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β-Glucan Assay Kit (Yeast and Mushroom)

Product code: K-YBGL
€284.00

100 assays per kit

Prices exclude VAT

This product is currently unavailable, please contact cs@megazyme.com.

Content: 100 assays per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: β-Glucan
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 510
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 4 to 100 μg of glucose per assay
Limit of Detection: 1 g/100 g
Total Assay Time: ~ 100 min
Application examples: Yeast preparations, mushroom preparations and other materials.
Method recognition: Novel method

The β-Glucan Assay Kit (Yeast and Mushroom) is suitable for the indirect measurement of 1,3:1,6-β-glucan in yeast and mushroom preparations containing starch, glycogen, sucrose and trehalose.

We are happy to announce a new and improved procedure!

Trehalase enzyme has now been added to the β-Glucan Assay Kit (Yeast and Mushroom), further increasing the accuracy of β-glucan measurement for certain samples. The addition of trehalase removes instances of overestimation of β-glucan content in samples containing trehalose. Please refer to the assay protocol and the FAQ here for more information.

This product replaces the Enzymatic Yeast β-Glucan Assay Kit (K-EBHLG) as the method of measurement for β-glucan measurement in yeast samples. See here for more information

See our complete list of available polysaccharide assay kits.

K-YBGL Scheme

Advantages
  • Very cost effective
  • All reagents stable for > 12 months after preparation 
  • Only enzymatic kit available 
  • Simple format 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included
Documents
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Product Performance
Publications
Megazyme publication

Measurement of β-Glucan in Mushrooms and Mycelial Products.

McCleary, B. V. & Draga, A. (2016). Journal of AOAC International, 99(2), 364-373.

A robust and reliable method has been developed for the measurement of β-glucan in mushroom and mycelial products. Total glucan (plus free glucose and glucose from sucrose) was measured using controlled acid hydrolysis with H2SO4 and the glucose released specifically was measured using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. α-Glucan (starch/glycogen) plus free glucose and glucose from sucrose were specifically measured after hydrolysis of starch/glycogen to glucose with glucoamylase and sucrose to glucose plus fructose with invertase and the glucose specifically measured with GOPOD reagent. β-Glucan was determined by the difference. Several acid and enzyme-based methods for the hydrolysis of the β-glucan were compared, and the best option was the method using H2SO4. For most samples, similar β-glucan values were obtained with both the optimized HCl and H2SO4 procedures. However, in the case of certain samples, specifically Ganoderma lucidum and Poria cocus, the H2SO4 procedure resulted in significantly higher values. Hydrolysis with 2 N trifluoroacetic acid at 120°C was found to be much less effective than either of the other two acids evaluated. Assays based totally on enzymatic hydrolysis, in general, yielded much lower values than those obtained with the H2SO4 procedure.

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Valorization of Spent Brewer’s Yeast Bioactive Components via an Optimized Ultrasonication Process.

Ciobanu, L. T., Constantinescu-Aruxandei, D., Tritean, N., Lupu, C., Negrilă, R. N., Farcasanu, I. C. & Oancea, F. (2023). Fermentation, 9(11), 952.

The increasing need for sustainable waste management and food fortification requires continuous agri-food biotechnological innovation. Spent brewer’s yeast (SBY) is a mass-produced underutilized by-product of the brewery industry and has elevated bioactive potential. The current study presents a streamlined ultrasonic SBY cell lysis method, with the main goal of bioactive compound valorization. The influence of selected ultrasonication parameters on protein release and, implicitly, on the cell disruption efficiency, was assessed. The SBY derivatives resulting from the ultrasonic cell lysis were SBY extracts (SBYEs) and cell walls (SBYCWs), which were evaluated in terms of protein content, antioxidant activity (AOA) and total polyphenol content. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to characterize SBYCWs in relation to the morphological and chemical transformations that follow ultrasonic yeast cell disruption. The optimal ultrasonication conditions of 6.25% SBY concentration, 40°C and 33.33% duty cycle (DC) ensured the most efficient lysis. The SBY derivatives with the most elevated antioxidant activity were obtained at temperatures below 60°C. SBYCWs had the highest polyphenol content and a relatively high content of β-glucan under these parameters. Optical microscopy and SEM confirmed the release of intracellular content and separation of SBYCWs.

