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Xyloglucan (Tamarind)

Xyloglucan Tamarind P-XYGLN
Product code: P-XYGLN

3 g

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Content: 3 g
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Ambient
Physical Form: Powder
Stability: > 10 years under recommended storage conditions
CAS Number: 37294-28-3
Source: Tamarind seed
Purity: ~ 95%
Viscosity: 14 dL/g
Monosaccharides (%): Xylose: Glucose: Galactose: Arabinose: Other sugars = 34: 45: 17: 2: 2
Main Chain Glycosidic Linkage: β-1,4, α-1,6 and β-1,6
Substrate For (Enzyme): endo-Cellulase, Xyloglucanase

High purity Xyloglucan (Tamarind) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.

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Novel, acidic, and cold-adapted glycoside hydrolase family 8 endo-β-1, 4-glucanase from an Antarctic lichen-associated bacterium, Lichenicola cladoniae PAMC 26568.

Kim, J., Lee, Y. M., Byeon, S. M., Gwak, J. H., Lee, J. S., Shin, D. H. & Park, H. Y. (2022). Frontiers in Microbiology, 13.

Endo-β-1,4-glucanase is a crucial glycoside hydrolase (GH) involved in the decomposition of cellulosic materials. In this study, to discover a novel cold-adapted β-1,4-d-glucan-degrading enzyme, the gene coding for an extracellular endo-β-1,4-glucanase (GluL) from Lichenicola cladoniae PAMC 26568, an Antarctic lichen (Cladonia borealis)-associated bacterium, was identified and recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The GluL gene (1044-bp) encoded a non-modular polypeptide consisting of a single catalytic GH8 domain, which shared the highest sequence identity of 55% with that of an uncharacterized protein from Gluconacetobacter takamatsuzukensis (WP_182950054). The recombinant endo-β-1,4-glucanase (rGluL: 38.0 kDa) most efficiently degraded sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) at pH 4.0 and 45°C, and showed approximately 23% of its maximum degradation activity even at 3°C. The biocatalytic activity of rGluL was noticeably enhanced by >1.3-fold in the presence of 1 mM Mn2+ or NaCl at concentrations between 0.1 and 0.5 M, whereas the enzyme was considerably downregulated by 1 mM Hg2+ and Fe2+ together with 5 mM N-bromosuccinimide and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate. rGluL is a true endo-β-1,4-glucanase, which could preferentially decompose d-cellooligosaccharides consisting of 3 to 6 d-glucose, CMC, and barley β-glucan, without other additional glycoside hydrolase activities. The specific activity (15.1 U mg–1) and kcat/Km value (6.35 mg–1 s–1mL) of rGluL toward barley β-glucan were approximately 1.8- and 2.2-fold higher, respectively, compared to its specific activity (8.3 U mg–1) and kcat/Km value (2.83 mg–1 s–1mL) toward CMC. The enzymatic hydrolysis of CMC, d-cellotetraose, and d-cellohexaose yielded primarily d-cellobiose, accompanied by d-glucose, d-cellotriose, and d-cellotetraose. However, the cleavage of d-cellopentaose by rGluL resulted in the production of only d-cellobiose and d-cellotriose. The findings of the present study imply that rGluL is a novel, acidic, and cold-adapted GH8 endo-β-1,4-glucanase with high specific activity, which can be exploited as a promising candidate in low-temperature processes including textile and food processes.

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Elucidating the role of SlXTH5 in tomato fruit softening.

Wang, D., Lu, Q., Wang, X., Ling, H. & Huang, N. (2022). Horticultural Plant Journal, In Press.

