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β-Glucan Assay Kit (Yeast & Mushroom)

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00:05  Introduction
00:52  Principle
02:55  Reagent Preparation
05:31   Measurement of Total Glucan
05:35  (i) Solubilisation & Partial Hydrolysis
09:23  (ii) Measurement of Alpha and Beta-Glucan plus D-glucose in sucrose and free D-glucose
11:58    Measurement of Alpha-Glucan
12:03   (i) Solubilisation & Partial Hydrolysis of Alpha-Glucan
15:24   (ii) Measure of Alpha-Glucan, D-glucose in sucrose and free D-glucose
17:26   Calculations
19:48   Megazyme’s Publication

beta-Glucan Assay Kit Yeast Mushroom K-YBGL Scheme
Product code: K-YBGL

100 assays per kit

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Content: 100 assays per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: β-Glucan
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 510
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 4 to 100 μg of glucose per assay
Limit of Detection: 1 g/100 g
Total Assay Time: ~ 100 min
Application examples: Yeast preparations, mushroom preparations and other materials.
Method recognition: Novel method

β-Glucan (Yeast & Mushroom) Assay Kit is suitable for the measurement and analysis of 1,3:1,6-β-glucan and α-glucan in yeast and mushroom  preparations.

New, improved procedure.

Several acid and enzyme-based methods for the hydrolysis of β-glucan were compared and the best option was the method using H2SO4. For most samples, similar β-glucan values were obtained with both the optimized HCl and H2SO4 procedures. However, in the case of certain samples, specifically Ganoderma lucidum and Poria cocus, the H2SO4 procedure resulted in significantly higher values.

McCleary, B.V. & Draga, A. (2016). Measurement of β-Glucan in Mushrooms and Mycelial Products. Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 99, No. 2.

The kit components have not been altered from previous lots.

See our complete list of available polysaccharide assay kits.

scheme-K-YBGL YBGL Megazyme

  • Very cost effective 
  • All reagents stable for > 12 months after preparation 
  • Only enzymatic kit available 
  • Simple format 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Product Performance Validation Report
Megazyme publication

Measurement of β-Glucan in Mushrooms and Mycelial Products.

McCleary, B. V. & Draga, A. (2016). Journal of AOAC International, 99(2), 364-373.

A robust and reliable method has been developed for the measurement of β-glucan in mushroom and mycelial products. Total glucan (plus free glucose and glucose from sucrose) was measured using controlled acid hydrolysis with H2SO4 and the glucose released specifically was measured using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. α-Glucan (starch/glycogen) plus free glucose and glucose from sucrose were specifically measured after hydrolysis of starch/glycogen to glucose with glucoamylase and sucrose to glucose plus fructose with invertase and the glucose specifically measured with GOPOD reagent. β-Glucan was determined by the difference. Several acid and enzyme-based methods for the hydrolysis of the β-glucan were compared, and the best option was the method using H2SO4. For most samples, similar β-glucan values were obtained with both the optimized HCl and H2SO4 procedures. However, in the case of certain samples, specifically Ganoderma lucidum and Poria cocus, the H2SO4 procedure resulted in significantly higher values. Hydrolysis with 2 N trifluoroacetic acid at 120°C was found to be much less effective than either of the other two acids evaluated. Assays based totally on enzymatic hydrolysis, in general, yielded much lower values than those obtained with the H2SO4 procedure.

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Isolation of crude polysaccharides from Russula senecis (agaricomycetes): Characterization, antioxidant activity, and immune-enhancing properties.

Khatua, S. & Acharya, K. (2021). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 23(1).

