endo-1,3(4)-β-D-Glucanase (Trichoderma sp.)

Reference code: E-LAMSE
SKU: 700004226

100 Units

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Content: 100 Units
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: 2-8oC
Formulation: In 3.2 M ammonium sulphate
Physical Form: Suspension
Stability: > 1 year under recommended storage conditions
Enzyme Activity: endo-1,3(4)-β-Glucanase
EC Number:
CAZy Family: GH16
CAS Number: 62213-14-3
Synonyms: glucan endo-1,3(4)-beta-D-glucosidase
Source: Trichoderma sp. 
Molecular Weight: 32,000
Concentration: Supplied at ~ 50 U/mL
Expression: Purified from Trichoderma sp.
Specificity: Hydrolysis of (1,3)-β-D-glucosidic linkages in (1,3)-β-D Glucans and (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-glucosidic linkages in mixed linkage β-D-Glucans.
Specific Activity: > 10 U/mg (40oC, pH 4.5 on CM-Curdlan)
Unit Definition: One Unit of endo-1,3-β-D-Glucanase activity is defined as the amount of enzyme required to release one µmole of glucose-reducing-sugar equivalents per minute in the presence of CM-Curdlan (5 mg/mL) in sodium acetate buffer (200 mM) at pH 4.5 and 40oC.
Temperature Optima: 40oC
pH Optima: 4.5
Application examples: Applications in carbohydrate and biofuels research and in the food and feeds industries.

High purity endo-1,3(4)-β-D-Glucanase (Trichoderma sp.) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.

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Data Sheet

Structural and mechanistic insights into fungal β-1, 3-glucan synthase FKS1.

Hu, X., Yang, P., Chai, C., Liu, J., Sun, H., Wu, Y., Zhang, M., Zhang, M, Liu, X. & Yu, H. (2023). Nature, 38, 1-9.

The membrane-integrated synthase FKS is involved in the biosynthesis of β-1,3-glucan, the core component of the fungal cell wall. FKS is the target of widely prescribed antifungal drugs, including echinocandin and ibrexafungerp. Unfortunately, the mechanism of action of FKS remains enigmatic and this has hampered development of more effective medicines targeting the enzyme. Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKS1 and the echinocandin-resistant mutant FKS1(S643P). These structures reveal the active site of the enzyme at the membrane-cytoplasm interface and a glucan translocation path spanning the membrane bilayer. Multiple bound lipids and notable membrane distortions are observed in the FKS1 structures, suggesting active FKS1-membrane interactions. Echinocandin-resistant mutations are clustered at a region near TM5-6 and TM8 of FKS1. The structure of FKS1(S643P) reveals altered lipid arrangements in this region, suggesting a drug-resistant mechanism of the mutant enzyme. The structures, the catalytic mechanism and the molecular insights into drug-resistant mutations of FKS1 revealed in this study advance the mechanistic understanding of fungal β-1,3-glucan biosynthesis and establish a foundation for developing new antifungal drugs by targeting FKS.

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Topography of UV-melanized Thalli of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.

Daminova, A. G., Rassabina, A. E., Khabibrakhmanova, V. R., Beckett, R. P. & Minibayeva, F. V. (2023). Plants (Basel), 12(14), 2627.

Lichens are unique extremophilic organisms due to their phenomenal resistance to adverse environmental factors, including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Melanization plays a special role in the protection of lichens from UV-B stress. In the present study, we analyzed the binding of melanins with the components of cell walls of the mycobiont of the upper cortex in the melanized lichen thalli Lobaria pulmonaria. Using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, the morphological and nanomechanical characteristics of the melanized layer of mycobiont cells were visualized. Melanization of lichen thalli led to the smoothing of the surface relief and thickening of mycobiont cell walls, as well as the reduction in adhesion properties of the lichen thallus. Treatment of thalli with hydrolytic enzymes, especially chitinase and lichenase, enhanced the yield of melanin from melanized thalli and promoted the release of carbohydrates, while treatment with pectinase increased the release of carbohydrates and phenols. Our results suggest that melanin can firmly bind with hyphal cell wall carbohydrates, particularly chitin and 1,4-β-glucans, strengthening the melanized upper cortex of lichen thalli, and thereby it can contribute to lichen survival under UV stress.

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Properties of corn-expressed carbohydrase AC1 in swine diets and its effects on apparent ileal digestibility, performance, hematology, and serum chemistry.

Lessard, P. A., Li, X., Broomhead, J. N., Parker, M. H., Bailey, C. & Raab, R. M. (2021). Heliyon, 7(8), e07696.