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Effects of algal supplementation in feed to broiler breeders on transfer of nutrients and antibodies to chicks and quality of hatchlings. 

Ivarsson, E., Wall, H., Boyner, M., Cervin, G., Pavia, H. & Wattrang, E. (2023). animal, 17(12), 101020.

Breeder nutrition is an important factor for chick quality since the chick embryo relies on nutrients available in the egg for growth and development. In addition, the egg is providing the chick with important antibodies that are vital during the first weeks of life. Brown algae contains several bioactive compounds, and dietary supplementation with algal extracts have shown improved gut health and immune responses in both pigs and poultry. The aim of this study was to investigate if feeding the brown algae Saccharina latissima, intact or as an extract, to broiler breeders can affect breeder hens’ antibody responses to vaccination, egg quality and transfer of antibodies and nutrients to the egg and thereby improve the quality of newly hatched chicks. Forty-five hens and nine roosters of the parent lines of the fast-growing broiler Ross 308 were included in the experiment where hens were 31 weeks at the start. The hens were housed individually and fed one of three dietary treatments for seven weeks; (a) control, (b) addition of 0.6% algal meal or (c) addition of 0.08% algal extract. The hens were given a booster vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) 21 days after the start of experiment. During experimental days 32–42, hens were naturally mated every 5th day and hatching eggs were collected. A total of 255 chicks were hatched, and chick quality was assessed. Moreover, on chick day three, blood was collected from 48 focal chickens and total immunoglobulin Y levels and specific titres to IBV in serum were determined. The results showed that feeding the brown algae Saccharina latissima, intact or as an extract to broiler breeders did not affect egg production, egg quality, antibody responses to vaccination or transfer of antibodies from hen to chick. However, feeding intact algae significantly increased the levels of iodine and decreased the level of selenium in the eggs and resulted in a lower proportion of chicks with maximum quality score. Interestingly, algal feeding, both intact and as an extract, increased the abdominal fat pad in broiler breeders by about 17% without affecting BW. In conclusion, supplementation of broiler breeder diets with algal extract from Saccharina latissima, but not intact algal meal is a promising dietary strategy to increase the abdominal fat pad without causing any adverse effects on nutrient level in eggs or chick quality.

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Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Ostreatus) ethanolic extract protects yeast cells from hyper-and hypo-glycemic stress.

Požgajová, M., Kovár, M., Navrátilová, A., Fialková, V. & Chlebová, Z. (2024). Journal of microbiology, biotechnology and food sciences, 13(5), e9817-e9817.

Glucose is the primary source of carbon and energy. Cells possess a sophisticated mechanism for sensing glucose and responding to it appropriately. However, hyperglycemia represents the predominant risk factor for the development of diabetes. On the other hand, nutrient starvation, including glucose, may lead to the development of malnutrition. Noteworthy, glucose restriction has been associated with significantly delayed aging. Thus, controlled glucose intake is vital for healthy living. The presented study shows the effect of the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus ethanolic extract on fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoing glucose-derived stress.

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Composition, structural properties and immunomodulatory activity of several aqueous Pleurotus β-glucan-rich extracts.

Pérez-Bassart, Z., Bäuerl, C., Fabra, M. J., Martínez-Abad, A., Collado, M. C. & López-Rubio, A. (2023). International journal of biological macromolecules, 253, 127255.

In this work, aqueous extracts from six different Pleurotus species were obtained and their yield, gross composition, β-glucan content, monosaccharide profile, thermal stability, molecular weight distribution, and FT-IR were analyzed before and after purification through ethanol precipitation of the carbohydrate-rich fractions. The bioactivity (anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity) of the various fractions obtained was also analyzed in three different cell cultures and compared with a lentinan control. The trend observed after purification of the aqueous fractions was an increase in the concentration of polysaccharides (especially β-glucans), a decrease in ash, glucosamine and protein content and the elimination of low molecular weight (Mw) compounds, thus leaving in the purified samples high Mw populations with increased thermal stability. Interestingly, all these purified fractions displayed immunomodulatory capacity when tested in THP-1 macrophages and most of them also showed significant activity in HEK-hTLR4 cells, highlighting the bioactivity observed for Pleurotus ostreatus (both the extracts obtained from the whole mushroom and from the stipes). This specific species was richer in heteropolysaccharides, having moderate β-glucan content and being enriched upon purification in a high Mw fraction with good thermal stability.