Mushroom polysaccharides have a long history of application and have emerged as a promising health care resource. Such components are generally isolated by a single/dual solvent(s) extraction method; the remaining postextraction residue is usually discarded but may still contain a significant proportion of functional chemicals. In contrast with this conventional technique, we aimed to recycle the material used in order to fully utilize the basidiocarps and also to reduce waste. In that sense, fruit bodies of a traditional mycofood, Russula senecis, passed consecutively through hot water and cold alkaline systems were utilized in this study to isolate the β-glucan−enriched polysaccharidic fraction (RuseHap). Regarding bioactivity, macromolecules exhibited high antioxidant potency in terms of radical scavenging [hydroxyl,2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)], chelating ability, and reducing power, with a half-maximal effective concentration of 225-2909 μg/mL. In addition, effective immune-boosting properties were also observed, evidenced by improvement in murine macrophage viability, phagocytosis, nitric oxide production, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, and pseudopod formation. Mechanistic investigation showed that the biopolymers might be recognized by Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4, resulting in activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) that in turn augmented mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, inhibitor of NF-κB, interferon-γ, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Thus, these findings suggest great applicability of RuseHap in pharmacotherapy and foodstuffs, including implementation of the whole mushroom.

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Nutritional value and antioxidant activity of Chinese black truffle (Tuber indicum) grown in different geographical regions in China.

Wu, Z., Meenu, M. & Xu, B. (2021). LWT, 135, 110226.

Nutritional and health-promoting properties of Tuber indicum are still unclear. In this study, total phenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) were determined by colorimetric methods; free phenolic acids, vitamin D2 and ergosterol content were determined by HPLC; antioxidant activity were evaluated using ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays; in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by protease inhibitory assay. Our results indicated that geographical origin exhibits a significant impact on the nutritional and pharmaceutical properties of Tuber indicum. The samples collected from Sichuan present significant higher proteins (23.2 g/100 g dw), ash (6.38 g/100 g dw), 1,3:1,6-β-glucan (14.7 g/100 g dw) and ergosterol content (0.76 mg/g dw); whereas the samples collected from Yunnan present the highest amount of pectin (4.52 g/100 g dw), food energy (345.20 kcal/100 g dw), TPC (1.53 mg GAE/g dw), TFC (1.66 mg CAE/g dw) and the highest ABTS and DPPH values, and potent anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, the samples collected from Jilin presented the highest amount of total carbohydrate (51.7 g/100 g dw), reducing sugar (7.3 g/100 g dw) and total phenolic acids (66.76 μg/g dw). These results will enhance current knowledge about nutritional values, chemical compositions, and biological properties of T. indicum.

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Molecular characteristics and antioxidant activity of laminarin extracted from the seaweed species Laminaria hyperborea, using hydrothermal-assisted extraction and a multi-step purification procedure.

Rajauria, G., Ravindran, R., Garcia-Vaquero, M., Rai, D. K., Sweeney, T. & O'Doherty, J. (2021). Food Hydrocolloids, 112, 106332.

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hydrothermal-assisted extraction (HAE) and a multi-step purification process on the molecular characteristics and antioxidant activity of extracts of laminarin from the brown seaweed Laminaria hyperborea. The HAE with optimised extraction conditions (time - 30 min; temperature - 99.3°C; sample to solvent ratio - 1:21.3 (w/v)) resulted in 368 mg/g laminarin in the Crude Extract. Purification using solvents, molecular weight cut-off filter (MWCO; 10 kDa) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) improved the concentration to 542.6 mg/g, 906.6 mg/g and 862.5 mg/g on dry weight extract basis, respectively (p < 0.05). The crude HAE extract had greater antioxidant activity, as determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays, than the purified fractions (p > 0.05). The identification of a chromatographic peak at 17.66 min (retention time) and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared) absorption bands at 1420 cm−1 (carboxyl groups), 2950 cm−1 (C-H stretch) and at 2410 cm−1 (transmitting angle peak) was similar between the purified samples and a laminarin standard that was used as a control, confirming the presence of laminarin. The quadruple time of flight mass spectrometry (Q-ToF-MS) confirmed the molecular weight of purified laminarin was in the range of 5.7 kDa-6.2 kDa. HAE under optimised conditions was an effective method to recover biologically active laminarin from L. hyperborea. A multi-step purification, involving solvents and MWCO filters in a sequence could improve the purity of laminarin, however, purification reduced the antioxidant activity compared to the crude HAE extract.

