Galactan (Potato)

Content: 3 g
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Ambient
Physical Form: Powder
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
CAS Number: 9037-55-2
Source: Potato fiber
Purity: > 85%
Monosaccharides (%): Galactose: Arabinose: Rhamnose: Galacturonic acid = 87: 3: 4: 6
Main Chain Glycosidic Linkage: β-1,4
Treatment: Acid Hydrolysis
Substrate For (Enzyme): endo-1,4-β-Galactanase

Galactan (Potato) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis. 

Arabinofuranosidase treated potato pectic galactan.

For more related polysaccharides products, see our list of carbohydrates.

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Publications
Publication

Ginseng-derived type I rhamnogalacturonan polysaccharide binds to galectin-8 and antagonizes its function.

Zheng, Y., Si, Y., Xu, X., Gu, H., He, Z., Zhao, Z., Feng, Z., Su, J., Mayo, K. H., Zhou, Y. & Tai, G. (2023). Journal of Ginseng Research, In Press.

Background: Panax ginseng Meyer polysaccharides exhibit various biological functions, like antagonizing galectin-3-mediated cell adhesion and migration. Galectin-8 (Gal-8), with its linker-joined N- and C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs), is also crucial to these biological processes, and thus plays a role in various pathological disorders. Yet the effect of ginseng-derived polysaccharides in modulating Gal-8 function has remained unclear. Methods: P. ginseng-derived pectin was chromatographically isolated and enzymatically digested to obtain a series of polysaccharides. Biolayer Interferometry (BLI) quantified their binding affinity to Gal-8, and their inhibitory effects on Gal-8 was assessed by hemagglutination, cell migration and T-cell apoptosis. Results: Our ginseng-derived pectin polysaccharides consist mostly of rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) and homogalacturonan (HG). BLI shows that Gal-8 binding rests primarily in RG-I and its β-1,4-galactan side chains, with sub-micromolar KD values. Both N- and C-terminal Gal-8 CRDs bind RG-I, with binding correlated with Gal-8-mediated function. Conclusion: P. ginseng RG-I pectin β-1,4-galactan side chains are crucial to binding Gal-8 and antagonizing its function. This study enhances our understanding of galectin-sugar interactions, information that may be used in the development of pharmaceutical agents targeting Gal-8.

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The model polysaccharide potato galactan is actually a mixture of different polysaccharides.

Feng, Z., Lin, Z., Tang, H., Geng, J., Hu, Y., Mayo, K. H., Tai, G. & Zhou, Y. (2023). Carbohydrate Polymers, 313, 120889.

Commercially-supplied potato galactan (PG) is widely used as a model polysaccharide in various bioactivity studies. However, results using this galactan are not always consistent with the stated composition. Here, we assessed its composition by fractionating this commercial PG and purified its primary components: PG-A, PG-B and PG-Cp with weight-averaged molecular weights of 430, 93, and 11.3 kDa, respectively. PG-Cp consists of free β-1,4-galactan chains, whereas PG-A and PG-B are type I rhamnogalacturonans with long β-1,4-galactan side chains of up to 80 Gal residues and short β-1,4-galactan side chains of 0 to 3 Gal residues that display a “trees in lawn” pattern. Structures of these polysaccharides correlate well with their activities in terms of galectin-3 binding and gut bacterial growth assays. Our study clarifies the confusion related to commercial PG, with purified fractions serving as better model polysaccharides in bioactivity investigations.

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The Ability of Some Polysaccharides to Disaggregate Lysozyme Amyloid Fibrils and Renature the Protein.

Makshakova, O., Bogdanova, L., Faizullin, D., Khaibrakhmanova, D., Ziganshina, S., Ermakova, E., Zuev, Y. & Sedov, I. (2023). Pharmaceutics, 15(2), 624.

The deposition of proteins in the form of insoluble amyloid fibril aggregates is linked to a range of diseases. The supramolecular architecture of such deposits is governed by the propagation of β-strands in the direction of protofilament growth. In the present study, we analyze the structural changes of hen egg-white lysozyme fibrils upon their interactions with a range of polysaccharides, using AFM and FTIR spectroscopy. Linear anionic polysaccharides, such as κ-carrageenan and sodium alginate, are shown to be capable to disaggregate protofilaments with eventual protein renaturation. The results help to understand the mechanism of amyloid disaggregation and create a platform for both the development of new therapeutic agents for amyloidose treatment, and the design of novel functional protein–polysaccharide complex-based nanomaterials.

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Microarray-guided evaluation of the frequency, B-cell origins, and selectivity of human glycan-binding antibodies reveals new insights and novel antibodies.

Temme, J. S., Crainic, J. A., Walker, L. M., Yang, W., Tan, Z., Huang, X., & Gildersleeve, J. C. (2022). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 298(10).