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Remediation of brewery wastewater and reuse for β-glucans production by basidiomycete fungi.

Timm, T. G., Schipmann, D. B. D., Costa, T. M., & Tavares, L. B. B. (2023), In Press.

Purpose: This paper aims to assess the potential of basidiomycete fungi to mycoremediate brewery wastewater and generate a bioactive molecule (β-glucan) for industrial applications.  Methods: Six basidiomycete fungi, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lipsiense, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Lentinula edodes, and Oudemansiela canarii were grown in submerged fermentation using brewery wastewater (BW). β-glucan production, biomass concentration, reducing sugar content, and pH were evaluated and the fungus with the highest β-glucan production was subjected to a kinetic study of β-glucan production.   Results: Results showed that BW has important nutrients for fungi growth and all species had high biomass production. The highest production of β-glucans was for G. lipsiense (23.87%) and its kinetic study showed the highest production of β-glucans at 14 days and the greatest increase in biomass at 21 days. There was a correlation between the production of β-glucans and the consumption of BW substrate and a decrease in chemical oxygen demand (81% at 21 days), nitrate (<3.00 mg L-1), total phosphorus (66.326 mg L-1), and total dissolved solids (634.1 mg L-1).  Conclusion: This study highlighted a sustainable use of BW for its remediation besides fungal biomass production as a source of a high-value product for the biotechnology industry, opening prospects in the circular bioeconomy.

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Submerged cultivation of selected macro-fungi to produce mycelia rich in β-glucans and other bioactive compounds, valorizing side streams of the food industry.

Pilafidis, S., Tsouko, E., Sougleri, G., Diamantopoulou, P., Gkatzionis, K., Ioannou, Z. & Sarris, D. (2024). Carbon Resources Conversion, 7(2), 100198.

This study reports the valorization of four side-streams derived from the food industry as fermentation media to cultivate edible and medicinal macrofungi of the genera Cyclocybe sp., Ganoderma sp., Grifola sp., Hericium sp., Morchella sp., Pleurotus sp., Schizophyllum sp. and Trametes sp.. Initial screening experiments revealed the suitability of brewer’s spent grain extract (BSGE) and diluted wine distillery effluent (WDE) as the sole carbon sources for significant mycelial mass production. Subsequent fermentations investigated the effect of static and agitated conditions on biomass production, protein content and glucan content of fungal biomass. Considerably higher biomass and concentrations of total glucans, α-glucans and β-glucans were determined in macrofungi cultivated in BSGE compared to WDE. Agitated BSGE-based cultures of Schizophyllum commune resulted in the maximum biomass synthesis (27.6 g/L), while the highest total glucans of 70.8 % w/w with a β-glucan content of 57.2 % w/w were determined for G. lingzhi, when the culture was also agitated. The protein content of mycelia ranged from 12.3 up to 26.5 % w/w in the strains that were examined. ATR-FTIR spectra of the mycelia demonstrated the characteristic bands associated with fungal polysaccharides.

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Examining the Impact of Substrate Composition on the Biochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Pleurotus and Agaricus Mushrooms.

Diamantopoulou, P., Fourtaka, K., Melanouri, E. M., Dedousi, M., Diamantis, I., Gardeli, C. & Papanikolaou, S. (2023). Fermentation, 9(7), 689.