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Addition of a mushroom by-product in oil-in-water emulsions for the microencapsulation of sunflower oil by spray drying.

Umaña, M., Turchiuli, C., Rosselló, C. & Simal, S. (2020). Food Chemistry, 128429.

The by-product generated after ergosterol extraction from mushrooms (A. bisporus) is rich in polysaccharides (β-glucans) and proteins. The usefulness of this mushroom’s by-product (MC) in oil microencapsulation by spray drying was evaluated partially replacing maltodextrin (13.5% w/w dry matter) and totally substituting Tween®20 with MC. Ergosterol was investigated as antioxidant. Non-Newtonian stable emulsions with mono-modal droplet size distributions were obtained with MC. Oil encapsulation efficiency was high (≥89%) and oil within microcapsules containing MC exhibited higher (p < 0.05) oxidative stability during spray drying. Powders containing MC exhibited larger particles (d50 27% larger), 12% lower solubility in water and perceptible color changes. During storage (35°C 50% RH), conjugated dienes increased more slowly in microcapsules containing MC. Reductions up to 28% in linoleic acid were observed after 150 days. Ergosterol was 95% degraded after 150 days in powders with MC and totally degraded after 2 days in powders without MC.

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Effects of post-heading high temperature on some quality traits of malt barley.

Ni, S. J., Zhao, H. F. & Zhang, G. P. (2020). Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(11), 2674-2679.

Global change is bringing barley with more frequency of suffering from high temperature. However, little has been known about the influence of high temperature on malt quality traits. In this study, we investigated the impact of 1-wk heat stress (32°C/26°C, day/night, 12 h/12 h) initiating from the 7th (HT7) and 14th (HT14) days after heading on some grain and malt quality traits of two barley cultivars. In comparison with normal temperature (24°C/18°C, day/night, 12 h/12 h), heat stress significantly reduced kernel weight, seed setting rate and grains per spike: HT7 having a larger effect than HT14. Meanwhile, total protein and β-glucan contents, and β-amylase and limit dextrinase activities were significantly increased under high temperature, with HT7-treated plants showing larger changes. Moreover, the different changes of four protein fractions under heat stress were found in the two barley cultivars, indicating the possibility of breaking positive association between protein content and enzyme activity.

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The effects of β-glucan extract from oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on expression of serum malondialdehyde in Sprague dawley rats induced by HFHF diet.

Yunita, E. P., Yuniar, A. M., Kusumastuty, I., Maghfirotun, A. & Handayani, D. (2020). “Journal of Physics: Conference Series”, IOP Publishing, 1665(1), 012035.

The obesity prevalence in the world continues to increase yearly, which further cause clinical problems related to metabolic syndrome and lipid peroxidation. This study aims to determine the effect of β-glucan extract from oyster mushrooms on lipid peroxidation markers, namely serum MDA levels in rats. Therefore, Sprague dawley rats were divided into four groups, namely the KN group, which was fed with AIN-93M standard diet, the KP group was given the AIN-93M modified HFHF diet, the PI group was fed with AIN-93M modified HFHF + β-glucan diet 125 mg/kgBW, and the P2 group was given the AIN-93M modified HFHF + ß-glucan diet 375 mg/kgBW. The β-glucan detection test in oyster mushroom extract used an FTIR spectrophotometer, while the content analysis used the Mega-Calc from Megazyme, and also, the MDA levels were determined through the TBARS method. Furthermore, based on FTIR spectrum results, it was proven that oyster mushroom extract contained β-glucan. The provision of HFHF diet for 14 weeks caused the rats to be pre-obese, resulting in lipid peroxidation due to the free radicals induction. The average Fee index rats at the end of treatment were 294.00 + 6.40 (KN), 292.78 + 6.37 (KP), 291.85 + 9.60 (PI), and 286.88 + 10.60 (P2), with a p value of 0.687. Meanwhile, the average serum MDA level (ng/mF) obtained were 507.833 + 35.95 (KN), 504.184 + 29.17 (KP), 540.397 + 29.80 (PI), and 553.996 + 86.78 (P2), with a p value of 0.001. The values of serum MDA levels that were statistically significant were KN vs P2, KP vs P1, KP vs P2, and P1 vs P2. These results showed that the dose and duration of β-glucan administered were not sufficient to prevent the lipid peroxidation process.

