|In 3.2 M ammonium sulphate (stabilised with BSA)
|> 1 year under recommended storage conditions
|beta-glucosidase; beta-D-glucoside glucohydrolase
|Supplied at ~ 40 U/mL
|Purified from Aspergillus sp.
|Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing β-D-glucosyl residues with release of β-D-glucose.
|~ 25 U/mg (40oC, pH 4.0 on p-nitrophenyl β-glucoside)
|One Unit of β-Glucosidase activity is defined as the amount of enzyme required to release one µmole of p-nitrophenol from p-nitrophenyl β-glucoside per minute at 40oC and pH 4.0.
|Applications established in diagnostics and research within the food and feed, carbohydrate and biofuels industries.
High purity β-Glucosidase (Aspergillus sp.) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.
The raw material source has changed to an alternative Aspergillus sp. source. Please refer to specific data sheets for detailed information.
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McCleary, B. V. & Codd, R. (1991). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 55(2), 303-312.
A commercially available enzymic method for the quantitative measurement of (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucan has been simplified to allow analysis of up to 10 grain samples in 70 min or of 100–200 samples by a single operator in a day. These improvements have been achieved with no loss in accuracy or precision and with an increase in reliability. The glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent has been significantly improved to ensure colour stability for periods of up to 1 h after development. Some problems experienced with the original method have been addressed and resolved, and further experiments to demonstrate the quantitative nature of the assay have been designed and performed.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V. & Harrington, J. (1988). “Methods in Enzymology”, Volume 160, (H. Gilbert, Ed.), Elsevier Inc., pp. 575-583.
β-D-Glucosidases have been isolated and purified from a number of fungal culture filtrates. A number of β-glucosidases, including those from almond emulsin and from Aspergillus niger 15, do not have a strict requirement for a D-gluco configuration. The enzyme from almond emulsin catalyzes hydrolysis of both β-D-glucopyranosides and β-D-galactopyranosides and evidence has been obtained for the involvement of different enzyme active sites. An enzyme purified to homogeneity from culture filtrates of Aspergillus niger 15 has a very broad specificity with activity on β-D-glucosides, β-D-xylosides, β-D-galactosides, and β-L-arabinosides. β-glucosidase in combination with a specific endo-β-glucanase could find widespread application in the quantification of a range of β-D-glucans such as (1→4)-β-D-glucan, (1→3)-β-D-glucan, (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucan, and (1→3),1→6)-β-D-glucan. Together with endo-1,4-β-D-mannanase and β-D-mannosidase it may also prove useful in the measurement of β-D-glucomannans. A method for the assay of (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucan has already been developed using a highly purified β-D-glucosidase from a commercially available Aspergillus niger enzyme preparation. This chapter describes the purification of this enzyme and report on some of its properties.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V. & Nurthen, E. (1986). Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 92(2), 168-173.
A method developed for the quantification of (1→3)(1→4)-β-D-glucan in barley flour has been modified to allow its use in the measurement of this component in malt, wort, beer and spent grain. For malt samples, free D-glucose was first removed with aqueous ethanol. Quantification of the polymer in wort and beer samples involved precipitation of the β-glucan with ammonium sulphate followed by washing with aqueous ethanol to remove free D-glucose. Spent grain was lyophilised and milled and then analysed by the method developed for malt. In all cases, the β-glucan was depolymerised with lichenase and the resultant β-gluco-oligosaccharides hydrolysed to D-glucose with β-D-glucosidase. The released D-glucose was then specifically determined using glucose oxidase-peroxidase reagent.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V., Gibson, T. S., Allen, H. & Gams, T. C. (1986). Starch, 38(12), 433-437.
Mixed linkage β-glucane and pentosanes (mainly arabinoxylanes) are the major endosperm cell-wall polysaccharides of barley and wheat respectively. These polysaccharides, although minor components of the whole grain, significantly affect the industrial utilization of these cereals. The modification of barley corns during malting requires the dissolution of the β-glucan in the cell-wall of the starch endosperm. High β-glucane concentration in wort and beer effect the rate of filtration and can also lead to precipitate or gel formation in the final product. In a similar manner, pentosane is thought to cause filtration problems with wheat starch hydrolysates by increasing viscosity and by producing gelatinous precipitate which blocks filters. Ironically, it is this same viscosity building and water binding capacity which is considered to render pentosanes of considerable value in dough development and bread storage (anti-staling functions). In the current paper, some aspects of the beneficial and detrimental effects of pentosans and β-glucan in the industrial utilization of wheat and barley are discussed. More specifically, enzymic methods for the preparation, analysis and identification of these polysaccharides and for the removal of their functional properties, are described in detail.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V. & Glennie-Holmes, M. (1985). Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 91(5), 285-295.
