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β-Glucan Assay Kit (Yeast and Mushroom)

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00:05  Introduction
00:52  Principle
02:55  Reagent Preparation
05:31   Measurement of Total Glucan
05:35  (i) Solubilisation & Partial Hydrolysis
09:23  (ii) Measurement of Alpha and Beta-Glucan plus D-glucose in sucrose and free D-glucose
11:58    Measurement of Alpha-Glucan
12:03   (i) Solubilisation & Partial Hydrolysis of Alpha-Glucan
15:24   (ii) Measure of Alpha-Glucan, D-glucose in sucrose and free D-glucose
17:26   Calculations
19:48   Megazyme’s Publication

beta-Glucan Assay Kit Yeast Mushroom K-YBGL Scheme
Product code: K-YBGL

100 assays per kit

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Content: 100 assays per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: β-Glucan
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 510
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 4 to 100 μg of glucose per assay
Limit of Detection: 1 g/100 g
Total Assay Time: ~ 100 min
Application examples: Yeast preparations, mushroom preparations and other materials.
Method recognition: Novel method

β-Glucan (Yeast and Mushroom) Assay Kit is suitable for the measurement and analysis of 1,3:1,6-β-glucan and α-glucan in yeast and mushroom preparations.

New, improved procedure.

Several acid and enzyme-based methods for the hydrolysis of β-glucan were compared and the best option was the method using H2SO4. For most samples, similar β-glucan values were obtained with both the optimized HCl and H2SO4 procedures. However, in the case of certain samples, specifically Ganoderma lucidum and Poria cocus, the H2SO4 procedure resulted in significantly higher values.

McCleary, B.V. & Draga, A. (2016). Measurement of β-Glucan in Mushrooms and Mycelial Products. Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 99, No. 2.

The kit components have not been altered from previous lots.

See our complete list of available polysaccharide assay kits.

scheme-K-YBGL YBGL Megazyme

  • Very cost effective
  • All reagents stable for > 12 months after preparation 
  • Only enzymatic kit available 
  • Simple format 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Product Performance Validation Report
Megazyme publication

Measurement of β-Glucan in Mushrooms and Mycelial Products.

McCleary, B. V. & Draga, A. (2016). Journal of AOAC International, 99(2), 364-373.

A robust and reliable method has been developed for the measurement of β-glucan in mushroom and mycelial products. Total glucan (plus free glucose and glucose from sucrose) was measured using controlled acid hydrolysis with H2SO4 and the glucose released specifically was measured using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. α-Glucan (starch/glycogen) plus free glucose and glucose from sucrose were specifically measured after hydrolysis of starch/glycogen to glucose with glucoamylase and sucrose to glucose plus fructose with invertase and the glucose specifically measured with GOPOD reagent. β-Glucan was determined by the difference. Several acid and enzyme-based methods for the hydrolysis of the β-glucan were compared, and the best option was the method using H2SO4. For most samples, similar β-glucan values were obtained with both the optimized HCl and H2SO4 procedures. However, in the case of certain samples, specifically Ganoderma lucidum and Poria cocus, the H2SO4 procedure resulted in significantly higher values. Hydrolysis with 2 N trifluoroacetic acid at 120°C was found to be much less effective than either of the other two acids evaluated. Assays based totally on enzymatic hydrolysis, in general, yielded much lower values than those obtained with the H2SO4 procedure.

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Neurogenesis-dependent antidepressant-like activity of Hericium erinaceus in an animal model of depression.

Chong, P. S., Poon, C. H., Roy, J., Tsui, K. C., Lew, S. Y., Phang, M. W. L., Tan, R. J. Y., Cheng, P. G., Fung, M-L., Wong, K. H. & Lim, L. W. (2021). Chinese medicine, 16(1), 1-24.