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Novel antihypertension mechanism of β-glucan by corin and ANP-mediated natriuresis in mice.

Lee, S. J., Lee, D. H. & Kim, H. W. (2020). Mycobiology, 48(5), 399-409.

Many of the β-glucans are known to have antihypertensive activities, but, except for angiotensin-converting enzyme II inhibition, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Corin is an atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-converting enzyme. Activated corin cleaves pro-ANP to ANP, which regulates water-sodium balance and lowers blood pressure. Here, we reported a novel antihypertensive mechanism of β-glucans, involved with corin and ANP in mice. We showed that multiple oral administrations of β-glucan induced the expression of corin and ANP, and also increased natriuresis in mice. Microarray analysis showed that corin gene expression was only upregulated in mice liver by multiple, not single, oral administrations of the β-glucan fraction of Phellinus baumii (BGF). Corin was induced in liver and kidney tissues by the β-glucans from zymosan and barley, as well as by BGF. In addition to P. baumii, β-glucans from two other mushrooms, Phellinus linteus and Ganoderma lucidum, also induced corin mRNA expression in mouse liver. ELISA immunoassays showed that ANP production was increased in liver tissue by all the β-glucans tested, but not in the heart and kidney. Urinary sodium excretion was significantly increased by treatment with β-glucans in the order of BGF, zymosan, and barley, both in 1% normal and 10% high-sodium diets. In conclusion, we found that the oral administration of β-glucans could induce corin expression, ANP production, and sodium excretion in mice. Our findings will be helpful for investigations of β-glucans in corin and ANP-related fields, including blood pressure, salt–water balance, and circulation.

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Protective effects of Phellinus linteus mycelium on the development of osteoarthritis after monosodium iodoacetate injection.

Shin, M. R., Lee, J. A., Kim, M. J., Park, H. J., Park, B. W., Seo, S. B. & Roh, S. S. (2020). Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2020.

Objective. The aim of this study was to identify the protective effects of Phellinus linteus mycelium (PLM) and its possible mechanisms in a model of monosodium iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Intra-articular injection of MIA was injected to 50 μL with 80 mg/mL using a 0.3 mL insulin syringe into the right knee joint. Changes in hindpaw weight-bearing distribution between the right (osteoarthritic) and left (contralateral control) legs were used as an index of joint discomfort. PLM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered once daily for 14 days from day 7 after MIA treatment. And then, various factors associated with inflammatory response and cartilage degeneration in cartilage tissues detected by western blotting. Results. PLM treatment showed a concentration-dependent elevation in change in hindpaw weight-bearing distribution (HWBD). PLM200 demonstrated the capacity to significantly increase HWBD, indicating that the change in weight-bearing distribution means the reduction of spontaneous pain. Our results indicate that PLM suppressed the inflammatory factors via NF-κB signaling pathway induced by p38 phosporlyation. Moreover, PLM200 exhibited a significant reduction of ROS produced by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. PLM100 and PLM200 inhibited the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, one of proteinase that degrades extracellular matrix (ECM). Conclusions. Taken together, our results indicated that PLM has a strong chondroprotective effect through the suppression both ROS production and inflammation.

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Proteins from Lignosus tigris with selective apoptotic cytotoxicity towards MCF7 cell line and suppresses MCF7-xenograft tumor growth.

