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Versatile high resolution oligosaccharide microarrays for plant glycobiology and cell wall research.
Pedersen, H. L., Fangel, J. U., McCleary, B., Ruzanski, C., Rydahl, M. G., Ralet, M. C., Farkas, V., Von Schantz, L., Marcus, S. E., Andersen, M.C. F., Field, R., Ohlin, M., Knox, J. P., Clausen, M. H. & Willats, W. G. T. (2012). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(47), 39429-39438.
Microarrays are powerful tools for high throughput analysis, and hundreds or thousands of molecular interactions can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Nucleotide microarrays are well established in plant research, but carbohydrate microarrays are much less established, and one reason for this is a lack of suitable glycans with which to populate arrays. Polysaccharide microarrays are relatively easy to produce because of the ease of immobilizing large polymers noncovalently onto a variety of microarray surfaces, but they lack analytical resolution because polysaccharides often contain multiple distinct carbohydrate substructures. Microarrays of defined oligosaccharides potentially overcome this problem but are harder to produce because oligosaccharides usually require coupling prior to immobilization. We have assembled a library of well characterized plant oligosaccharides produced either by partial hydrolysis from polysaccharides or by de novo chemical synthesis. Once coupled to protein, these neoglycoconjugates are versatile reagents that can be printed as microarrays onto a variety of slide types and membranes. We show that these microarrays are suitable for the high throughput characterization of the recognition capabilities of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and other oligosaccharide-binding proteins of biological significance and also that they have potential for the characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes.Hide Abstract
Functional characterization of a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase from Schizophyllum commune that degrades non-crystalline substrates.
Østby, H., Christensen, I. A., Hennum, K., Várnai, A., Buchinger, E., Grandal, S., Courtade, G., Hegnar, O. A., Aachmann, F. L. & Eijsink, V. G. (2023). Scientific Reports, 13(1), 17373.
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are mono-copper enzymes that use O2 or H2O2 to oxidatively cleave glycosidic bonds. LPMOs are prevalent in nature, and the functional variation among these enzymes is a topic of great interest. We present the functional characterization of one of the 22 putative AA9-type LPMOs from the fungus Schizophyllum commune, ScLPMO9A. The enzyme, expressed in Escherichia coli, showed C4-oxidative cleavage of amorphous cellulose and soluble cello-oligosaccharides. Activity on xyloglucan, mixed-linkage β-glucan, and glucomannan was also observed, and product profiles differed compared to the well-studied C4-oxidizing NcLPMO9C from Neurospora crassa. While NcLPMO9C is also active on more crystalline forms of cellulose, ScLPMO9A is not. Differences between the two enzymes were also revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titration studies showing that, in contrast to NcLPMO9C, ScLPMO9A has higher affinity for linear substrates compared to branched substrates. Studies of H2O2-fueled degradation of amorphous cellulose showed that ScLPMO9A catalyzes a fast and specific peroxygenase reaction that is at least two orders of magnitude faster than the apparent monooxygenase reaction. Together, these results show that ScLPMO9A is an efficient LPMO with a broad substrate range, which, rather than acting on cellulose, has evolved to act on amorphous and soluble glucans.Hide Abstract
A conserved second sphere residue tunes copper site reactivity in lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases.
Hall, K. R., Joseph, C., Ayuso-Fernández, I., Tamhankar, A., Rieder, L., Skaali, R., Golten, O., Neese, F., Åsmund K., Røhr, A., Jannuzzi, S. A. V., DeBeer, S., Eijsink, V. G. H. & Sørlie, M. (2023). Journal of the American Chemical Society, 145(34), 18888-18903.