Background: Depression is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that afects more than 264 million people worldwide. The efcacy of conventional antidepressants are barely adequate and many have side efects. Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a medicinal mushroom that has been reported to have therapeutic potential for treating depression. Methods: Animals subjected to chronic restraint stress were given 4 weeks HE treatment. Animals were then screened for anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Gene and protein assays, as well as histological analysis were per‑ formed to probe the role of neurogenesis in mediating the therapeutic efect of HE. Temozolomide was administered to validate the neurogenesis-dependent mechanism of HE. Results: The results showed that 4 weeks of HE treatment ameliorated depressive-like behaviours in mice subjected to 14 days of restraint stress. Further molecular assays demonstrated the 4-week HE treatment elevated the expres‑ sion of several neurogenesis-related genes and proteins, including doublecortin, nestin, synaptophysin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB). Increased bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells were also observed in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, indicating enhanced neurogenesis. Neurogen‑ esis blocker temozolomide completely abolished the antidepressant-like efects of HE, confrming a neurogenesisdependent mechanism. Moreover, HE induced anti-neuroinfammatory efects through reducing astrocyte activation in the hippocampus, which was also abolished with temozolomide administration. Conclusion: HE exerts antidepressant efects by promoting neurogenesis and reducing neuroinfammation through enhancing the BDNF-TrkB-CREB signalling pathway

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In Vivo Evaluation and Nutritional Quality of By-Product Subjected to Solid State-Fermentation Using Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Agaricomycetes).

Pasko, R. Z., Timm, T. G., de Lima, G. G., Helm, C., de Lima, E. A., Henriques, G. S. & Tavares, L. B. B. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, In Press.

This study evaluates the nutritional quality and its biological activity in vivo of a peach palm by-products food ingredient processed via solid-state fermentation by shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes. The group that consumed this diet had higher content of total dietary fiber, digestibility, rate of protein quality and protein efficiency. They also present a late and softer insulinemic peak with an increase in glycemia index, demonstrating amino acids limitation but with feasible matrix as complement proteins. Discrete variation on total cholesterol and triglycerides was observed with a reduction on lipid profile, attributed to its high content of dietary fibre. Lipids from within liver and stools revealed that fermented diet contained the lowest rates of fat in liver and, consequently, highest elimination compared to the other control diets. The serum lipid profile suggests a positive modulation of this diet, and, has good nutritional quality with potential to influence positively the glycaemic and lipid profiles.

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Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of Phellinus linteus mycelium.

Shin, M. R., Lee, J. H., Lee, J. A., Kim, M. J., Park, H. J., Park, B. W., Seo, S. W. & Roh, S. S. (2021). BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 21(1), 1-11.

Background: The present study extensively aimed to evaluate the underlying mechanism of the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of Phellinus linteus mycelium (PLM). Methods: To assess whether PLM influences the production of markers related to inflammation, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with PLM (50, 100, 200, and 500 μg/mL). Splenocyte, thymus, peritoneal exudate cells (PEC), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the Balb/c mice treated with Korean red ginseng or PLM once a day for 5 weeks. Moreover, all mice except normal mice were stimulated with 10% proteose peptone (PP) treated 3 days before the sacrifice and 2% starch treated 2 days before the sacrifice. Subsequently, the cytotropic substance was evaluated by using flow cytometry analysis and ELISA assay. Results: PLM200 treatment significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α dose-dependently in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PLM200 supplementation showed a significant increase in IL-2, IL-12, and interferon (IFN)-γ production and upregulated the ratio of IFN-γ (T-helper type 1, Th1) to IL-4 (T-helper type 2, Th2) in splenocytes. After PLM200 treatment, the significant elevation of CD4+CD25+, CD4+&CD8+, and CD4+CD69+ treatment were detected in thymus. Moreover, CD4+ and CD4+CD69+ in PBMC and CD69+ in PEC were also shown in a significant increase. Conclusions: Taken together, these results showed an immunomodulatory effect of PLM about an elevated INF-γ/IL4 ratio, as an index of Th1/Th2, as well as the anti-inflammatory effect in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that PLM possesses immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory effects.