Teoh, K. H., Tan, N. H., Tan, C. S., Ng, S. T. & Fung, S. Y. (2020). PeerJ, 8, e9650.

Background: Lignosus tigris, a recently discovered species of the unique Lignosus family, has been traditionally used by the indigenous communities in Peninsular Malaysia to treat various ailments and as an alternative medicine for cancer treatment. The L. tigris cultivar sclerotia (Ligno TG-K) was found to contain numerous bioactive compounds with beneficial biomedicinal properties and the sclerotial extract exhibited potent antioxidant activity. However, the anticancer property of the Ligno TG-K including in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects as well as its anticancer active compounds and the mechanisms has yet to be investigated. Methods: The cytotoxicity of the Ligno TG-K against human breast (MCF7), prostate (PC3) and lung (A549) adenocarcinoma cell lines was evaluated using MTT cytotoxicity assay. The cytotoxic mechanisms of the active high molecular weight proteins (HMWp) fraction were investigated through detection of caspases activity and apoptotic-related proteins expression by Western blotting. The in vivo antitumor activity of the isolated HMWp was examined using MCF7 mouse xenograft model. Shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis was performed to identify the proteins in the HMWp. Results and Discussion: Cold water extract of the sclerotia inhibited proliferation of MCF7, A549 and PC3 cells with IC50 ranged from 28.9 to 95.0 µg/mL. Bioassay guided fractionation of the extract revealed that HMWp exhibited selective cytotoxicity against MCF7 cells via induction of cellular apoptosis by the activation of extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways. HMWp activated expression of caspase-8 and -9 enzymes, and pro-apoptotic Bax protein whilst inhibiting expression of tumor survivor protein, Bcl-2. HMWp induced tumor-cell apoptosis and suppressed growth of tumor in MCF-7 xenograft mice. Lectins, serine proteases, RNase Gf29 and a 230NA deoxyribonuclease are the major cytotoxic proteins that accounted for 55.93% of the HMWp. Conclusion: The findings from this study provided scientific evidences to support the traditional use of the L. tigris sclerotia for treatment of breast cancer. Several cytotoxic proteins with high abundance have been identified in the HMWp of the sclerotial extract and these proteins have potential to be developed into new anticancer agents or as adjunct cancer therapy.

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Ultrasound-assisted extraction of ergosterol and antioxidant components from mushroom by-products and the attainment of a β-glucan rich residue.

Umaña, M., Eim, V., Garau, C., Rosselló, C. & Simal, S. (2020). Food Chemistry, 332, 127390.

Revalorization of mushroom by-product (stalks of A. bisporus) by extracting its components is proposed. The extraction kinetics at 25°C of ergosterol, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by mechanical agitation (at 130 rpm) and ultrasound assistance (at 182 and 321 W/L) in 70 and 96% v/v ethanol/water solutions during 30 min were evaluated and satisfactorily modelled, using the Weibull model (mean relative error ≤ 7.8%). The effect of the ethanol concentration was high in the ergosterol extraction yield (2 times higher yields in 96% than in 70%) but slight in those of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Ultrasound assistance promoted considerable yield increases (up to 2 times higher in ergosterol, 46% in phenolic compounds and 25% in antioxidant activity) depending on the ethanol concentration and ultrasound power density. The residues after extraction were characterized and constituted a potential source of high value polysaccharides as β-glucans (average 12.2 ± 1.7g/100 g dm).

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Evaluating the potential of carbohydrate-rich microalga Rhodosorus sp. SCSIO-45730 as a feedstock for biofuel and β-glucans using strategies of phosphate optimization and low-cost harvest.

Dai, L., Tan, L., Jin, X., Wu, H., Wu, H., Li, T. & Xiang, W. (2020). Journal of Applied Phycology, 32, 3051-3061.