Fruit softening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is closely associated with cell wall disassembly, which is brought about through the action of a range of cell wall structure-related enzymes and other proteins such as expansins. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) (EC and/or EC has been proposed to be key player involved in xyloglucan metabolism. SlXTH5 showed the highest expression level among all SlXTHs during tomato ripening. In this study, the role of SlXTH5 involved in tomato softening was investigated in CRISPR-based knockout mutants of SlXTH5. Loss-of-function of SlXTH5 in transgenic tomato lines resulted in slightly firmer fruit pericarp, but significantly decreased their color index compared with azygous wild type (WT) control fruits. Increased paste viscosity was detected in CRISPR mutants, indicating that the activity of SlXTH5 is responsible for maintaining cell wall structural integrity. Immunocytochemistry studies were performed using the monoclonal antibody probe LM25 to examine the localization and distribution of xyloglucan in the pericarp cells of the CRISPR mutant fruits. The data indicated more xyloglucan was retained in the pericarp of CRISPR mutant fruit than in WT control fruit. This study revealed the link between SlXTH5 and xyloglucan metabolism and indicated the potential of manipulating SlXTH5 to regulate fruit softening.

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Effects of hemicelluloses on dehydrogenative polymerization of monolignols with cationic cell wall-bound peroxidase.

Lyu, Y., Suzuki, S., Nagano, H., Shigetomi, K., Tamai, Y., Tsutsumi, Y. & Uraki, Y. (2022). Carbohydrate Polymers, 301, 120305.

To elucidate the influence of polysaccharides on hardwood lignification, dehydrogenative polymerization of monolignols, coniferyl alcohol (CA) and sinapyl alcohol (SA), was attempted with recombinant cationic cell wall-bound peroxidase (rCWPO-C) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in measurement cells of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Hardwood cellulose nanofibers were anchored; hemicelluloses, xylan, partially acetylated xylan (AcXY), galactoglucomannan, and xyloglucan, and the enzymes were subsequently adsorbed onto the QCM-D sensor surface, enabling fabrication of artificial polysaccharide matrices. The largest amount of rCWPO-C is found to be adsorbed onto AcXY among all the polysaccharides, which affords the largest amount and size of spherical dehydrogenation polymers (DHPs) from both CA and SA. In contrast, no DHP and a small amount of DHPs are formed from SA and CA, respectively, by HRP catalysis in all of the polysaccharide matrices. This study demonstrates important functions of a real tree-derived peroxidase, rCWPO-C, and AcXY for hardwood lignification.

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Acetylation modification improved the physicochemical properties of xyloglucan from tamarind seeds.

Zhang, H., Zhao, T., Wu, Y., Xie, F., Xiong, Z., Song, Z., Ai, L. & Wang, G. (2022). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 223, 193-201.

Acetylation modification was conducted to improve the water-solubility and solution properties of xyloglucan from tamarind seeds (TSX). Three acetylated TSX with different degree of substitution (DS) were successfully prepared, and their structure and molecular parameters were investigated by FT-IR, NMR, and high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Further, the effects of acetylation on the thermal stability, solubility, and rheological properties of TSX were studied. Results showed that acetyl groups were mainly substituted at the O-6 position of terminal galactose with DS of 0.2, 0.47, and 0.36 for AC-2, AC-5, and AC-10, respectively. HPSEC analysis indicated that molecular weight of acetylated derivatives decreased slightly, and the solution conformation became more flexible as the DS increase. By comparing with TSX, the thermal stability, water-solubility, solution transmittance, and ζ-potential of acetylated TSX were significantly improved as the DS increase. In addition, rheological studies demonstrated that acetylation reduced the shear viscosity, but high DS of acetylation could induce the weak gelling property of TSX. In conclusion, acetylation modification could be applied to improve the physicochemical properties of TSX and promote its further application in food and pharmaceutical industries.

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Microarray-guided evaluation of the frequency, B-cell origins, and selectivity of human glycan-binding antibodies reveals new insights and novel antibodies.

Temme, J. S., Crainic, J. A., Walker, L. M., Yang, W., Tan, Z., Huang, X., & Gildersleeve, J. C. (2022). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 298(10).