The composition of the substrate is one of the most critical factors influencing the quality as well as the nutritional value and bioactive content of mushrooms. Therefore, the effects of various substrates, such as barley and oat straw (BOS), beech wood shavings (BWS), coffee residue (CR), rice bark (RB) and wheat straw (WS, control substrate), on the biochemical properties (lipid, protein, polysaccharide, glucan, ash, and mineral content, fatty acids and tocopherols composition), total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Pleurotus mushrooms, P. ostreatus (strains AMRL 144, 150) and P. eryngii (strains AMRL 166, 173-6), cultivated in ‘bag-logs’, was examined. Proximate analysis of A. bisporus and A. subrufescens grown on two different composts (C/N ratios of 10 and 13) was conducted, too. The whole carposomes, pilei and stipes were analyzed. Results showed that BOS, RB, BWS and CR improved the antioxidant activity of Pleurotus species and their nutritional characteristics. Both pilei and stipes were rich in polysaccharides (27.51–67.37 and 22.46–39.08%, w/w, for Pleurotus and Agaricus spp., respectively), lipids (0.74–8.70 and 5.80–9.92%, w/w), proteins (6.52–37.04 and 25.40–44.26, w/w, for Pleurotus and Agaricus spp., respectively) and total phenolic compounds (10.41–70.67 and 7.85–16.89 mg gallic acid equivalent/g for Pleurotus and Agaricus spp., respectively), while they contained important quantities of unsaturated FAs of nutritional and medicinal importance. Pilei were richer in proteins, total phenolic compounds and enhanced antioxidant activity and reducing power than stipes, whereas stipes were richer in IPSs and glucans compared to the corresponding pilei. Thus, mushroom cultivation could upgrade rejected agro-industrial residues and wastes to new uses as substrates for the production of mushrooms with specific nutritional and medicinal attributes.

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Understanding the nutritional, structural, and physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of thermally-treated whole grain highland barley.

Xu, J., Ai, Y. & Zhao, Y. (2023), In Press.

This study focused on the effect of thermal processing including atmospheric boiling (AB), high-pressure boiling (HPB), and baking (B) on the nutritional and structural properties, gelatinization properties, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein of whole grain highland barley (HB). Various thermal processing affected the nutritional profile and pasting properties of HB at different extent due to the function of heat-moisture or dry heat. Starch gelatinization of AB-HB and HPB-HB was promoted compared to untreated native HB, whereas, B-HB delayed starch gelatinization. Thermal processing reduced the relative crystallinity of HB compared to untreated native HB. Processing of AB and HPB increased the content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and decreased the contents of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) compared to native HB. There was no significant difference of contents of RDS, SDS, and RS between B-HB and untreated native HB. Estimated glycemic index (eGI) of AB-HB and HPB-HB was significantly increased compared to native HB, whereas, eGI of B-HB was significantly reduced. Protein digestibility of native and B-HB was significantly lower than that of AB-HB and HPB-HB during gastric digestion. In the intestinal digestion, protein digestibility of HPB-HB was the highest, then followed by AP-HB, native HB, and B-HB. Digestion and thermal processing both influenced molecular weight of protein subunits of HB. Overall, this research provided theoretical foundation for the effect of thermal processing on whole grain HB regarding to the nutritional profile, physiochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein.

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Optimization of enzyme-microwave assisted extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Ganoderma lucidum.

Listriyani, L. W., Hudiyono, S., Rudiyono, R., Zulaeha, S. & Wibisana, A. (2023). Jurnal Bioteknologi & Biosains Indonesia (JBBI), 10(1), 43-58.

Enzyme-Microwave Assisted Extraction (EMAE) is a new process for extracting Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs). Cellic® CTec2 was chosen as an enzyme that assists in microwave extraction. The four variables involved in this study were enzyme concentration (%), enzymatic reaction time (minutes), solvent-to-solid ratio (mL/g), and microwave extraction time (minutes). This study showed that the enzyme concentration and solvent-to-solid ratio had a significant effect on the response in the range studied. Yield extraction of polysaccharides from experiments conducted at optimum conditions showed good agreement with the predictions from the model. The EMAE method showed a higher polysaccharide extraction yield than hot water extraction (HWE) method. GLPs from EMAE method had antioxidant activity of 79.47 ± 0.71% (DPPH) and 0.884 ± 0.013 mM Fe2+/L (FRAP), where these values were higher than those of the HWE method.

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Nutritional, Antioxidant and Sensory Characteristics of Bread Enriched with Wholemeal Flour from Slovakian Black Oat Varieties.

Ivanišová, E., Čech, M., Hozlár, P., Zaguła, G., Gumul, D., Grygorieva, O., Makowska, A. & Kowalczewski, P. Ł. (2023). Applied Sciences, 13(7), 4485.

