecular interactions can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Nucleotide microarrays are well established in plant research, but carbohydrate microarrays are much less established, and one reason for this is a lack of suitable glycans with which to populate arrays. Polysaccharide microarrays are relatively easy to produce because of the ease of immobilizing large polymers noncovalently onto a variety of microarray surfaces, but they lack analytical resolution because polysaccharides often contain multiple distinct carbohydrate substructures. Microarrays of defined oligosaccharides potentially overcome this problem but are harder to produce because oligosaccharides usually require coupling prior to immobilization. We have assembled a library of well characterized plant oligosaccharides produced either by partial hydrolysis from polysaccharides or by de novo chemical synthesis. Once coupled to protein, these neoglycoconjugates are versatile reagents that can be printed as microarrays onto a variety of slide types and membranes. We show that these microarrays are suitable for the high throughput characterization of the recognition capabilities of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and other oligosaccharide-binding proteins of biological significance and also that they have potential for the characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes.Hide Abstract
Hughes, S. A., Shewry, P. R., Gibson, G. R., McCleary, B. V. & Rastall, R. A. (2008). FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 64(3), 482-493.
Fermentation of β-glucan fractions from barley [average molecular mass (MM), of 243, 172, and 137 kDa] and oats (average MM of 230 and 150 kDa) by the human faecal microbiota was investigated. Fractions were supplemented to pH-controlled anaerobic batch culture fermenters inoculated with human faecal samples from three donors, in triplicate, for each substrate. Microbiota changes were monitored by fluorescent in situ hybridization; groups enumerated were: Bifidobacterium genus, Bacteroides and Prevotella group, Clostridium histolyticum subgroup, Ruminococcus-Eubacterium-Clostridium (REC) cluster, Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group, Atopobium cluster, and clostridial cluster IX. Short-chain fatty acids and lactic acid were measured by HPLC. The C. histolyticum subgroup increased significantly in all vessels and clostridial cluster IX maintained high populations with all fractions. The Bacteroides-Prevotella group increased with all but the 243-kDa barley and 230-kDa oat substrates. In general β-glucans displayed no apparent prebiotic potential. The SCFA profile (51 : 32 : 17; acetate : propionate : butyrate) was considered propionate-rich. In a further study a β-glucan oligosaccharide fraction was produced with a degree of polymerization of 3-4. This fraction was supplemented to small-scale faecal batch cultures and gave significant increases in the Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group; however, the prebiotic potential of this fraction was marginal compared with that of inulin.Hide Abstract
Substrate-Dependent Cellulose Saccharification Efficiency and LPMO Activity of Cellic CTec2 and a Cellulolytic Secretome from Thermoascus aurantiacus and the Impact of H2O2-Producing Glucose Oxidase.
Østby, H., Várnai, A., Gabriel, R., Chylenski, P., Horn, S. J., Singer, S. W. & Eijsink, V. G. (2022). ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 10, 14433–14444.
Understanding and improving the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass will promote the use of this renewable material. Here, we have studied several process parameters (reaction temperature, type of enzyme blend, type of substrate, type of reductant, and in situ supply of hydrogen peroxide) to better understand how saccharification could be optimized, focusing on the role of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). Comparison of a simple, LPMO-rich cellulolytic secretome from the thermophilic fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus with the commercial cellulase preparation Cellic CTec2 showed that saccharification of (lignin-poor) sulfite-pulped spruce at 60°C with the secretome was as efficient as saccharification with Cellic CTec2 at 50°C. Quantification of LPMO products showed that while LPMO activity contributed to saccharification efficiency, high levels of LPMO activity were not necessarily beneficial. Reactions with steam-exploded birch, rich in redox-active lignin, highlighted a strong impact of the feedstock on enzyme performance. In this case, the reaction with Cellic CTec2 at 50°C was clearly most efficient. At 60°C, enzyme inactivation became apparent for both enzyme blends, likely due to detrimental redox processes. Addition of H2O2-generating glucose oxidase to reactions with Cellic CTec2 at 50°C led to strongly increased LPMO activity and, only for reactions with the lignin-poor substrate, improved saccharification yields. These results underpin the potential of the T. aurantiacus secretome for hydrolysis of lignin-poor substrates, and the usefulness of glucose oxidase for optimizing their saccharification. They also show that the efficiency of LPMO-containing cellulase preparations is highly dependent on the nature of the reductant and the substrate.Hide Abstract
Poaceae-specific cell wall-derived oligosaccharides activate plant immunity via OsCERK1 during Magnaporthe oryzae infection in rice.