A simple and quantitative method for the determination of (1→3) (1→4)-β-D-glucan in barley flour and malt is described. The method allows direct analysis of β-glucan in flour and malt slurries. Mixed-linkage β-glucan is specifically depolymerized with a highly purified (1→3) (1→4)-β-D-glucanase (lichenase), from Bacillus subtilis, to tri-, tetra- and higher degree of polymerization (d.p.) oligosaccharides. These oligosaccharides are then specifically and quantitatively hydrolysed to glucose using purified β-D-glucosidase. The glucose is then specifically determined using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. Since barley flours contain only low levels of glucose, and maltosaccharides do not interfere with the assay, removal of low d.p. sugars is not necessary. Blank values are determined for each sample allowing the direct measurement of β-glucan in values are determined for each sample allowing the direct measurement of β-glucan in malt samples. α-Amylase does not interfere with the assay. The method is suitable for the routine analysis of β-glucan in barley samples derived from breeding programs; 50 samples can be analysed by a single operator in a day. Evaluation of the technique on different days has indicated a mean standard error of 0-1 for barley flour samples containing 3-8 and 4-6% (w/w) β-glucan content.Hide Abstract
Development and validation of two analytical strategies for the determination of glucosides of acidic herbicides in cereals and oilseed matrices.
Aloisi, I. & Mol, H. (2023). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 1-11.
The aim of the present research was the development and validation of a selective and reliable method for the indirect and direct determination of acidic herbicide glucosides. Enzymatic deconjugation was investigated as a mild alternative to harsh alkaline hydrolysis. Various enzymatic options for deconjugation were exploited. One out of nine tested specific enzymes proved to be practical and repeatable for different matrices and concentration ranges, leading to the complete deconjugation of the glucosides. The method was validated according to the SANTE/11312/2021 guideline for cereals and oilseeds and for a rice-based infant formula. Additionally, for four acidic herbicide glucosides available on the market, a quantitative method for direct determination of the intact glucosides was optimized and validated. In both methods, the average recoveries were within 70–120%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) achieved were 10 µg kg−1 and 2.5 µg kg−1 for the intact glucosides and the free acids in cereal and oilseeds. For the rice-based infant formula, the LOQ was 1 µg kg−1 (3 µg kg−1 for dichlorprop). To confirm its applicability, the deconjugation approach was tested for fifteen samples (cereals, oilseeds, and citrus) with incurred residues. Comparisons were made between the method without deconjugation, and two methods with deconjugation, the here proposed enzymatic deconjugation and the more commonly used alkaline hydrolysis. The inclusion of enzymatic deconjugation during sample preparation led to an increase up to 2.7-fold compared to analysis without deconjugation. Enzymatic deconjugation resulted in comparable results to alkaline hydrolysis for 13 out of 15 samples.Hide Abstract
Enhanced energy savings in enzymatic refining of hardwood and softwood pulp.
Nagl, M., Haske-Cornelius, O., Bauer, W., Nyanhongo, G. S. & Guebitz, G. M. (2023). Energy, Sustainability and Society, 13(1), 19.
Background: Pulp refining is an energy consuming, but integral part of paper production with the aim to increase tensile strength and smoothness of paper sheets. Commercial enzyme formulations are used to lower the energy requirements by pre-treatment of pulp before refining. However, a high number of different commercial enzyme products are available on the market containing enzymes of varying origin and composition, which complicates the prediction of their behavior, especially using different pulp types. Results: Endoglucanase-rich enzyme formulations were characterized regarding enzyme activity at different temperatures, resulting in a significant decrease of activity above 70°C. Some enzyme preparations additionally contained arabinosidase, xylanase and β-glucosidase activity consequently resulting in a release of xylose and glucose from pulp as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Interestingly, one enzyme formulation even showed lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) activity of 3.05 nkat mg−1. A correlation between enzyme activity using the endoglucanase specific derivatized cellopentaose (CellG5) substrate and enzyme performance in laboratory PFI (Papirindustriens forskningsinstitut) refining trials was observed on softwood pulp resulting in a maximum increase in the degree of refining values from 27.7°SR to 32.7°SR. When added to a purified endoglucanase enzyme (31.6°SR), synergistic effects were found for cellobiohydrolase II (34.7°SR) or β-glucosidase enzymes (35.7°SR) in laboratory refining. Comparison with previously obtained laboratory refining results on hardwood pulp allowed differences in enzyme performance based on varying pulp types to be elucidated. Conclusions: Interestingly, the individual enzymes indeed showed different refining effects on softwood and hardwood pulp. This difference could be predicted after development of an adapted enzyme activity assay by combination of the derivatized cellopentaose CellG5 substrate with either softwood or hardwood sulfate pulp.Hide Abstract
Comparative Evaluation of Adsorption of Major Enzymes in a Cellulase Cocktail Obtained from Trichoderma reesei onto Different Types of Lignin.