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Prebiotic Effect of Maitake Extract on a Probiotic Consortium and Its Action after Microbial Fermentation on Colorectal Cell Lines.

De Giani, A., Bovio, F., Forcella, M. E., Lasagni, M., Fusi, P. & Di Gennaro, P. (2021). Foods, 10(11), 2536.

Maitake (Grifola frondosa) is a medicinal mushroom known for its peculiar biological activities due to the presence of functional components, including dietary fibers and glucans, that can improve human health through the modulation of the gut microbiota. In this paper, a Maitake ethanol/water extract was prepared and characterized through enzymatic and chemical assays. The prebiotic potential of the extract was evaluated by the growth of some probiotic strains and of a selected probiotic consortium. The results revealed the prebiotic properties due to the stimulation of the growth of the probiotic strains, also in consortium, leading to the production of SCFAs, including lactic, succinic, and valeric acid analyzed via GC-MSD. Then, their beneficials effect were employed in evaluating the vitality of three different healthy and tumoral colorectal cell lines (CCD841, CACO-2, and HT-29) and the viability rescue after co-exposure to different stressor agents and the probiotic consortium secondary metabolites. These metabolites exerted positive effects on colorectal cell lines, in particular in protection from reactive oxygen species.

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Co-encapsulation of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and Reishi medicinal mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) extract in moist calcium alginate beads.

Mirmazloum, I., Ladányi, M., Omran, M., Papp, V., Ronkainen, V. P., Pónya, Z., Papp, I., Nemedi, E. & Kiss, A. (2021). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 192, 461-470.

Probiotic L. acidophilus La-14 cells were co-encapsulated with Ganoderma lingzhi extract to prolong the viability of the cells under simulated gastrointestinal (SGI) condition and to protect the active ingredients of Reishi mushroom during the storage period. Combinations of distinctive reagents (sodium alginate, chitosan, maltose, Hydroxyethyl-cellulose (HEC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and calcium lactate) were tested. Optimal double layer Ca-alginate hydrogel beads were fabricated with significantly improved characteristics. The incorporation of maltose significantly decreases the release rate of mushrooms' phenolics, antioxidants, and β-glucan during the storage time. Significant improvement in probiotic cells viability under SGI condition has been found and confirmed by confocal laser microscopy in maltose containing double layer coated calcium alginate beads variants. The encapsulation of newly formulated prebiotic Reishi extract and probiotic L. acidophilus is creating a new potential food application for such medicinal mushrooms and natural products with unpleasant taste upon oral consumption.

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Synergic degradation of yeast β-glucan with a potential of immunostimulant and growth promotor for tiger shrimp.

Vu, N. T., Nghia, N. T. & Thao, N. H. P. (2021). Aquaculture Reports, 21, 100858.

The synergic effect using γ-irradiation in combination with hydrogen peroxide was applied for preparation of water-soluble and low molecular weight (Mw) β-glucan from yeast water-insoluble β-glucans. The structural characterization by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggested that the γ-irradiation did not cause any change in basic structure of β-glucans, except for the reduction in degree of polymerization. The suitable degradation conditions were determined at 10% β-glucans in pH~9% and 1% hydrogen peroxide. The water-soluble oligoβ-glucan with Mw~15 kDa showed a significantly effect on the increase of body weight and survival rate of Penaeus monodon shrimps challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The oral administration of 15 kDa-oligoβ-glucan with a daily dose of 1000 ppm strongly stimulated immune factors in tested shrimps such as phagocytosis activity (PA), phenoloxidase (PO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Furthermore, dietary of 1000 ppm 15 kDa-oligoβ-glucan also significantly up-regulated the gene expressions of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGLP) and prophenoloxidase (proPO). The relative percent of survivals (RPS) of shrimps fed with 1000 ppm 15 kDa-oligoβ-glucan were 56.2% and 38.1% post the challenge with V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV, respectively. These results demonstrated that the water-soluble oligoβ-glucan with Mw~15 kDa prepared by synergic degradation method showed a very promising potential for application as a natural growth promotor and immunostimulant in shrimp culture.