The immune system produces a diverse collection of antiglycan antibodies that are critical for host defense. At present, however, we know very little about the binding properties, origins, and sequences of these antibodies because of a lack of access to a variety of defined individual antibodies. To address this challenge, we used a glycan microarray with over 800 different components to screen a panel of 516 human monoclonal antibodies that had been randomly cloned from different B-cell subsets originating from healthy human subjects. We obtained 26 antiglycan antibodies, most of which bound microbial carbohydrates. The majority of the antiglycan antibodies identified in the screen displayed selective binding for specific glycan motifs on our array and lacked polyreactivity. We found that antiglycan antibodies were about twice as likely than expected to originate from IgG+ memory B cells, whereas none were isolated from naïve, early emigrant, or immature B cells. Therefore, our results indicate that certain B-cell subsets in our panel are enriched in antiglycan antibodies, and IgG+ memory B cells may be a promising source of such antibodies. Furthermore, some of the newly identified antibodies bound glycans for which there are no reported monoclonal antibodies available, and these may be useful as research tools, diagnostics, or therapeutic agents. Overall, the results provide insight into the types and properties of antiglycan antibodies produced by the human immune system and a framework for the identification of novel antiglycan antibodies in the future.

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Duplication of horizontally acquired GH5_2 enzymes played a central role in the evolution of longhorned beetles.

Shin, N. R., Doucet, D. & Pauchet, Y. (2022). Molecular Biology and Evolution, 39(6), msac128.

The rise of functional diversity through gene duplication contributed to the adaption of organisms to various environments. Here we investigate the evolution of putative cellulases of the subfamily 2 of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5_2) in the Cerambycidae (longhorned beetles), a megadiverse assemblage of mostly xylophagous beetles. Cerambycidae originally acquired GH5_2 from a bacterial donor through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and extant species harbor multiple copies that arose from gene duplication. We ask how these digestive enzymes contributed to the ability of these beetles to feed on wood. We analyzed 113 GH5_2, including the functional characterization of 52 of them, derived from 25 species covering most subfamilies of Cerambycidae. Ancestral gene duplications led to five well-defined groups with distinct substrate specificity, allowing these beetles to break down, in addition to cellulose, polysaccharides that are abundant in plant cell walls (PCWs), namely, xyloglucan, xylan, and mannans. Resurrecting the ancestral enzyme originally acquired by HGT, we show it was a cellulase that was able to break down glucomannan and xylan. Finally, recent gene duplications further expanded the catalytic repertoire of cerambycid GH5_2, giving rise to enzymes that favor transglycosylation over hydrolysis. We suggest that HGT and gene duplication, which shaped the evolution of GH5_2, played a central role in the ability of cerambycid beetles to use a PCW-rich diet and may have contributed to their successful radiation.

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High‐level expression of xyloglucanase B from Rhizomucor miehei and its application in the preparation of partially hydrolyzed apple pomace xyloglucan.

Wang, N. N., Li, Y. X., Zhu, C. H., Yan, Q. J., Shi, R. & Jiang, Z. Q. (2022). Food Bioengineering, 1(2), 119-125.

A xyloglucanase gene (RmXEG12B) was cloned from Rhizomucor miehei CAU432 and successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. The highest xyloglucanase activity of 26,200 U/mL was achieved after 168 h high-cell-density fermentation. The optimal pH and temperature of RmXEG12B were 5.0 and 55°C, respectively. RmXEG12B showed good stability within pH of 3.0-10.0 and was stable up to 50°C. It exhibited the highest specific activity (5989.3 U/mg) towards tamarind xyloglucan. RmXEG12B hydrolyzed apple pomace xyloglucan to produce the partially hydrolyzed apple pomace xyloglucan, which demonstrated a weight average molecular weight of 1.6 × 104 Da and contained three major oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization of 7-10. This is a strategy for the comprehensive utilization of apple pomace to produce the partially hydrolyzed apple pomace xyloglucan.

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Mapping molecular recognition of β1, 3-1, 4-glucans by a surface glycan-binding protein from the human gut symbiont Bacteroides ovatus.