With the increase of global energy consumption, bioenergy from microalgae has been recognized as a potential alternative choice. A novel carbohydrate-rich microalgal strain, isolated from Xisha Islands (China), was identified as Rhodosorus sp. SCSIO-45730. To accumulate biomass for bioenergy production, strategies of phosphate optimization and chitosan flocculation were used to evaluate its potential for the production of biomass, total carbohydrates, and β-glucans. The biomass of this alga reached 12.3 ± 0.1 g L−1 in vertical bubble column photobioreactors at the phosphate concentration of 120 mg L−1, and the productivities of total carbohydrates and β-glucans maximized up to 242.6 ± 2.3 mg L−1 day−1 and 108.1 ± 4.0 mg L−1 day−1, respectively. Simultaneously, flocculation results demonstrated that the recovery rate of the biomass, total carbohydrates, and β-glucans were over 90% at a low chitosan concentration of 3 mg L−1. The flocs were easily collected and washed through a 300-mesh bolting cloth, presenting an ultralow harvest cost of 2.93 US$ per tonne of biomass. In summary, addition of suitable phosphate and flocculation with low chitosan concentration could be effective strategies to enhance the commercial potential of Rhodosorus sp. SCSIO–45730 as a feedstock for biofuel and β-glucans.

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Immunotherapy based on Pythium insidiosum mycelia drives a Th1/Th17 response in mice.

Tondolo, J. S., Loreto, E. S., de Jesus, F. P., Ledur, P. C., Verdi, C. M. & Santurio, J. M. (2020). Medical Mycology, 58(8), 1120-1125.

Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete that affects mammals, especially humans and horses, causing a difficult-to-treat disease. Typically, surgical interventions associated with antimicrobial therapy, immunotherapy, or both are the preferred treatment choices. PitiumVac® is a therapeutic vaccine prepared from the mycelial mass of P. insidiosum and is used to treat Brazilian equine pythiosis. To better understand how PitiumVac® works, we analyzed the composition of PitiumVac® and the immune response triggered by this immunotherapy in mice. We performed an enzymatic quantification that showed a total glucan content of 21.05% ± 0.94 (α-glucan, 6.37% ± 0.77 and (1,3)(1,6)-β-glucan, 14.68% ± 0.60) and mannose content of 1.39% ± 0.26; the protein content was 0.52 mg ml−1 ± 0.07 mg ml−1. Healthy Swiss mice (n = 3) were subcutaneously preimmunized with one, two, or three shots of PitiumVac®, and immunization promoted a relevant Th1 and Th17 responses compared to nonimmunization of mice. The highest cytokine levels were observed after the third immunization, principally for IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-6, and IL-10 levels. Results of infected untreated (Pythiosis) and infected treated (Pythiosis + PVAC) mice (n = 3) showed that PitiumVac® reinforces the Th1/Th17 response displayed by untreated mice. The (1,3)(1,6)-β-glucan content can be, at least in part, related to this Th1/Th17 response.

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Application of Pleurotus ostreatus β-glucans for oil-in-water emulsions encapsulation in powder.

Gallotti, F., Lavelli, V. & Turchiuli, C. (2020). Food Hydrocolloids, 105, 105841.

In this study, sunflower oil containing α-tocopherol (model for oxidizable lipophilic compounds) was encapsulated using a wall material made of maltodextrin and two different extracts rich in β-glucans and proteins, obtained from the basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus. A mixture of maltodextrin and acacia gum was used as control wall material. The aim was to assess P. ostreatus extracts as a sustainable and healthy alternative to common emulsifiers. After the evaluation of the emulsion stability, four powders were produced by spray drying and then analysed for the particle morphology and oil droplets distribution within the solid matrix (by scanning electron microscopy), the emulsion microstructure after their dissolution in water (by laser light diffraction) and the encapsulation efficiency (by solvent extraction of surface oil). In addition, powders were analysed in terms of oil protection against oxidation by spectroscopic determination of conjugated dienes and HPLC evaluation of vitamin E. Results showed that P. ostreatus extracts provided suitable emulsifying properties both in the liquid and in the spray dried emulsions. Moreover, it allowed excellent protection of vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids against oxidation. Hence, P. ostreatus extracts can be exploited as innovative emulsifier to provide physical protection to functional, oxygen sensitive lipophilic ingredients by microencapsulation.