Carbohydrases are often incorporated into livestock feed as digestive aids to improve animal performance. AC1 is a thermostable carbohydrase with β-1,4-glucanase, endo-cellulase, and cellobiohydrolase activity. AC1 has been expressed in corn, where it accumulates in the grain for easy inclusion in animal diets. Incorporating the enzyme in high-fiber diets (corn-soy supplemented with distiller's dry grains with solubles) that were fed to 5-week-old pigs led to a trend of decreasing viscosity of the digesta as the dose of the enzyme increased (P = 0.092). AC1 also tended to increase the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of neutral detergent fiber (P = 0.076). When fed diets containing 2126 U/kg AC1, pigs experienced no adverse effects in terms of performance metrics (body weights, average daily gain, average daily feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio), hematology, blood chemistry or general health when compared to pigs fed a control diet that lacked AC1.

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Induced mutations in tomato SlExp1 alter cell wall metabolism and delay fruit softening.

Minoia, S., Boualem, A., Marcel, F., Troadec, C., Quemener, B., Cellini, F., Petrozza, A., Vigouroux, J., Lahaye, M., Carriero, F. & Bendahmane, A. (2016). Plant Science, 242, 195-202.

Fruit ripening and softening are key traits for many fleshy fruit. Since cell walls play a key role in the softening process, expansins have been investigated to control fruit over ripening and deterioration. In tomato, expression of Expansin 1 gene, SlExp1, during fruit ripening was associated with fruit softening. To engineer tomato plants with long shelf life, we screened for mutant plants impaired in SlExp1 function. Characterization of two induced mutations, Slexp1-6_W211S, and Slexp1-7_Q213Stop, showed that SlExp1 loss of function leads to enhanced fruit firmness and delayed fruit ripening. Analysis of cell wall polysaccharide composition of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant pointed out significant differences for uronic acid, neutral sugar and total sugar contents. Hemicelluloses chemistry analysis by endo-β-1,4-D-glucanase hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF spectrometry revealed that xyloglucan structures were affected in the fruit pericarp of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant. Altogether, these results demonstrated that SlExp1 loss of function mutants yield firmer and late ripening fruits through modification of hemicellulose structure. These SlExp1 mutants represent good tools for breeding long shelf life tomato lines with contrasted fruit texture as well as for the understanding of the cell wall polysaccharide assembly dynamics in fleshy fruits.

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Regulation of the cellulose synthase-like gene family by light in the maize mesocotyl.

Van Erp, H. & Walton, J. D. (2009). Planta, 229(4), 885-897.

The cellulose synthase-like (ZmCSL) gene family of maize was annotated and its expression studied in the maize mesocotyl. A total of 28 full-length CSL genes and another 13 partial sequences were annotated; four are predicted to be pseudogenes. Maize has all of the CSL subfamilies that are present in rice, but the CSLC subfamily is expanded from 6 in rice to 12 in maize, and the CSLH subfamily might be reduced from 3 to 1. Unlike rice, maize has a gene in the CSLG subfamily, based on its sequence similarity to two genes annotated as CSLG in poplar. Light regulation of glycan synthase enzyme activities and CSL gene expression were analyzed in the mesocotyl. A Golgi-localized glucan synthase activity is reduced by ~50% 12 h after exposure to light. Β-1,4-Mannan synthase activity is reduced even more strongly (>85%), whereas Β-1,4-xylan synthase, callose synthase, and latent IDPase activity respond only slightly, if at all, to light. At least 17 of the CSL genes (42%) are expressed in the mesocotyl, of which four are up-regulated at least twofold, seven are down-regulated at least twofold, and six are not affected by light. The results contribute to our understanding of the structure of the CSL gene family in an important food and biofuel plant, show that a large percentage of the CSL genes are expressed in the specialized tissues of the mesocotyl, and demonstrate that members of the CSL gene family are differentially subject to photobiological regulation.

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Dietary fibers from mushroom sclerotia: 3. In vitro fermentability using human fecal microflora.

Wong, K. H., Wong, K. Y., Kwan, H. S. & Cheung, P. C. K. (2005). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(24), 9407-9412.

The in vitro fermentability of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, was investigated and compared with that of the cellulose control. All DF samples (0.5 g each) were fermented in vitro with a human fecal homogenate (10 mL) in a batch system (total volume, 50 mL) under strictly anaerobic conditions (using oxygen reducing enzyme and under argon atmosphere) at 37°C for 24 h. All three novel sclerotial DFs exhibited notably higher dry matter disappearance (P. tuber-regium, 8.56%; P. rhinocerus, 13.5%; and W. cocos, 53.4%) and organic matter disappearance (P. tuber-regium, 9.82%; P. rhinocerus, 14.6%; and W. cocos, 57.4%) when compared with those of the cellulose control. Nevertheless, only the W. cocos DF was remarkably degraded to produce considerable amounts of total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) (5.23 mmol/g DF on organic matter basis, with a relatively higher molar ratio of propionate) that lowered the pH of its nonfermented residue to a slightly acidic level (5.89). Variations on the in vitro fermentability among the three sclerotial DFs might mainly be attributed to their different amounts of interwoven hyphae present (different amounts of enzyme inaccessible cell wall components) as well as the possible different structural arrangement (linkage and degree of branching) of their β-glucans.

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