Correia, V. G., Trovão, F., Pinheiro, B. A., Brás, J. L., Silva, L. M., Nunes, C., Cimbra, M. A., Liu, Y., Feizi, T., Fontes, C. M. G. A., Mulloy, B., Chai, W., Carvalho, A. L. & Palma, A. S. (2021). Microbiology Spectrum, 9(3), e01826-21.

A multigene polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) encoding enzymes and surface carbohydrate (glycan)-binding proteins (SGBPs) was recently identified in prominent members of Bacteroidetes in the human gut and characterized in Bacteroides ovatus. This PUL-encoded system specifically targets mixed-linkage β1,3-1,4-glucans, a group of diet-derived carbohydrates that promote a healthy microbiota and have potential as prebiotics. The BoSGBPMLG-A protein encoded by the BACOVA_2743 gene is a SusD-like protein that plays a key role in the PUL's specificity and functionality. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of the molecular determinants underlying carbohydrate binding by BoSGBPMLG-A, combining carbohydrate microarray technology with quantitative affinity studies and a high-resolution X-ray crystallography structure of the complex of BoSGBPMLG-A with a β1,3-1,4-nonasaccharide. We demonstrate its unique binding specificity toward β1,3-1,4-gluco-oligosaccharides, with increasing binding affinities up to the octasaccharide and dependency on the number and position of β1,3 linkages. The interaction is defined by a 41-Å-long extended binding site that accommodates the oligosaccharide in a mode distinct from that of previously described bacterial β1,3-1,4-glucan-binding proteins. In addition to the shape complementarity mediated by CH-π interactions, a complex hydrogen bonding network complemented by a high number of key ordered water molecules establishes additional specific interactions with the oligosaccharide. These support the twisted conformation of the β-glucan backbone imposed by the β1,3 linkages and explain the dependency on the oligosaccharide chain length. We propose that the specificity of the PUL conferred by BoSGBPMLG-A to import long β1,3-1,4-glucan oligosaccharides to the bacterial periplasm allows Bacteroidetes to outcompete bacteria that lack this PUL for utilization of β1,3-1,4-glucans. 

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Characterisation of the enzyme transport path between shipworms and their bacterial symbionts.

Pesante, G., Sabbadin, F., Elias, L., Steele-King, C., Shipway, J. R., Dowle, A. A., Li, Y., Busse-Wicher, M., Dupree, P, Besser, K., Cragg, S. M., Bruce, N. C. & McQueen-Mason, S. J. (2021). BMC Biology, 19(1), 1-18.

Background: Shipworms are marine xylophagus bivalve molluscs, which can live on a diet solely of wood due to their ability to produce plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Bacterial carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), synthesised by endosymbionts living in specialised shipworm cells called bacteriocytes and located in the animal’s gills, play an important role in wood digestion in shipworms. However, the main site of lignocellulose digestion within these wood-boring molluscs, which contains both endogenous lignocellulolytic enzymes and prokaryotic enzymes, is the caecum, and the mechanism by which bacterial enzymes reach the distant caecum lumen has remained so far mysterious. Here, we provide a characterisation of the path through which bacterial CAZymes produced in the gills of the shipworm Lyrodus pedicellatus reach the distant caecum to contribute to the digestion of wood. Results: Through a combination of transcriptomics, proteomics, X-ray microtomography, electron microscopy studies and in vitro biochemical characterisation, we show that wood-digesting enzymes produced by symbiotic bacteria are localised not only in the gills, but also in the lumen of the food groove, a stream of mucus secreted by gill cells that carries food particles trapped by filter feeding to the mouth. Bacterial CAZymes are also present in the crystalline style and in the caecum of their shipworm host, suggesting a unique pathway by which enzymes involved in a symbiotic interaction are transported to their site of action. Finally, we characterise in vitro four new bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase identified in our transcriptomic and proteomic analyses as some of the major bacterial enzymes involved in this unusual biological system. Conclusions: Based on our data, we propose that bacteria and their enzymes are transported from the gills along the food groove to the shipworm’s mouth and digestive tract, where they aid in wood digestion.