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Immunomodulatory effect of Sasa quelpaertensis leaves fermentation products in mice.

Cho, J. H., Kim, J. H., Kim, S., Son, H. S. & Hwang, K. (2021). Fermentation, 7(3), 142.

The purpose of this study was to enhance the immune-enhancing activity of mushroom strains through fermentation to promote food use of leaf extracts of S. quelpaertensis containing β-glucan. We evaluated the immunomodulatory effect of extracts from fermented S. quelpaertensis leaves (SQGL, SQHE, SQPL). S. quelpaertensis leaves fermentation products were prepared by using mushroom mycelia (Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceum, Phellinus linteus). The content of β-glucan, a major substance in S. quelpaertensis leaves fermentation products, was 3.73 ± 0.50 mg/mL in the extract (SQ) of S. quelpaertensis leaves. The fermented mushrooms, SQGL, were the highest at 5.57 ± 0.86 mg/100 mL, followed by SQHE and SQPL, and the β-glucan content of all of the glucan was >75.3%. To test the immune activity, S. quelpaertensis leaf fermentation products were administered to mice at different doses (60, 160, and 360 mg/kg) for two weeks. Th cell and macrophage populations were found to increase significantly at all three doses compared to the negative control after two weeks. SQGL and SQHE were highest at 160 mg/kg, and SQPL showed the highest Th cell proliferation at 60 mg/kg. In addition, the production of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, and nitric oxide was significantly higher than that of the negative control after two weeks. In particular, an increase was seen at a low concentration of 60 mg/kg. Therefore, the S. quelpaertensis leaf fermentation product can be very useful as a functional ingredient for enhancing immunity.

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Fortifying a meal with oyster mushroom powder beneficially affects postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1, non-esterified free fatty acids and hunger sensation in adults with impaired glucose tolerance: a double-blind randomized controlled crossover trial.

Dicks, L., Jakobs, L., Sari, M., Hambitzer, R., Ludwig, N., Simon, M. C., Stehle, P., Stoffel-Wagner, B., Helfrich, H., Ahlborn, J., Rühl, M., Hartmann, B., Holst, J. J. & Ellinger, S. (2021). European Journal of Nutrition, 1054, 1-15.

Purpose: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pathophysiological condition characterized by insulin resistance with known metabolic consequences such as postprandial hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. We hypothesized that fortifying a meal with mushrooms rich in β-glucans may diminish glucose and triglyceride responses by improving postprandial gastrointestinal hormone release. Methods: In a randomized controlled crossover study, 22 subjects with IGT ingested a meal either enriched with 20 g powder (8.1 g β-glucans) of oven-dried Pleurotus ostreatus (enriched meal, EN) or without enrichment (control meal, CON). Blood was collected before and repeatedly within 4 h after the meal to determine AUC of glucose (primary outcome), insulin, triglycerides, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFAs), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and ghrelin. Appetite sensations (hunger, satiety, fullness, and desire to eat) were assessed before and after meal consumption by visual analog scales. Results: Postprandial glucose, insulin, triglycerides, GIP and ghrelin concentrations as well as the corresponding AUCs did not differ between EN and CON. NEFAs-AUC was 14% lower (P = 0.026) and GLP-1-AUC 17% higher (P = 0.001) after EN compared to CON. Appetite ratings did not differ between treatments, except for hunger (AUC 22% lower after EN vs. CON; P = 0.031). Conclusions: The observed immediate postprandial metabolic changes indicate that an easily manageable fortification of a single meal with powder from dried oyster mushrooms as β-glucan source may improve postprandial metabolism. If the effect is preserved long term, this measure can diminish the risk for further development of overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes in subjects with IGT.