The immune system produces a diverse collection of antiglycan antibodies that are critical for host defense. At present, however, we know very little about the binding properties, origins, and sequences of these antibodies because of a lack of access to a variety of defined individual antibodies. To address this challenge, we used a glycan microarray with over 800 different components to screen a panel of 516 human monoclonal antibodies that had been randomly cloned from different B-cell subsets originating from healthy human subjects. We obtained 26 antiglycan antibodies, most of which bound microbial carbohydrates. The majority of the antiglycan antibodies identified in the screen displayed selective binding for specific glycan motifs on our array and lacked polyreactivity. We found that antiglycan antibodies were about twice as likely than expected to originate from IgG+ memory B cells, whereas none were isolated from naïve, early emigrant, or immature B cells. Therefore, our results indicate that certain B-cell subsets in our panel are enriched in antiglycan antibodies, and IgG+ memory B cells may be a promising source of such antibodies. Furthermore, some of the newly identified antibodies bound glycans for which there are no reported monoclonal antibodies available, and these may be useful as research tools, diagnostics, or therapeutic agents. Overall, the results provide insight into the types and properties of antiglycan antibodies produced by the human immune system and a framework for the identification of novel antiglycan antibodies in the future.

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Characterisation of the enzyme transport path between shipworms and their bacterial symbionts.

Pesante, G., Sabbadin, F., Elias, L., Steele-King, C., Shipway, J. R., Dowle, A. A., Li, Y., Busse-Wicher, M., Dupree, P, Besser, K., Cragg, S. M., Bruce, N. C. & McQueen-Mason, S. J. (2021). BMC Biology, 19(1), 1-18.

Background: Shipworms are marine xylophagus bivalve molluscs, which can live on a diet solely of wood due to their ability to produce plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Bacterial carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), synthesised by endosymbionts living in specialised shipworm cells called bacteriocytes and located in the animal’s gills, play an important role in wood digestion in shipworms. However, the main site of lignocellulose digestion within these wood-boring molluscs, which contains both endogenous lignocellulolytic enzymes and prokaryotic enzymes, is the caecum, and the mechanism by which bacterial enzymes reach the distant caecum lumen has remained so far mysterious. Here, we provide a characterisation of the path through which bacterial CAZymes produced in the gills of the shipworm Lyrodus pedicellatus reach the distant caecum to contribute to the digestion of wood. Results: Through a combination of transcriptomics, proteomics, X-ray microtomography, electron microscopy studies and in vitro biochemical characterisation, we show that wood-digesting enzymes produced by symbiotic bacteria are localised not only in the gills, but also in the lumen of the food groove, a stream of mucus secreted by gill cells that carries food particles trapped by filter feeding to the mouth. Bacterial CAZymes are also present in the crystalline style and in the caecum of their shipworm host, suggesting a unique pathway by which enzymes involved in a symbiotic interaction are transported to their site of action. Finally, we characterise in vitro four new bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase identified in our transcriptomic and proteomic analyses as some of the major bacterial enzymes involved in this unusual biological system. Conclusions: Based on our data, we propose that bacteria and their enzymes are transported from the gills along the food groove to the shipworm’s mouth and digestive tract, where they aid in wood digestion.

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Glycoside hydrolase family 2 exo-β-1, 6-galactosidase LpGal2 from Lactobacillus plantarum: Cloning, expression, and enzymatic characterization.

Zhang, X., Yu, G., Leng, J., Zhang, H., Zhou, Y., Yuan, Y. & Gao, J. (2021). Process Biochemistry, 102, 269-274.

Lactobacillus plantarum is a useful microorganism that metabolizes galactose-containing polysaccharides. Genome analysis has shown that L. plantarum contains four β-galactosidase-related genes. Here, we cloned the β-galactosidase gene that encodes the glycoside hydrolase family 2 (GH2) enzyme LpGal2. Recombinant LpGal2 (rLpGal2, 72 kDa) is a homodimer with maximal enzymatic activity at pH 7.0 and 50°C. Under these conditions, rLpGal2 hydrolyzes p-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (pNPβGal) with a specific activity of 2.16 × 10−3 U/mg and substrate specificity for β-1,6-galactobiose to produce D-Galactose. In addition, rLpGal2 can also hydrolyze β-1,6-galactan to D-Galactose, whereas other galactose-containing oligosaccharides and polysaccharides tested could not be hydrolyzed. This finding demonstrates that LpGal2 functions as an exo-β-1,6-galactosidase with narrow substrate specificity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a β-galactosidase derived from L. plantarum with exo-β-1,6-galactosidase activity that has potential application for structure analysis of polysaccharides.

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Quality evaluation of Salvia miltiorrhiza from different geographical origins in China based on qualitative and quantitative saccharide mapping and chemometrics.

Zhu, B. J., Yan, Z. Y., Hong, L., Li, S. P. & Zhao, J. (2020). Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 191, 113583.

Comparison of Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharides (SMPs) from different geographical origins in China (Henan, Hebei, Shandong, Sichuan, Shaanxi) was performed using high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID), saccharide mapping based on polysaccharide analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) and combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Based on the results of HPSEC-MALLS/RI, the relative content of SMPs showed a significant difference between different geographical origins, however, the molecular weight of SMPs showed almost no significance. SMPs can be discriminated as five regions after PACE coupled with OPLS-DA models analysis of endo-1,5-α-arabinanase hydrolysates. Moreover, all the PACE fingerprint indicated that 1,4-β-D-Galp, 1,5-α-Araf, 1,4-α-D-GalAp and 1,4-β-D-Glcp linkages existed in SMPs.