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In vitro fermentation of onion cell walls and model polysaccharides using human faecal inoculum: effects of molecular interactions and cell wall architecture.

Lu, S., Flanagan, B. M., Mikkelsen, D., Williams, B. A., & Gidley, M. J. (2021). Food Hydrocolloids, 124, 107257.

Plant primary cell walls provide a primary dietary source of fermentable carbohydrates. They are typically based on a cellulose network cross-linked by xyloglucan, with pectin incorporated, but the relative contributions of components and their architectural arrangement to gut fermentation performance is incompletely understood. Onion cell walls (OCW) were isolated and used as a primary cell wall model. OCW, models for their main constituents (xyloglucan, pectin, cellulose) and the physical mixture of these model polysaccharides (Mix) were fermented in vitro up to 48h, using a human faecal inoculum. Each constituent in Mix was fermented to a similar extent as single-component substrates, with comparable gas and short chain fatty acid (SCFAs) production. The microbiota responded differently and specifically to each polysaccharide, with the microbial community for Mix reflecting both pectin and xyloglucan. OCW was degraded more slowly at the early stage of fermentation, with less SCFAs produced compared with Mix, though a more extensive fermentation occurred by the end of fermentation, due to the slow but essentially complete fermentation of cellulose in OCW but not Mix. Microbiota shifts for OCW were different to those for Mix. The architecture of OCW as well as polysaccharide composition determined both fermentation outcomes and microbial community shifts.

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High level expression of a xyloglucanase from Rhizomucor miehei in Pichia pastoris for production of xyloglucan oligosaccharides and its application in yoghurt.

Wang, N. N., Li, Y. X., Miao, M., Zhu, C. H., Yan, Q. J. & Jiang, Z. Q. (2021). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 190, 845-852.

The xyloglucanase gene (RmXEG12A) from Rhizomucor miehei CAU432 was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. The highest xyloglucanase activity of 25,700 U mL−1 was secreted using high cell density fermentation. RmXEG12A was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 65°C, respectively. The xyloglucanase exhibited the highest specific activity towards xyloglucan (7915.5 U mg−1). RmXEG12A was subjected to hydrolyze tamarind powder to produce xyloglucan oligosaccharides with the degree of polymerization (DP) 7-9. The hydrolysis ratio of xyloglucan in tamarind powder was 89.8%. Moreover, xyloglucan oligosaccharides (2.0%, w/w) improved the water holding capacity (WHC) of yoghurt by 1.1-fold and promoted the growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophiles by 2.3 and 1.6-fold, respectively. Therefore, a suitable xyloglucanase for tamarind powder hydrolysis was expressed in P. pastoris at high level and xyloglucan oligosaccharides improved the quality of yoghurt.

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Influences of polysaccharides in wood cell walls on lignification in vitro.

Lyu, Y., Matsumoto, T., Taira, S., Ijiri, K., Yoshinaga, A., Shigetomi, K. & Uraki, Y. (2021). Cellulose, 28(15), 9907-9917.

To elucidate the effects of polysaccharides, cellulose, water-soluble xylan (WXY), galactoglucomannan (GGM) and xyloglucan (XG) on lignification in vitro, artificial polysaccharide matrices were prepared from a combination of cellulose and hemicelluloses, and dehydrogenation polymer (DHP) was synthesized from coniferyl alcohol in the presence of the matrices by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Prior to DHP formation, interactions between cellulose and hemicelluloses were investigated with equilibrium adsorptions of the hemicelluloses on bacterial cellulose (BC) films and with quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D) to determine their adsorption on cellulose nanofibers (CNFs). Both analyses showed that the order of adsorption amounts was XG > GGM > WXY. The QCM-D experiments also suggested that HRP strongly interacted with cellulose rather than hemicelluloses. The amount of DHP generated in the XG-BC matrix was the largest among the prepared matrices, and XG facilitated the formation of 5–5′ interunitary linkages. Thus, XG must be involved in the lignification in primary wood cell wall. On the other hand, the amount of DHP in the GGM-BC matrix was the smallest, indicating that GGM hampered lignification.