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Heat Treatment of Reishi Medicinal Mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) Basidiocarp Enhanced Its β-glucan Solubility, Antioxidant Capacity and Lactogenic Properties.

Kiss, A., Grünvald, P., Ladányi, M., Papp, V., Papp, I., Némedi, E. & Mirmazloum, I. (2021). Foods, 10(9), 2015.

The effect of heat treatment on dried fruiting bodies of Reishi medicinal mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) is investigated. Control and samples treated for 20 min at temperatures of 70, 120, 150 and 180°C were subjected for their free radical scavenging capacity, different glucans and total phenolic content determination. The growth rate of Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus casei supplemented with control and heat-treated samples is also investigated. The roasted mushroom samples at 150°C and 180°C showed the highest level of β-glucan (37.82%) and free radical scavenging capacity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+). The content of total phenolics (TPC) was also influenced by heat treatment and significantly higher TPC values were recorded in samples treated at 120°C and 150°C. The presence of reducing sugars was only detected after heat treatment at 150°C (0.23%) and at 180°C (0.57%). The heat treatments at 120, 150 and 180°C, significantly attenuated the number of colony-forming units (CFU) of pathogenic E. coli, in a linear relationship with an elevated temperature. The supplementation of heat-treated Reishi mushroom at 120°C resulted in the highest growth rate of probiotic L. casei. The obtained results in this study revealed the significant effect of short-term heat treatment by enhancing the antioxidant capacity, β-glucan solubility and prebiotic property of the dried basidiocarp of Reishi mushroom.

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Delivery of phenolic compounds, peptides and β-glucan to the gastrointestinal tract by incorporating dietary fibre-rich mushrooms into sorghum biscuits.

Tu, J., Brennan, M. A., Wu, G., Bai, W., Cheng, P., Tian, B. & Brennan, C. S. (2021). Foods, 10(8), 1812.

Sorghum biscuits were enriched with mushroom powders (Lentinula edodes, Auricularia auricula and Tremella fuciformis) at 5%, 10% and 15% substitution levels. An in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was used to evaluate the effect of this enrichment on the phenolic content and soluble peptide content as well as antioxidant activities of the gastric or intestinal supernatants (bio-accessible fractions), and the remaining portions of phenolic compounds, antioxidants and β-glucan in the undigested residue (non-digestible fraction). The phenolic content of the gastric and intestinal supernatants obtained from digested mushroom-enriched biscuits was found to be higher than that of control biscuit, and the phenolic content was positively correlated to the antioxidant activities in each fraction (p < 0.001). L. edodes and T. fuciformis enrichment increased the soluble protein content (small peptide) of sorghum biscuits after in vitro digestion. All mushroom enrichment increased the total phenolic content and β-glucan content of the undigested residue and they were positively correlated (p < 0.001). The insoluble dietary fibre of biscuits was positively correlated with β-glucan content (p < 0.001) of undigested residue. These findings suggested that enriching food with mushroom derived dietary fibre increases the bioavailability of the non-digestible β-glucan and phenolic compounds.

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Protective effect of red algae (Rhodophyta) extracts on essential dietary components of heat-treated salmon.

Ortiz-Viedma, J., Aguilera, J. M., Flores, M., Lemus-Mondaca, R., Larrazabal, M. J., Miranda, J. M. & Aubourg, S. P. (2021). Antioxidants, 10(7), 1108.