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are powerful monocopper enzymes that can activate strong C–H bonds through a mechanism that remains largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the role of a conserved glutamine/glutamate in the second coordination sphere. Mutation of the Gln in NcAA9C to Glu, Asp, or Asn showed that the nature and distance of the headgroup to the copper fine-tune LPMO functionality and copper reactivity. The presence of Glu or Asp close to the copper lowered the reduction potential and decreased the ratio between the reduction and reoxidation rates by up to 500-fold. All mutants showed increased enzyme inactivation, likely due to changes in the confinement of radical intermediates, and displayed changes in a protective hole-hopping pathway. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) studies gave virtually identical results for all NcAA9C variants, showing that the mutations do not directly perturb the Cu(II) ligand field. DFT calculations indicated that the higher experimental reoxidation rate observed for the Glu mutant could be reconciled if this residue is protonated. Further, for the glutamic acid form, we identified a Cu(III)-hydroxide species formed in a single step on the H2O2 splitting path. This is in contrast to the Cu(II)-hydroxide and hydroxyl intermediates, which are predicted for the WT and the unprotonated glutamate variant. These results show that this second sphere residue is a crucial determinant of the catalytic functioning of the copper-binding histidine brace and provide insights that may help in understanding LPMOs and LPMO-inspired synthetic catalysts.Hide Abstract
Heterologous expression and characterization of novel GH12 β-glucanase and AA10 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase from Streptomyces megaspores and their synergistic action in cellulose saccharification.
Qin, X., Yang, K., Zou, J., Wang, X., Tu, T., Wang, Y., Su, X., Yao, B., Huang, H. & Luo, H. (2023). Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts, 16(1), 89.
Background: The combination of cellulase and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) is known to boost enzymatic saccharification of cellulose. Although the synergy between cellulases (GH5, 6 or 7) and LPMOs (AA9) has been extensively studied, the interplay between other glycoside hydrolase and LPMO families remains poorly understood. Results: In this study, two cellulolytic enzyme-encoding genes SmBglu12A and SmLpmo10A from Streptomyces megaspores were identified and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant SmBglu12A is a non-typical endo-β-1,4-glucanase that preferentially hydrolyzed β-1,3-1,4-glucans and slightly hydrolyzed β-1,4-glucans and belongs to GH12 family. The recombinant SmLpmo10A belongs to a C1-oxidizing cellulose-active LPMO that catalyzed the oxidation of phosphoric acid swollen cellulose to produce celloaldonic acids. Moreover, individual SmBglu12A and SmLpmo10A were both active on barley β-1,3-1,4-glucan, lichenan, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, as well as Avicel. Furthermore, the combination of SmBglu12A and SmLpmo10A enhanced enzymatic saccharification of phosphoric acid swollen cellulose by improving the native and oxidized cello-oligosaccharides yields. Conclusions: These results proved for the first time that the AA10 LPMO was able to boost the catalytic efficiency of GH12 glycoside hydrolases on cellulosic substrates, providing another novel combination of glycoside hydrolase and LPMO for cellulose enzymatic saccharification.Hide Abstract
AA16 Oxidoreductases Boost Cellulose-Active AA9 Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases from Myceliophthora thermophila.
Sun, P., Huang, Z., Banerjee, S., Kadowaki, M. A., Veersma, R. J., Magri, S., Hilgers, R., Muderspach, S. J., Laurent, C. V. F. P., Ludwig, R., Cannella, D., Leggio, L. L., van Berkel, W. J. H. & Kabel, M. A. (2023). ACS Catalysis, 13, 4454-4467.
Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) classified in Auxiliary Activity (AA) families are considered indispensable as synergistic partners for cellulolytic enzymes to saccharify recalcitrant lignocellulosic plant biomass. In this study, we characterized two fungal oxidoreductases from the new AA16 family. We found that MtAA16A from Myceliophthora thermophila and AnAA16A from Aspergillus nidulans did not catalyze the oxidative cleavage of oligo- and polysaccharides. Indeed, the MtAA16A crystal structure showed a fairly LPMO-typical histidine brace active site, but the cellulose-acting LPMO-typical flat aromatic surface parallel to the histidine brace region was lacking. Further, we showed that both AA16 proteins are able to oxidize low-molecular-weight reductants to produce H2O2. The oxidase activity of the AA16s substantially boosted cellulose degradation by four AA9 LPMOs from M. thermophila (MtLPMO9s) but not by three AA9 LPMOs from Neurospora crassa (NcLPMO9s). The interplay with MtLPMO9s is explained by the H2O2-producing capability of the AA16s, which, in the presence of cellulose, allows the MtLPMO9s to optimally drive their peroxygenase activity. Replacement of MtAA16A by glucose oxidase (AnGOX) with the same H2O2-producing activity could only achieve less than 50% of the boosting effect achieved by MtAA16A, and earlier MtLPMO9B inactivation (6 h) was observed. To explain these results, we hypothesized that the delivery of AA16-produced H2O2 to the MtLPMO9s is facilitated by protein–protein interaction. Our findings provide new insights into the functions of copper-dependent enzymes and contribute to a further understanding of the interplay of oxidative enzymes within fungal systems to degrade lignocellulose.Hide Abstract
New colours for old in the blue-cheese fungus Penicillium roqueforti.