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Polysaccharide galactan Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation but protects Pre-formed biofilms from antibiotics.

Grishin, A. V. & Karyagina, A. S. (2019). Biochemistry (Moscow), 84(5), 509-519.

Microorganisms residing within a biofilm become more tolerant to antibiotics and other types of adverse impact, and biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria is an important problem of current medicine. Polysaccharides that prevent biofilm formation are among the promising candidates to help tackle this problem. Earlier we demonstrated the ability of a potato polysaccharide galactan to inhibit biofilm formation by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. Here we investigate the effect of potato galactan on P. aeruginosa biofilms in more detail. Microscopic analysis indicated that the galactan did not interfere with the adhesion of bacterial cells to the substrate but prevented the build-up of bacterial biomass. Moreover, the galactan not only inhibited biofilm formation, but partially destroyed pre-formed biofilms. Presumably, this activity of the galactan was due to the excessive aggregation of bacterial cells, which prohibited the formation and maintenance of proper biofilm architecture, or due to some other mechanisms of biofilm structure remodeling. This led to an unexpected effect, i.e., P. aeruginosa biofilms treated with an antibiotic and the galactan retained more viable bacterial cells compared to biofilms treated with the antibiotic alone. Galactan is the first polysaccharide demonstrated to exert such effect on bacterial biofilms.

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Selective effects of ginseng pectins on galectin-3-mediated T cell activation and apoptosis.

Xue, H., Zhao, Z., Lin, Z., Geng, J., Guan, Y., Song, C., Zhou, Y. & Tai, G. (2019). Carbohydrate Polymers, 219, 121-129.

Galectin-3 (Gal-3) can induce T-cell activation and apoptosis and plays a role in tumor immune tolerance. Here, we demonstrate that ginseng pectins selectively inhibit Gal-3-induced T-cell apoptosis, while not affecting T-cell activation. This finding stands in contrast to that from the use of modified citrus pectin (MCP) and potato galactan (P-galactan) that inhibit both. Whereas PKC/ERK and ROS/ERK pathways are involved in both T-cell activation and apoptosis, the Ras/PI3K/Akt pathway is unique to T-cell activation. Ginseng pectins selectively inhibit the ROS/ERK pathway. Using the Sarcomar-180 mouse model in which Gal-3 expression is increased, we found that ginseng pectins (but not MCP or P-galactan) significantly promote T-cell proliferation and IL-2 expression, and inhibit tumor growth by 45%. These in vivo data correlate well with selective effects of pectins on Gal-3-mediated T-cell apoptosis and activation. Our study suggests a novel approach for the development of polysaccharide-based agents that target Gal-3 function.

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A novel thermostable GH10 xylanase with activities on a wide variety of cellulosic substrates from a xylanolytic Bacillus strain exhibiting significant synergy with commercial Celluclast 1.5 L in pretreated corn stover hydrolysis.

Wang, K., Cao, R., Wang, M., Lin, Q., Zhan, R., Xu, H. & Wang, S. (2019). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 12(1), 48.

Background: Cellulose and hemicellulose are the two largest components in lignocellulosic biomass. Enzymes with activities towards cellulose and xylan have attracted great interest in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass, since they have potential in improving the hydrolytic performance and reducing the enzyme costs. Exploring glycoside hydrolases (GHs) with good thermostability and activities on xylan and cellulose would be beneficial to the industrial production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Results: A novel GH10 enzyme (XynA) identified from a xylanolytic strain Bacillus sp. KW1 was cloned and expressed. Its optimal pH and temperature were determined to be pH 6.0 and 65°C. Stability analyses revealed that XynA was stable over a broad pH range (pH 6.0-11.0) after being incubated at 25°C for 24 h. Moreover, XynA retained over 95% activity after heat treatment at 60°C for 60 h, and its half-lives at 65°C and 70°C were about 12 h and 1.5 h, respectively. More importantly, in terms of substrate specificity, XynA exhibits hydrolytic activities towards xylans, microcrystalline cellulose (filter paper and Avicel), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), cellobiose, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG). Furthermore, the addition of XynA into commercial cellulase in the hydrolysis of pretreated corn stover resulted in remarkable increases (the relative increases may up to 90%) in the release of reducing sugars. Finally, it is worth mentioning that XynA only shows high amino acid sequence identity (88%) with rXynAHJ14, a GH10 xylanase with no activity on CMC. The similarities with other characterized GH10 enzymes, including xylanases and bifunctional xylanase/cellulase enzymes, are no more than 30%. Conclusions: XynA is a novel thermostable GH10 xylanase with a wide substrate spectrum. It displays good stability in a broad range of pH and high temperatures, and exhibits activities towards xylans and a wide variety of cellulosic substrates, which are not found in other GH10 enzymes. The enzyme also has high capacity in saccharification of pretreated corn stover. These characteristics make XynA a good candidate not only for assisting cellulase in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis, but also for the research on structure-function relationship of bifunctional xylanase/cellulase.

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