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Structural and functional analysis of a multimodular hyperthermostable xylanase-glucuronoyl esterase from Caldicellulosiruptor kristjansonii.

Krska, D., Mazurkewich, S., Brown, H. A., Theibich, Y., Poulsen, J. C. N., Morris, A. L., Koropatkin, N. M., Leggio, L. L. & Larsbrink, J. (2021). Biochemistry, 60(27), 2206-2220.

The hyperthermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor kristjansonii encodes an unusual enzyme, CkXyn10C-GE15A, which incorporates two catalytic domains, a xylanase and a glucuronoyl esterase, and five carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) from families 9 and 22. The xylanase and glucuronoyl esterase catalytic domains were recently biochemically characterized, as was the ability of the individual CBMs to bind insoluble polysaccharides. Here, we further probed the abilities of the different CBMs from CkXyn10C-GE15A to bind to soluble poly- and oligosaccharides using affinity gel electrophoresis, isothermal titration calorimetry, and differential scanning fluorimetry. The results revealed additional binding properties of the proteins compared to the former studies on insoluble polysaccharides. Collectively, the results show that all five CBMs have their own distinct binding preferences and appear to complement each other and the catalytic domains in targeting complex cell wall polysaccharides. Additionally, through renewed efforts, we have achieved partial structural characterization of this complex multidomain protein. We have determined the structures of the third CBM9 domain (CBM9.3) and the glucuronoyl esterase (GE15A) by X-ray crystallography. CBM9.3 is the second CBM9 structure determined to date and was shown to bind oligosaccharide ligands at the same site but in a different binding mode compared to that of the previously determined CBM9 structure from Thermotoga maritima. GE15A represents a unique intermediate between reported fungal and bacterial glucuronoyl esterase structures as it lacks two inserted loop regions typical of bacterial enzymes and a third loop has an atypical structure. We also report small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of the N-terminal CBM22.1–CBM22.2–Xyn10C construct, indicating a compact arrangement at room temperature.

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Poaceae-specific cell wall-derived oligosaccharides activate plant immunity via OsCERK1 during Magnaporthe oryzae infection in rice.

Yang, C., Liu, R., Pang, J., Ren, B., Zhou, H., Wang, G., wang, E. & Liu, J. (2021). Nature Communications, 12(1), 1-13.

Many phytopathogens secrete cell wall degradation enzymes (CWDEs) to damage host cells and facilitate colonization. As the major components of the plant cell wall, cellulose and hemicellulose are the targets of CWDEs. Damaged plant cells often release damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to trigger plant immune responses. Here, we establish that the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae secretes the endoglucanases MoCel12A and MoCel12B during infection of rice (Oryza sativa). These endoglucanases target hemicellulose of the rice cell wall and release two specific oligosaccharides, namely the trisaccharide 31-β-D-Cellobiosyl-glucose and the tetrasaccharide 31-β-D-Cellotriosyl-glucose. 31-β-D-Cellobiosyl-glucose and 31-β-D-Cellotriosyl-glucose bind the immune receptor OsCERK1 but not the chitin binding protein OsCEBiP. However, they induce the dimerization of OsCERK1 and OsCEBiP. In addition, these Poaceae cell wall-specific oligosaccharides trigger a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is largely compromised in oscerk1 and oscebip mutants. We conclude that 31-β-D-Cellobiosyl-glucose and 31-β-D-Cellotriosyl-glucose are specific DAMPs released from the hemicellulose of rice cell wall, which are perceived by an OsCERK1 and OsCEBiP immune complex during M. oryzae infection in rice.

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Prospection of Fungal Lignocellulolytic Enzymes Produced from Jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril) and Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Seeds: Scaling for Bioreactor and Saccharification Profile of Sugarcane Bagasse.