Salmon paste contains nutritious components such as essential fatty acids (EPA, DHA), vitamin E and astaxanthin, which can be protected with the addition of red algae extracts. Phenolic extracts were prepared with an ethanol: water mixture (1:1) from the red seaweeds Gracilaria chilensis, Gelidium chilense, Iridaea larga, Gigartina chamissoi, Gigartina skottsbergii and Gigartina radula, obtained from the Pacific Ocean. Most algae had a high content of protein (>7.2%), fiber (>55%) and β-glucans (>4.9%), all expressed on a dry weight basis. Total polyphenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF), antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP) and antibacterial power of the extracts were measured. In addition, the nutritional components of the algae were determined. Results showed that the content of TP in the six algae varied between 2.6 and 11.3 mg EAG/g dw and between 2.2 and 9.6 for TF. Also, the extracts of G. skottsbergii, G. chamissoi, G. radula and G. chilensis showed the highest antiradical activity (DPPH, FRAP). All samples exhibited a low production of primary oxidation products, and protection of the essential components and the endogenous antioxidants tocopherols and astaxanthin, particularly in the case of G. skottsbergii, G. chamissoi, G. radula and G. chilensis. Furthermore, all algae had inhibitory activity against the tested microorganisms, coincident with their antioxidant capacity. Results show that the extracts may have future applications in the development and preservation of essential dietary components of healthy foods.

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Influence of molecular weight fractionation on the antimicrobial and anticancer properties of a fucoidan rich-extract from the macroalgae Fucus vesiculosus.

Cabral, E. M., Mondala, J. R. M., Oliveira, M., Przyborska, J., Fitzpatrick, S., Rai, D. K., Rai, D. K., Sivagnanam, S. P., Garcia-Vaquero, M., O'Shea, D., Devereux, M., Tiwari, B. K. & Curtin, J. (2021). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 186, 994-1002.

The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial and anticancer properties of a fucoidan extract and subsequent fractions isolated from the macroalgae Fucus vesiculosus. The fractions obtained (>300 kDa, <300 kDa, <100 kDa, <50 kDa and <10 kDa) could inhibit the growth of B. subtilis, E. coli, L. innocua and P. fluorescens when assayed at concentrations between 12,500 and 25,000 ppm. The bacterial growth was monitored by optical density (OD) measurements (600 nm, 24 h) at 30 °C or 37 °C, depending upon on the strain used. The extracted fractions were also tested for cytotoxicity against brain glioblastoma cancer cells using the Alamar Blue assay for 24 h, 48 h and 6 days. The >300 kDa fraction presented the lowest IC50 values (0.052% - 24 h; 0.032% - 6 days). The potential bioactivity of fucoidan as an antimicrobial and anticancer agent was demonstrated in this study. Hence, the related mechanisms of action should be explored in a near future.

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Evaluation of biological activities of extracts of Korean wild mushrooms.

An, G. H., Han, J. G., Kim, O. T. & Cho, J. H. (2021). Journal of Mushroom, 19(1), 41-50.

The aim of the study was to obtain the extracts of various native wild mushrooms and select the useful resources though biological activity evaluation. The anti-oxidant potential, nitrite scavenging activity, and β-glucan content of wild mushrooms collected from Eumseong and Bonghwa in Korea were investigated. Based on the results of this study, Ganoderma lingzhi (OK1362) showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (73.2%), ferric reducing anti-oxidant power (0.134), reducing power (0.155), nitrite scavenging activity (53.6%), total polyphenol content (28.9 mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (10.0 mg QE/g), and β-glucan content (25.2%) when compared to other wild mushrooms sampled in this study. In addition, it was confirmed that Perenniporia fraxinea (OK1360), Amanita sp. (OK1398), and Russula sp. (OK1406) had relatively high anti-oxidant and nitrite scavenging potentials. In conclusion, our results can provide fundamental data for extracting beneficial compounds from wild mushrooms.

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Changes in antioxidant activity of processed edible mushrooms stored at room temperature and low temperature.

An, G. H., Han, J. G., Kim, O. T. & Cho, J. H. (2021). Journal of Mushroom, 19(1), 14-22.