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Action modes of the immune modulating activities of crude mushroom polysaccharide from Phallus atrovolvatus.

Chaiyama, V., Keawsompong, S., LeBlanc, J. G., de LeBlanc, A. D. M., Chatel, J. M. & Chanput, W. (2020). Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre, 23, 100216.

Phallus atrovolvatus is a wild edible mushroom which is recently being cultivated in Thailand. It contains a remarkable amount of β-(1,3-1,6)-glucan, a compound known for its immune modulating properties. Crude mushroom polysaccharide (CMP) was obtained from the fruiting body of P. atrovolvatus using boiling water extraction, followed by overnight ethanol cold precipitation. CMP is composed of approximately 50% β-glucan, α-glucan, proteins, ash and other non-digestible polysaccharide. In this study, we evaluated the immune modulating activities of CMP using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro, CMP was treated with the transfected NF-κB reporter-HEK 293 recombinant cell line, the results showed no cytotoxicity up to 500 μg/mL, and CMP treatments exhibited a higher % NF-κB luciferase expression. DiNitroBenzene Sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis mice model was used to elucidate the effects of CMP in vivo. Colitis severity was assessed using body weight trend, macroscopic scores and histological scores. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and cytokine production were determined from the colon tissue and spleen, respectively. The results showed that oral consumption of 50 μg CMP/mouse/day could significantly decrease MPO activity and reduce the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17A cytokines. To our knowledge, this study shows the first time the report of immune modulating activities of Phallus atrovolvatus Thai strain. The results lead to the conclusion that CMP provides two modes of actions: i) stimulating the NF-κB pathway and ii) acting as an anti-inflammatory that can protect mice against induced colitis.

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Isolation and purification of glucans from an italian cultivar of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. and in vitro effect on skin repair.

Fazio, A., La Torre, C., Caroleo, M. C., Caputo, P., Plastina, P. & Cione, E. (2020). Molecules, 25(4), 968.

Glucans possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. In this context, the present study was performed to isolate glucans from an Italian cultivar of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. at three different harvesting periods, in order to evaluate their effects on wound healing. The dry fruits were subjected to an alkaline extraction and then isolated glucans were purified by dialyzation. The crude and soluble samples were characterized by FT-IR and SEM analyses. Afterwards, total, α- and β-glucan content was measured using an enzymatic procedure. The results highlighted that the glucan amount increased as the maturation proceeded as well as the β-glucan percentage, which ranged from 48.2 at the first harvesting to 65.4 at the third harvesting. Furthermore, the effects of isolated glucans on the viability and migration of keratinocytes were evaluated using the in vitro MTT and scratch wound assays. The best proliferative effects on keratinocyte migration have been achieved with soluble glucans from third harvesting at 100 μM after 24 and 48 h (*** P < 0.001). The same treated group showed significant narrowing of the scratch area after 24 h and complete closure of the injury after 48 h. The findings highlighted the effectiveness of soluble glucans on regeneration of damaged skin.

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Upcycling of food industry side streams by basidiomycetes for production of a vegan protein source.

Ahlborn, J., Stephan, A., Meckel, T., Maheshwari, G., Rühl, M. & Zorn, H. (2019). International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 8(1), 447-455.