Cleere, M. M., Novodvorska, M., Geib, E., Whittaker, J., Dalton, H., Salih, N., Hewitt, S., Kokolski, M. Brock, M. & Dyer, P. S. (2024). npj Science of Food, 8(1), 3.
Penicillium roqueforti is used worldwide in the production of blue-veined cheese. The blue-green colour derives from pigmented spores formed by fungal growth. Using a combination of bioinformatics, targeted gene deletions, and heterologous gene expression we discovered that pigment formation was due to a DHN-melanin biosynthesis pathway. Systematic deletion of pathway genes altered the arising spore colour, yielding white to yellow-green to red-pink-brown phenotypes, demonstrating the potential to generate new coloured strains. There was no consistent impact on mycophenolic acid production as a result of pathway interruption although levels of roquefortine C were altered in some deletants. Importantly, levels of methyl-ketones associated with blue-cheese flavour were not impacted. UV-induced colour mutants, allowed in food production, were then generated. A range of colours were obtained and certain phenotypes were successfully mapped to pathway gene mutations. Selected colour mutants were subsequently used in cheese production and generated expected new colourations with no elevated mycotoxins, offering the exciting prospect of use in future cheese manufacture.Hide Abstract
Chemical recycling of hemp waste textiles via the ionic liquid based dry-jet-wet spinning technology.
Rissanen, M., Schlapp-Hackl, I., Sawada, D., Raiskio, S., Ojha, K., Smith, E. & Sixta, H. (2022). Textile Research Journal, 00405175221143744.
The chemical recycling of hemp fabric into high-tenacity man-made cellulose fibers was demonstrated. The fabric was laundered 25 and 50 times to mimic the wear cycles of post-consumer textile waste. Despite the launderings, the molar mass of the material was still too high for recycling via dry-jet-wet spinning. Thus, the fabrics were treated with an aqueous sulfuric acid solution to adjust the intrinsic viscosity to the targeted level of 400-500 ml/g. The acid hydrolyzed sample was dissolved in 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium acetate and man-made cellulose fibers were regenerated by dry-jet-wet spinning. The properties of hemp and regenerated fibers were determined by tensile testing, birefringence measurements, and X-ray diffraction. Regenerated fibers were spun into yarn and knitted into a fabric. The tensile properties of the yarn and the abrasion and pilling resistance of the fabric were determined. Regenerated fibers showed a higher modulus of toughness (55.9 MPa) compared with hemp fibers (28.7 MPa). The fineness and staple length uniformity of regenerated fibers resulted in a high yarn structure evenness, a yarn tenacity of 28.1 cN/tex, and an elongation at break of 7.5%. Due to the even fabric structure, the fabric from regenerated fibers showed higher abrasion resistance than the hemp fabric.Hide Abstract
Most of the rhamnogalacturonan-I from cultured Arabidopsis cell walls is covalently linked to arabinogalactan-protein.
Tan, L., Zhang, L., Black, I., Glushka, J., Urbanowicz, B., Heiss, C. & Azadi, P. (2022). Carbohydrate Polymers, 301, 120340.