This study investigated the changes in the antioxidant activity, nitrite scavenging activity, and β-glucan content of processed raw materials (Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, and Flammulina velutipes) brought about by storage at room temperature (20-25°C) and low temperature (4°C). The results indicated that DPPH free radical scavenging activity was the lowest in air-dried and roasted samples that were stored at room temperature,k with the exception of the airdried samples of P. eryngii and L. edodes. For total polyphenol contents, all roasted samples of the edible mushrooms stored at room and low temperature decreased compared with the samples pre-storage, except for the air-dried samples of P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, and L. edodes. Furthermore, the ferric reducing antioxidant power and reducing power of the air-dried and roasted samples stored at room temperature and low temperature tended to increase compared to that before storage. Moreover, the βglucan content in the air-dried and roasted samples stored at room temperature was significantly lower compared to that before storage, as well as to that in the samples stored at low temperature (p <0.05). The results of this study may help predict the degree to which biological activities in processed edible mushrooms change when stored at room temperature and/or low temperature conditions.>

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Establishment of a quantification method for β-glucans and their immune activity potential for quality control of β-glucan containing products.

Schulze, C., Stamer, L. L. M., Huss, S. K., Schaufler, K., Guenther, S. & Schultze, N. (2021). Carbohydrate Research, 504, 108327.

Beta glucans are complex glucose polymers well known for their immune modulatory properties. Therefore they are used and advertised in dietary supplements. Unfortunately there is no standardized test system for quality control of such health-related foods. This approach combined wet chemical and enzyme-based quantification methods (e.g. aniline blue, Glucatell®) with a cytokine secretion assay as parameter for immune activation to resolve this problem and to establish a quality control system for β-glucan containing products and extracts. Commercially available pure β-glucans with different origin and structure were used in this study. None of the methods allowed an accurate β-glucan quantification. Most promising was the test kit K-EBHLG (Megazyme). However, cytokine secretion from whole blood was detectable under the influence of β-glucans, but there was no correlation with the quantification results using the commercially available kits. Therefore, the quality control of β-glucan containing products needs further efforts.

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An approach to change the basic polymer composition of the milled Fomes fomentarius fruiting bodies.

Kalitukha, L. (2021). Fungal Biology and Biotechnology, 8(1), 1-7.

Background: Chitin and its derivative chitosan are readily exploited, especially in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, biomedical, chemical, and textile industries. The biopolymers are currently recovered from the crustacean shells after purification from the large amount of proteins and minerals. The key problems are centered around a lot of chemical waste and allergenic potential of the heat-stable remaining proteins. Fungi can be considered as an alternative eco-friendlier source of the chitin and chitosan due to the lower level of inorganic materials and absence of the allergenic proteins. Results: The work presents a new chemical assay to change the composition of the milled Fomes fomentarius fruiting bodies. A gradual 13-fold increase of the chitin amount accompanied by 14-fold decrease of the glucan content was obtained after repetitive alkali-acidic treatment. Raw material contained mainly chitin with 30% degree of deacetylation. After the first and second alkali treatment, the polymer was defined as chitosan with comparable amounts of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucosamine units. The last treated samples showed an increase of the chitin amount to 80%, along with typical for the natural tinder fibers degree of deacetylation and three-dimensional fibrous hollow structure. Conclusions: A new approach allowed a gradual enrichment of the pulverized Fomes fomentarius fruiting bodies with chitin or chitosan, depending on the extraction conditions. High stability and fibrous structure of the fungal cell walls with a drastically increased chitin ratio let us suggest a possibility of the targeted production of the chitin-enriched fungal material biotechnologically under eco-friendly conditions.

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Chemical Composition and Ultraviolet Absorption Activity of an Aqueous Alkali Extract from the Fruiting Bodies of the Tinder Conk Mushroom, Fomes fomentarius (Agaricomycetes).

Kalitukha, L. & Sari, M. (2021). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 23(4).