Yang, C., Liu, R., Pang, J., Ren, B., Zhou, H., Wang, G., wang, E. & Liu, J. (2021). Nature Communications, 12(1), 1-13.
Many phytopathogens secrete cell wall degradation enzymes (CWDEs) to damage host cells and facilitate colonization. As the major components of the plant cell wall, cellulose and hemicellulose are the targets of CWDEs. Damaged plant cells often release damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to trigger plant immune responses. Here, we establish that the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae secretes the endoglucanases MoCel12A and MoCel12B during infection of rice (Oryza sativa). These endoglucanases target hemicellulose of the rice cell wall and release two specific oligosaccharides, namely the trisaccharide 31-β-D-Cellobiosyl-glucose and the tetrasaccharide 31-β-D-Cellotriosyl-glucose. 31-β-D-Cellobiosyl-glucose and 31-β-D-Cellotriosyl-glucose bind the immune receptor OsCERK1 but not the chitin binding protein OsCEBiP. However, they induce the dimerization of OsCERK1 and OsCEBiP. In addition, these Poaceae cell wall-specific oligosaccharides trigger a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is largely compromised in oscerk1 and oscebip mutants. We conclude that 31-β-D-Cellobiosyl-glucose and 31-β-D-Cellotriosyl-glucose are specific DAMPs released from the hemicellulose of rice cell wall, which are perceived by an OsCERK1 and OsCEBiP immune complex during M. oryzae infection in rice.Hide Abstract
Degradative GH5 β-1, 3-1, 4-glucanase PpBglu5A for glucan in Paenibacillus polymyxa KF-1.
Yuan, Y., Zhang, X., Zhang, H., Wang, W., Zhao, X., Gao, J. & Zhou, Y. (2020). Process Biochemistry, 98, 183-192.
A novel β-1,3-1,4-glucanase in the glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) has been identified in the secretome of Paenibacillus polymyxa KF-1. The recombinant GH5 enzyme PpBglu5A shows broad substrate specificity, with strong lichenase activity, medium β-1,3-glucanase activity, and minimal cellulase activity. Barley β-glucan, lichenan, curdlan, and carboxymethyl cellulose are hydrolyzed to varying degrees by PpBglu5A, with the highest catalytic activity being observed with barley β-glucan. Hydrolysates from barley β-glucan or lichenan are primarily glucan oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization from 2 to 4. PpBglu5A also hydrolyzes oat bran into oligosaccharides mainly consisted of di-, tri-, and tetra- oligosaccharides that are useful in the preparation of gluco-oligosaccharides. In addition to hydrolytic activity, transglycosylation was also observed with PpBglu5A and cellotriose as substrate. An in vitro assay indicated that the recombinant PpBglu5A has antifungal activity and can inhibit the growth of Canidia albicans. These results suggest that PpBglu5A exhibits unique properties and may be useful as an antifungal agent.Hide Abstract
Cheng, Y. S., Huang, C. H., Chen, C. C., Huang, T. Y., Ko, T. P., Huang, J. W., Wu. Tzu-Hui., Liu, J. R. & Guo, R. T. (2014). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Proteins and Proteomics, 1844(2), 366-373.
The thermostable 1,3–1,4-β-glucanase PtLic16A from the fungus Paecilomyces thermophila catalyzes stringent hydrolysis of barley β-glucan and lichenan with an outstanding efficiency and has great potential for broad industrial applications. Here, we report the crystal structures of PtLic16A and an inactive mutant E113A in ligand-free form and in complex with the ligands cellobiose, cellotetraose and glucotriose at 1.80 Å to 2.25 Å resolution. PtLic16A adopts a typical β-jellyroll fold with a curved surface and the concave face forms an extended ligand binding cleft. These structures suggest that PtLic16A might carry out the hydrolysis via retaining mechanism with E113 and E118 serving as the nucleophile and general acid/base, respectively. Interestingly, in the structure of E113A/1,3–1,4-β-glucotriose complex, the sugar bound to the − 1 subsite adopts an intermediate-like (α-anomeric) configuration. By combining all crystal structures solved here, a comprehensive binding mode for a substrate is proposed. These findings not only help understand the 1,3–1,4-β-glucanase catalytic mechanism but also provide a basis for further enzymatic engineering.Hide Abstract