Purpose: Novel protein sources are urgently needed to meet the increasing protein demand of a continuously growing world population. This study is focused on the production of protein rich mushroom mycelia on industrial side streams. Methods: Submerged propagation of mushrooms was carried out in shake flasks which contained agro-industrial side streams as the sole carbon source. The biomass obtained was analyzed for its crude protein, ash and fat content as well as for its fatty acid and amino acid profiles. Vitamin D2 production from ergosterol in the biomass was induced by UV-B irradiation and determined by HPLC–DAD. The share of fungal mycelium in the total biomass was determined by extraction and quantitation of ergosterol. Additionally, water and oil binding capacity (WBC and OBC) were evaluated. Results: A screening of basidiomycetes grown on agro-industrial side streams indicated a fast growth of Pleurotus sapidus on apple pomace. After 4 days of cultivation, the biomass obtained from this mushroom–substrate combination contained 21% true protein in dry matter. In addition to proteins, the amounts of lipids (4%), ash (2%) and carbohydrates (74%) were quantitated. The dominating fatty and amino acids of Pleurotus sapidus grown on apple pomace were linoleic acid and glutamic acid/glutamine, respectively. Concentrations of up to 115 µg (g dry matter)−1 vitamin D2 were formed from ergosterol by UV-B irradiation. Ergosterol was used as a biomarker to monitor the amount of fungal content. Conclusion: The nutritional value of agro-industrial side streams such as apple pomace can be upcycled by biotransformation with basidiomycetes.

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Lentinus edodes exposure before and after fetus implantation: materno-fetal development in rats with gestational diabetes mellitus.

Laurino, L. F., Viroel, F. J., Caetano, E., Spim, S., Pickler, T. B., Rosa-Castro, R. M., Vasconcelos, E. A., Jozala, A. F., Hataka, A., Grotto, D. & Gerenutti, M. (2019). Nutrients, 11(11), 2720.

Background: The presence of β-glucans and phenolic compounds in Lentinus edodes suggests this mushroom can be used as a nutritional supplement. Two gestational conditions (before and after fetus implantation) were evaluated, and Lentinus edodes exposure was performed in diabetes mellitus rat model induced by streptozotocin in pre-clinical tests. Methods: On the 20th day of pregnancy, cesarean sections were performed. Blood was collected for biochemical, hematologic parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers. Placenta and amniotic fluid were collected, and fetuses were analyzed through morphological evaluation. Results: The mushroom did not reduce the severe hyperglycemia of the mother-concept but promoted an increase in maternal insulin levels; reduced the levels of alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and total cholesterol; protected the animals from post-implantation losses. Liver damage induced by streptozotocin was reversed in experimental groups. Conclusions: Lentinus edodes mushroom has antioxidant properties that can minimize the damage caused by gestational diabetes mellitus.

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Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus powder addition in vegetable soup on β‐glucan content, sensory perception, and acceptability.

Proserpio, C., Lavelli, V., Laureati, M. & Pagliarini, E. (2019). Food Science & Nutrition, 7(2), 730-737.

Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible mushroom with interesting nutritional properties, which is able to grow on agri‐food waste and could in turn be used as an ingredient for food fortification. However, new food products have to face with the growing consumer consciousness about what they eat and hedonic responses, which represent a key factor in determining food preference and choices. The aim of this study was to design a vegetable‐based product (a pumpkin and carrot soup) added with increasing concentration of P. ostreatus powder rich in β‐glucans, which are fibers with demonstrated bioactivity in humans, and to obtain a sensory description of these fortified products to find the desirable and undesirable sensory properties that affect their acceptance. A total of 109 subjects (women N = 52; men N = 57; age = 36.1 ± 14.4 years) evaluated five samples of pumpkin and carrot soup added with increasing concentrations of mushroom powder (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and a hidden control at 0%) for liking and sensory properties by means of the check‐all‐that‐apply method. Results showed that creaminess, orange color, mild odor, and taste were positively related to vegetable soups liking, whereas strong taste, dark color, and mushroom odor described the less liked samples. Sample added with 2% of mushroom powder obtained comparable liking scores to the unmodified sample, while liking decreased with increasing concentration of P. ostreatus powder. The present results demonstrated that it is possible to fortify a vegetable soup with P. ostreatus powder developing well‐accepted foods by consumers. This product could be used to implement an everyday dietary intervention of β‐glucans over a long‐term period.

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