Contato, A. G., de Oliveira, T. B., Aranha, G. M., de Freitas, E. N., Vici, A. C., Nogueira, K. M. V., de Lucas, R. C., de Almeida Scarcella, A. S., Buckeridge, M. S., Silva, R. N. & Polizeli, M. D. L. T. D. M. (2021). Microorganisms, 9(3), 533.

The lignocellulosic biomass comprises three main components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Degradation and conversion of these three components are attractive to biotechnology. This study aimed to prospect fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes with potential industrial applications, produced through a temporal analysis using Hymenaea courbaril and Tamarindus indica seeds as carbon sources. α-L-arabinofuranosidase, acetyl xylan esterase, endo-1,5-α-L-arabinanase, β-D-galactosidase, β-D-glucosidase, β-glucanase, β-D-xylosidase, cellobiohydrolase, endoglucanase, lichenase, mannanase, polygalacturonase, endo-1,4-β-xylanase, and xyloglucanase activities were determined. The enzymes were produced for eight filamentous fungi: Aspergillus fumigatus, Trametes hirsuta, Lasiodiplodia sp., two strains of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Neocosmospora perseae, Fusarium sp. and Thermothelomyces thermophilus. The best producers concerning enzymatic activity were T. thermophilus and T. longibrachiatum. The optimal conditions for enzyme production were the media supplemented with tamarind seeds, under agitation, for 72 h. This analysis was essential to demonstrate that cultivation conditions, static and under agitation, exert strong influences on the production of several enzymes produced by different fungi. The kind of sugarcane, pretreatment used, microorganisms, and carbon sources proved limiting sugar profile factors.

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Interaction of cellulose and xyloglucan influences in vitro fermentation outcomes.

Lu, S., Mikkelsen, D., Flanagan, B. M., Williams, B. A. & Gidley, M. J. (2021). Carbohydrate Polymers, 258, 117698.

To investigate the effects of interactions between cellulose and xyloglucan (XG) on in vitro fermentation, a composite of bacterial cellulose (BC) incorporating XG during pellicle formation (BCXG), was fermented using a human faecal inoculum, and compared with BC, XG and a mixture (BC&XG) physically blended to have the same BC to XG ratio of BCXG. Compared to individual polysaccharides, the fermentation extent of BC and fermentation rate of XG were promoted in BC&XG. XG embedded in the BCXG composite was degraded less than in BC&XG, while more cellulose in BCXG was fermented than in BC&XG. This combination explains the similar amount of short chain fatty acid production noted throughout the fermentation process for BCXG and BC&XG. Microbial community dynamics for each substrate were consistent with the corresponding polysaccharide degradation. Thus, interactions between cellulose and XG are shown to influence their fermentability in multiple ways.

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Four cellulose-active lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases from Cellulomonas species.

Li, J., Solhi, L., Goddard-Borger, E. D., Mathieu, Y., Wakarchuk, W. W., Withers, S. G. & Brumer, H. (2021). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 14(1), 1-19.

Background: The discovery of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) has fundamentally changed our understanding of microbial lignocellulose degradation. Cellulomonas bacteria have a rich history of study due to their ability to degrade recalcitrant cellulose, yet little is known about the predicted LPMOs that they encode from Auxiliary Activity Family 10 (AA10). Results: Here, we present the comprehensive biochemical characterization of three AA10 LPMOs from Cellulomonas flavigena (CflaLPMO10A, CflaLPMO10B, and CflaLPMO10C) and one LPMO from Cellulomonas fimi (CfiLPMO10). We demonstrate that these four enzymes oxidize insoluble cellulose with C1 regioselectivity and show a preference for substrates with high surface area. In addition, CflaLPMO10B, CflaLPMO10C, and CfiLPMO10 exhibit limited capacity to perform mixed C1/C4 regioselective oxidative cleavage. Thermostability analysis indicates that these LPMOs can refold spontaneously following denaturation dependent on the presence of copper coordination. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed substrate-specific surface and structural morphological changes following LPMO action on Avicel and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC). Further, we demonstrate that the LPMOs encoded by Cellulomonas flavigena exhibit synergy in cellulose degradation, which is due in part to decreased autoinactivation. Conclusions: Together, these results advance understanding of the cellulose utilization machinery of historically important Cellulomonas species beyond hydrolytic enzymes to include lytic cleavage. This work also contributes to the broader mapping of enzyme activity in Auxiliary Activity Family 10 and provides new biocatalysts for potential applications in biomass modification.