This paper is a report on the nutritional composition (dry matter, total protein, fat, crude fibre, ash, β-glucan content, and selected mineral compounds), antioxidant (antioxidant activity with the DPPH method and total anthocyanin content), physical properties, and sensory profiles of prepared bread enriched with black oat flours (variety Norik and Hucul) in amounts of 3, 6, and 9%. In the enriched breads (especially with 9% addition), there was a significantly higher (p < 0.05) content of protein (~13.00%), fat (~1.35%), crude fibre (~0.55%), ash (~1.25%), and β-glucan (~0.17%) with comparison to the control bread (12.01%; 0.87%; 0.47%; 0.92%; 0.07%, respectively). Among mineral compounds, the amount of manganese (~73.00 mg/100 g), iron (~45.00 mg/100 g), and calcium (~40.00 mg/100 g) were the highest in enriched breads with 9% of oat flours. In the case of antioxidant potential and total anthocyanin content, the same tendency was observed, and the values obtained were the highest in the case of 9% addition, especially with the Hucul variety (1.98 mg TEAC/g; 21.01 µg/g). The sensory properties of the prepared enriched breads were overall evaluated as good with the best score in smell, taste, colour, and properties of bread crumb (soft and flexible) compared to the control sample. Consumption of enriched breads with black oat can also increase the assortment of bakery products in markets, which is now popular for consumers.

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Prebiotic potency from White Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus).

Setyawan, R. H., Saskiawan, I., Widhyastuti, N., Kasirah, K. & Mulyadi, M. (2023). Berita Biologi, 22(1), 51-59.

Nowadays, people are more aware of a healthy lifestyle and demand more functional food products. It leads to the raising of prebiotics and their health benefit, such as maintaining digestive tract health, decreasing heart disease and obesity risk, and improving the immune system. Since people need to diversify healthy food product, the pursuit of novel prebiotic ingredient which is potentially incorporated into functional food product needs to be done. One substance that has potency is β-glucan from white oyster mushroom or Pleurotus ostreatus. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to observe the prebiotic potency of white oyster mushroom extract. The study started by extracting β-glucan from white oyster mushroom powder by hot water extraction and subsequently proceeded into alkaline extraction. After that, β-glucan content of extracts and residue were measured by Megazyme® β-glucan assay kit and supplemented in glucose-free growth media to see whether it can be utilized by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Dad-13 and pathogen Escherichia coli InaCC B-4. After prebiotic index, prebiotic activity score, pH, and titratable acidity of each extract were compared to FOS and inulin, it showed that β-glucan from water extract of P. ostreatus has the potency to become a novel prebiotic substance. It has 37.15+1.27 g/100g β-glucan content, 1.42+0.05 prebiotic index, and 0.91+0.01 prebiotic activity score. It could be utilized by probiotic to produce organic acid, such as lactic acid as well.

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Hydrocolloids from the Mushroom Auricularia heimuer: Composition and Properties. 

Kalitukha, L., Bleha, R., Synytsya, A., Kraska, J. & Sari, M. (2023). Journal of Fungi, 9(6), 681.

The ear- to shell-shaped fruiting bodies of the genus Auricularia are widely used as food and in traditional medicinal remedies. This study was primarily focused on the composition, properties and potential use of the gel-forming extract from Auricularia heimuer. The dried extract contained 50% soluble homo- and heteropolysaccharides, which were mainly composed of mannose and glucose, acetyl residues, glucuronic acid and a small amount of xylose, galactose, glucosamine, fucose, arabinose and rhamnose. The minerals observed in the extract included approximately 70% potassium followed by calcium. Among the fatty and amino acids, 60% unsaturated fatty acids and 35% essential amino acids could be calculated. At both acidic (pH 4) and alkaline (pH 10) conditions, the thickness of the 5 mg/mL extract did not change in a temperature range from −24°C to room temperature, but decreased statistically significantly after storage at elevated temperature. At neutral pH, the studied extract demonstrated good thermal and storage stability, as well as a moisture retention capacity comparable to the high molecular weight sodium hyaluronate, a well-known moisturizer. Hydrocolloids that can be sustainably produced from Auricularia fruiting bodies offer great application potential in the food and cosmetic industries.

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Purification and Molecular Characterization of Fucoidan Isolated from Ascophyllum nodosum Brown Seaweed Grown in Ireland.

Rajauria, G., Ravindran, R., Garcia-Vaquero, M., Rai, D. K., Sweeney, T. & O’Doherty, J. (2023). Marine Drugs, 21(5), 315.