To characterize a purified rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) containing both RG-I and arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) types of glycosyl residues, an AGP-specific β-1,3-galactanase that can cleave the AG backbone and release the AG sidechain was applied to this material. Carbohydrate analysis and NMR spectroscopy verified that the galactanase-released carbohydrate consists of RG-I covalently attached to the AG sidechain, proving a covalent linkage between RG-I and AGP. Size exclusion chromatography-multiangle light scattering-refractive index detection revealed that the galactanase-released RG-I has an average molecular weight of 41.6 kDa, which, together with the percentage of pectic sugars suggests an RG-I-AGP comprising one AGP covalently linked to two RG-I glycans. Carbohydrate analysis and NMR results of the RG-I-AGP, the galactanase-released glycans, and the RG lyase-released glycans demonstrated that the attached RG-I glycans are decorated with α-1,5-arabinan, β-1,4-galactan, xylose, and 4-O-Me-xylose sidechains. Our measurement suggests that the covalently linked RG-I-AGP is the major component of the traditionally prepared RG-I.Hide Abstract
Biological cellulose saccharification using a coculture of Clostridium thermocellum and Thermobrachium celere strain A9.
Nhim, S., Waeonukul, R., Uke, A., Baramee, S., Ratanakhanokchai, K., Tachaapaikoon, C., Pason, P., Liu, Ya-Jun, & Kosugi, A. (2022). Applied microbiology and Biotechnology, 106(5), 2133-2145.
An anaerobic thermophilic bacterial strain, A9 (NITE P-03545), that secretes β-glucosidase was newly isolated from wastewater sediments by screening using esculin. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain A9 had 100% identity with that of Thermobrachium celere type strain JW/YL-NZ35. The complete genome sequence of strain A9 showed 98.4% average nucleotide identity with strain JW/YL-NZ35. However, strain A9 had different physiological properties from strain JW/YL-NZ35, which cannot secrete β-glucosidases or grow on cellobiose as the sole carbon source. The key β-glucosidase gene (TcBG1) of strain A9, which belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 1, was characterized. Recombinant β-glucosidase (rTcBG1) hydrolyzed cellooligosaccharides to glucose effectively. Furthermore, rTcBG1 showed high thermostability (at 60°C for 2 days) and high glucose tolerance (IC50 = 0.75 M glucose), suggesting that rTcBG1 could be used for biological cellulose saccharification in cocultures with Clostridium thermocellum. High cellulose degradation was observed when strain A9 was cocultured with C. thermocellum in a medium containing 50 g/l crystalline cellulose, and glucose accumulation in the culture supernatant reached 35.2 g/l. In contrast, neither a monoculture of C. thermocellum nor coculture of C. thermocellum with strain JW/YL-NZ35 realized efficient cellulose degradation or high glucose accumulation. These results show that the β-glucosidase secreted by strain A9 degrades cellulose effectively in combination with C. thermocellum cellulosomes and has the potential to be used in a new biological cellulose saccharification process that does not require supplementation with β-glucosidases.Hide Abstract
Inhibition of LPMOs by Fermented Persimmon Juice.
Tokin, R., Ipsen, J. Ø., Poojary, M. M., Jensen, P. E., Olsson, L. & Johansen, K. S. (2021). Biomolecules, 11(12), 1890.
Fermented persimmon juice, Kakishibu, has traditionally been used for wood and paper protection. This protective effect stems at least partially from inhibition of microbial cellulose degrading enzymes. The inhibitory effect of Kakishibu on lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) and on a cocktail of cellulose hydrolases was studied, using three different cellulosic substrates. Dose dependent inhibition of LPMO activity by a commercial Kakishibu product was assessed for the well-characterized LPMO from Thermoascus aurantiacus TaAA9A, and the inhibitory effect was confirmed on five additional microbial LPMOs. The model tannin compound, tannic acid exhibited a similar inhibitory effect on TaAA9A as Kakishibu. It was further shown that both polyethylene glycol and tannase can alleviate the inhibitory effect of Kakishibu and tannic acid, indicating a likely mechanism of inhibition caused by unspecific tannin-protein interactions.Hide Abstract