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Formation of Cellulose-Based Composites with Hemicelluloses and Pectins Using Komagataeibacter Fermentation.

Mikkelsen, D., Lopez-Sanchez, P., Wang, D. & Gidley, M. J. (2020). The Plant Cell Wall, 73-87.

Komagataeibacter xylinussynthesizes cellulose in an analogous fashion to plants. Through fermentation of K. xylinus in media containing cell wall polysaccharides from the hemicellulose and/or pectin families, composites with cellulose can be produced. These serve as general models for the assembly, structure, and properties of plant cell walls. By studying structure/property relationships of cellulose composites, the effects of defined hemicellulose and/or pectin polysaccharide structures can be investigated. The macroscopic nature of the composites also allows composite mechanical properties to be characterized. The method for producing cellulose-based composites involves reviving and then culturing K. xylinu in the presence of desired hemicelluloses and/or pectins. Different conditions are required for construction of hemicellulose- and pectin-containing composites. Fermentation results in a floating mat or pellicle of cellulose-based composite that can be recovered, washed, and then studied under hydrated conditions without any need for intermediate drying.

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Configuration of active site segments in lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases steers oxidative xyloglucan degradation.

Sun, P., Laurent, C. V., Scheiblbrandner, S., Frommhagen, M., Kouzounis, D., Sanders, M. G., van Berkel, W. J. H., Ludwig, R. & Kabel, M. A. (2020). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 13, 1-19.

This study investigated pilot-scale production of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) and fermentable sugars from Miscanthus using steam explosion (SE) pretreatment. SE conditions (200°C; 15 bar; 10 min) led to XOS yields up to 52 % (w/w of initial xylan) in the hydrolysate. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated that the solubilised XOS contained bound acetyl- and hydroxycinnamate residues, physicochemical properties known for high prebiotic effects and anti-oxidant activity in nutraceutical foods. Enzymatic hydrolysis of XOS-rich hydrolysate with commercial endo-xylanases resulted in xylobiose yields of 380 to 500 g/kg of initial xylan in the biomass after only 4 h, equivalent to ~74 to 90 % conversion of XOS into xylobiose. Fermentable glucose yields from enzymatic hydrolysis of solid residues were 8 to 9-fold higher than for untreated material. In view of an integrated biorefinery, we demonstrate the potential for efficient utilisation of Miscanthus for the production of renewable sources, including biochemicals and biofuels.

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In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of crisphead lettuce: Changes in bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential.

Ketnawa, S., Suwannachot, J. & Ogawa, Y. (2020). Food Chemistry, 311, 125885.

In this study, the potential health benefits of crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after digestion were represented by the recovery, bioaccessibility, and change of bioactive compounds including total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC), and bioactivities [in vitro antioxidant activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal ion chelating activity (MIC)]. The release of bioactive compounds as well as bioactivities increased during gastric and intestinal digestion for 1 h and subsequently decreased when digestion was completed. The bioaccessibility of TPC and TFC at after digestion was 56–73 and 75–79%, respectively. Among all bioactivities, crisphead lettuce showed a residual activity of ABTS (61–95%) followed by FRAP (70–86%), DPPH (24–52%) and MIC (32–73%) during the digestion. Our study suggested that crisphead lettuce maintains stability in both bioactive compounds and bioactivities during the digestion.

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