The present study investigates the molecular characteristics of fucoidan obtained from the brown Irish seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, employing hydrothermal-assisted extraction (HAE) followed by a three-step purification protocol. The dried seaweed biomass contained 100.9 mg/g of fucoidan, whereas optimised HAE conditions (solvent, 0.1N HCl; time, 62 min; temperature, 120 °C; and solid to liquid ratio, 1:30 (w/v)) yielded 417.6 mg/g of fucoidan in the crude extract. A three-step purification of the crude extract, involving solvents (ethanol, water, and calcium chloride), molecular weight cut-off filter (MWCO; 10 kDa), and solid-phase extraction (SPE), resulted in 517.1 mg/g, 562.3 mg/g, and 633.2 mg/g of fucoidan (p < 0.05), respectively. In vitro antioxidant activity, as determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays, revealed that the crude extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to the purified fractions, commercial fucoidan, and ascorbic acid standard (p < 0.05). The molecular attributes of biologically active fucoidan-rich MWCO fraction was characterised by quadruple time of flight mass spectrometry and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The electrospray ionisation mass spectra of purified fucoidan revealed quadruply ([M+4H]4+) and triply ([M+3H]3+) charged fucoidan moieties at m/z 1376 and m/z 1824, respectively, and confirmed the molecular mass 5444 Da (~5.4 kDa) from multiply charged species. The FTIR analysis of both purified fucoidan and commercial fucoidan standard exhibited O-H, C-H, and S=O stretching which are represented by bands at 3400 cm-1, 2920 cm-1, and 1220-1230 cm-1, respectively. In conclusion, the fucoidan recovered from HAE followed by a three-step purification process was highly purified; however, purification reduced the antioxidant activity compared to the crude extract.

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Evaluation of early feed access and algal extract on growth performance, organ development, gut microbiota and vaccine-induced antibody responses in broiler chickens.

Ivarsson, E., Wattrang, E., Sun, L., Cervin, G., Pavia, H. & Wall, H. (2022). Animal, 16(5), 100522.

Hatching concepts such as on-farm hatching provide an opportunity to supply newly hatched chickens with optimal nutrition that support growth and development of a healthy gut. Brown algae contain bioactive compounds, especially laminarin and fucoidan that may improve intestinal health and immune responses. This study aimed to examine the effects of early access to feed and water posthatch and feed supplementation with algal extract rich in laminarin from Laminaria digitata, on growth performance, organ and microbiota development and antibody production. A total of 432 Ross 308 chicks were allotted to 36 rearing pens in a 2 × 3 factorial design with two hatching treatments and three dietary treatments. During chick placement, half of the pens were directly provided access to feed and water (Early) while half of the pens were deprived of feed and water for 38 h (Late). The chicks were fed three different starter diets until day 6; a wheat-soybean meal-based control diet, a diet with low inclusion of algal extract (0.057%) and a diet with high inclusion of algal extract (0.114%). Feed intake and BW were registered on pen basis at placement, days 1, 6, 12, 19, 26, 33 and 40. To induce antibody responses, all chicks were vaccinated against avian pneumovirus on day 10. Three chicks per pen were selected as focal animals and used for blood sampling on days 10 and 39. On days 6, 19, and 40, two birds per pen were killed and used for organ measurement and caecal digesta sampling for gut microbiota analysis using the Illumina Miseq PE 250 sequencing platform. Results showed that algal extract did not influence gut microbiota, gut development or vaccine-induced antibody responses. However, during the first 38 h, early-fed chicks consumed on average 19.6 g of feed and gained 27% in BW, while late-fed chicks lost 9.1% in BW which lowered BW and feed intake throughout the study (P < 0.05). Late chicks also had longer relative intestine, higher relative (g/kg BW) weight of gizzard and proventriculus but lower relative bursa weight on day 6 (P < 0.05). No effects of hatching treatment on microbiota or antibody response were detected. The microbiota was affected by age, where alpha diversity increased with age. In conclusion, this study showed that early access to feed but not algal extract improved the growth performance throughout the 40-day growing period, and stimulated early bursa development.

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Safety Information
Symbol : GHS05, GHS08
Signal Word : Danger
Hazard Statements : H314, H315, H319, H334
Precautionary Statements : P260, P264, P280, P284, P301+P330+P331, P302+P352, P303+P361+P353
Safety Data Sheet
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