White rot mushroom Fomes fomentarius is a medicinal fungus with great potential to be explored. This work focused on the chemical composition of a basic aqueous extract from F. fomentarius fruiting bodies. The extract was mostly composed of phenolics, carbohydrates, minerals, and crude fat with a low amount of proteins and chitin. One-third of the total carbohydrates were in the form of beta-glucans with minor amounts of alpha-glucans. The most valuable essential part of the extract was composed of an acid-resistant ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing mixture of phenolic compounds such as melanins, lignins, and humic acids. These compounds, also referred to as melanin-like pigments, provided for the high antioxidant activity of the extract measured in vitro. Moderate sun-protective capacity was observed with regard to UVB rays and also expected in the UVA range. Quantification of melanin-like pigments in the F. fomentarius extract was possible either gravimetrically as acid-insoluble residue or spectrophotometrically in the UV region. Melanin estimation, based on nitrogen measurements, offered misleading results due to the presence of nitrogen-free melanins along with other nitrogen-containing compounds such as proteins and chitin. F. fomentarius water-soluble basic extract, containing beta-glucans and rich in melanin-like substances, could be used, for example, for topical skin application to prevent cell damage caused by excessive UV exposure or cytotoxic free radicals. The bioactive potential, safety, and further applications of the F. fomentarius extract are currently being investigated.

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Structure and chain conformation of bioactive β-D-glucan purified from water extracts of Ganoderma lucidum unbroken spores.

Liu, Y., Wang, Y., Zhou, S., Yan, M., Tang, Q. & Zhang, J. (2021). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 180, 484-493.

Two polysaccharide fractions (GLSB50 and GLSB70) with total sugar content of 82.07 wt% and 53.79 wt%, respectively, were obtained from the water extracts of unbroken Ganoderma lucidum spores by sequential ethanol precipitation treatment. Compared with GLSB70, GLSB50 exhibited better activity on stimulation of humoral immune responses in immunosuppressed mice. A novel β-D-glucan (GLSB50A-III-1) with weight average molecular weight (Mw) of 1.93 × 105 g/mol was purified from GLSB50 through chromatography separation. The exponent α value of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation was calculated to be 0.13, indicating that GLSB50A-III-1 presented globular spheres conformation in aqueous solution.

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Improving nutritional value of products with flour of the hulless barley cultivar ‘Kornelija’as an ingredient.

Sterna, V., Bleidere, M., Sabovics, M., Auzins, A., Leimane, I. & Krievina, A. (2021). Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, 108(1), 43-50.

Hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) potential for various end uses is attracting increased attention, because its ingredient health benefits make this cereal an excellent raw material for functional food production. Hulless barley also offers economic benefits for food industry compared to hulled barley as well as opportunities to farmers to diversify cereal growing. It allows improvement of the nutritional value of the existing grain products and evaluation of new products. Despite these advantages, hulless barley is not widely common in food industries of European countries. The aim of the study was to determine the possibilities to develop products with increased nutritional value that contain the grains of hulless barley cultivar ‘Kornelija’ as a raw material by exploring the use of extrusion and adding the hulless barley flour to pasta and extruded pea flakes mix. According to the obtained results, the extrusion process had a minor effect on the protein and β-glucans content of extruded hulless barley flour, while the sum of essential amino acids was determined higher (55.5 g kg-1) in comparison with the untreated samples (51.4 g kg-1) with significantly higher content of tyrozine and lysine. It was also found that by replacing 20% of wheat flour with hulless barley ‘Kornelija’ flour to improve the nutritional value of pasta, the content of protein and dietary fibre increased. The combination of extruded pea flakes with hulless barley flour also improved the nutritional value of the pea-barley semi-finished mix allowing an increase in protein and dietary fibre content.

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Symbol : GHS05, GHS08
Signal Word : Danger
Hazard Statements : H314, H315, H319, H334
Precautionary Statements : P260, P261, P264, P280, P284, P301+P330+P331, P302+P352, P303+P361+P353, P304+P340, P342+P311, P501
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