Lee, D. S., Song, Y., Lee, Y. G. & Bae, H. J. (2022). Polymers, 14(1), 167.
Cellulase adsorption onto lignin decreases the productivity of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Here, adsorption of enzymes onto different types of lignin was investigated, and the five major enzymes—cellobiohydrolases (CBHs), endoglucanase (Cel7B), β-glucosidase (Cel3A), xylanase (XYNIV), and mannanase (Man5A)—in a cellulase cocktail obtained from Trichoderma reesei were individually analyzed through SDS-PAGE and zymogram assay. Lignin was isolated from woody (oak and pine lignin) and herbaceous (rice straw and kenaf lignin) plants. The relative adsorption of CBHs compared to the control was in the range of 14.15–18.61%. The carbohydrate binding motif (CBM) of the CBHs contributed to higher adsorption levels in oak and kenaf lignin, compared to those in pine and rice lignin. The adsorption of endoglucanase (Cel7B) by herbaceous plant lignin was two times higher than that of woody lignin, whereas XYNIV showed the opposite pattern. β-glucosidase (Cel3A) displayed the highest and lowest adsorption ratios on rice straw and kenaf lignin, respectively. Mannanase (Man5A) was found to have the lowest adsorption ratio on pine lignin. Our results showed that the hydrophobic properties of CBM and the enzyme structures are key factors in adsorption onto lignin, whereas the properties of specific lignin types indirectly affect adsorption.Hide Abstract
Improvement of Enzymatic Saccharification and Ethanol Production from Rice Straw Using Recycled Ionic Liquid: The Effect of Anti-Solvent Mixture.
Chuetor, S., Panakkal, E. J., Ruensodsai, T., Cheenkachorn, K., Kirdponpattara, S., Cheng, Y. S. & Sriariyanun, M. (2022). Bioengineering, 9(3), 115.
One of the major concerns for utilizing ionic liquid on an industrial scale is the cost involved in the production. Despite its proven pretreatment efficiency, expenses involved in its usage hinder its utilization. A better way to tackle this limitation could be overcome by studying the recyclability of ionic liquid. The current study has applied the Box–Behnken design (BBD) to optimize the pretreatment condition of rice straw through the usage of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM-Ac) as an ionic liquid. The model predicted the operation condition with 5% solid loading at 128.4 °C for 71.83 min as an optimum pretreatment condition. Under the optimized pretreatment condition, the necessity of the best anti-solvent was evaluated among water, acetone methanol, and their combinations. The study revealed that pure methanol is the suitable choice of anti-solvent, enhancing the highest sugar yield. Recyclability of EMIM-Ac coupled with anti-solvent was conducted up to five recycles following the predicted pretreatment condition. Fermentation studies evaluated the efficacy of recycled EMIM-Ac for ethanol production with 89% more ethanol production than the untreated rice straw even after five recycles. This study demonstrates the potential of recycled ionic liquid in ethanol production, thereby reducing the production cost at the industrial level.Hide Abstract
Towards a better understanding of synergistic enzyme effects during refining of cellulose fibers.
Nagl, M., Haske-Cornelius, O., Bauer, W., Csarman, F., Ludwig, R., Nyanhongo, G. S. & Guebitz, G. M. (2022). Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications, 4, 100223.
Refining of cellulose fibers is essential for reaching desired paper properties, yet highly energy demanding. Enzymes like endoglucanases (e.g. EndoC) are increasingly used to reduce energy consumption during pulp refining. However, prediction of the enzyme effect is still a major concern, considering the high variety of commercially available enzyme formulations, containing a range of different enzymes. In this study, synergisms of xylanases and β-glucosidases in combination with endoglucanases purified from enzyme formulations were studied and related to their refining performance. Size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) of carboxymethylcellulose revealed that a narrow size distribution and a high reduction in molecular weight are beneficial characteristics for refining. SEC-MALLS of hardwood pulp resulted in pronounced formation of low molecular weight fractions (log MW 4.3) for most efficient refining enzymes. Application of enzyme formulations and combinations of endoglucanase EndoC with β-glucosidase or xylanase using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed synergistic effects that promoted degradation of amorphous parts of cellulose. Laboratory refining trials on hardwood pulp confirmed the increase in degree of refining and tensile index after addition of xylanase and β-glucosidase. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis resulted in strong binding of endoglucanases to regenerated cellulose, which correlated to refining performance.Hide Abstract