Total Starch Assay Kit (AA/AMG)

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00:05 Introduction
02:11   Principle
03:26  Reagent and Sample Preparation
06:22  RTS Method (Solubilization & Hydrolysis of Starch)
12:56   RTS-NaOH Method (Solubilization & Hydrolysis of Starch)
15:41    Calculations

Total Starch Assay Kit AA/AMG K-TSTA Scheme
Reference code: K-TSTA-100A
SKU: 700004351


100 assays

Content: 50 assays / 100 assays
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: Total Starch
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 510
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 4 to 100 μg of D-glucose per assay
Limit of Detection: 0.18 g/100 g total starch “as is”
Total Assay Time: ~ 90 min
Application examples: Cereal flours, food products and other materials.
Method recognition: AACC Method 76-13.01, AOAC Method 996.11, ICC Standard Method No. 168 and RACI Standard Method

The K-TSTA-50A pack size has been discontinued (read more)

The Total Starch (AA/AMG) Assay Kit is used for the determination of total starch in cereal flours and food products.  AOAC Method 996.11, AACC Method 76-13.01.

This kit now contains an improved α-amylase that allows the amylase incubations to be performed at pH 5.0 (as well as pH 7.0). 

See our full range of dietary fiber and starch assay kits.

Scheme-K-TSTA-100A TSTA Megazyme

  • Very competitive price (cost per test) 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation 
  • Rapid reaction 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included
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Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Product Performance
Megazyme publication

Measurement of available carbohydrates, digestible, and resistant starch in food ingredients and products.

McCleary, B. V., McLoughlin, C., Charmier, L. M. J. & McGeough, P. (2019). Cereal Chemistry, 97(1), 114-137.

Background and objectives: The importance of selectively measuring available and unavailable carbohydrates in the human diet has been recognized for over 100 years. The levels of available carbohydrates in diets can be directly linked to major diseases of the Western world, namely Type II diabetes and obesity. Methodology for measurement of total carbohydrates by difference was introduced in the 1880s, and this forms the basis of carbohydrate determination in the United States. In the United Kingdom, a method to directly measure available carbohydrates was introduced in the 1920s to assist diabetic patients with food selection. The aim of the current work was to develop simple, specific, and reliable methods for available carbohydrates and digestible starch (and resistant starch). The major component of available carbohydrates in most foods is digestible starch. Findings: Simple methods for the measurement of rapidly digested starch, slowly digested starch, total digestible starch, resistant starch, and available carbohydrates have been developed, and the digestibility of phosphate cross‐linked starch has been studied in detail. The resistant starch procedure developed is an update of current procedures and incorporates incubation conditions with pancreatic α‐amylase (PAA) and amyloglucosidase (AMG) that parallel those used AOAC Method 2017.16 for total dietary fiber. Available carbohydrates are measured as glucose, fructose, and galactose, following complete and selective hydrolysis of digestible starch, maltodextrins, maltose, sucrose, and lactose to glucose, fructose, and galactose. Sucrose is hydrolyzed with a specific sucrase enzyme that has no action on fructo‐oligosaccharides (FOS). Conclusions: The currently described “available carbohydrates” method together with the total dietary fiber method (AOAC Method 2017.16) allows the measurement of all carbohydrates in food products, including digestible starch. Significance and novelty: This paper describes a simple and specific method for measurement of available carbohydrates in cereal, food, and feed products. This is the first method that provides the correct measurement of digestible starch and sucrose in the presence of FOS. Such methodology is essential for accurate labeling of food products, allowing consumers to make informed decisions in food selection.

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Megazyme publication

Measurement of Starch: Critical evaluation of current methodology.

McCleary, B. V., Charmier, L. M. J. & McKie, V. A. (2018). Starch‐Stärke, 71(1-2), 1800146.

Most commonly used methods for the measurement of starch in food, feeds and ingredients employ the combined action of α‐amylase and amyloglucosidase to hydrolyse the starch to glucose, followed by glucose determination with a glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. Recently, a number of questions have been raised concerning possible complications in starch analytical methods. In this paper, each of these concerns, including starch hydrolysis, isomerisation of maltose to maltulose, effective hydrolysis of maltodextrins by amyloglucosidase, enzyme purity and hydrolysis of sucrose and β‐glucans have been studied in detailed. Results obtained for a range of starch containing samples using AOAC Methods 996.11 and 2014 .10 are compared and a new simpler format for starch measurement is introduced. With this method that employs a thermostable α-amylase (as distinct from a heat stable α-amylase) which is both stable and active at 100°C and pH 5.0, 10 samples can be analysed within 2 h, as compared to the 6 h required with AOAC Method 2014.10.

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Megazyme publication
Measurement of carbohydrates in grain, feed and food.

McCleary, B. V., Charnock, S. J., Rossiter, P. C., O’Shea, M. F., Power, A. M. & Lloyd, R. M. (2006). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86(11), 1648-1661.

Procedures for the measurement of starch, starch damage (gelatinised starch), resistant starch and the amylose/amylopectin content of starch, β-glucan, fructan, glucomannan and galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose and verbascose) in plant material, animal feeds and foods are described. Most of these methods have been successfully subjected to interlaboratory evaluation. All methods are based on the use of enzymes either purified by conventional chromatography or produced using molecular biology techniques. Such methods allow specific, accurate and reliable quantification of a particular component. Problems in calculating the actual weight of galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides in test samples are discussed in detail.

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Megazyme publication
Measurement of total starch in cereal products by amyloglucosidase-alpha-amylase method: collaborative study.

McCleary, B. V., Gibson, T. S. & Mugford, D. C. (1997). Journal of AOAC International, 80, 571-579.

An American Association of Cereal Chemists/AOAC collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of an enzyme assay kit procedure for measurement of total starch in a range of cereal grains and products. The flour sample is incubated at 95 degrees C with thermostable alpha-amylase to catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to maltodextrins, the pH of the slurry is adjusted, and the slurry is treated with a highly purified amyloglucosidase to quantitatively hydrolyze the dextrins to glucose. Glucose is measured with glucose oxidase-peroxidase reagent. Thirty-two collaborators were sent 16 homogeneous test samples as 8 blind duplicates. These samples included chicken feed pellets, white bread, green peas, high-amylose maize starch, white wheat flour, wheat starch, oat bran, and spaghetti. All samples were analyzed by the standard procedure as detailed above; 4 samples (high-amylose maize starch and wheat starch) were also analyzed by a method that requires the samples to be cooked first in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSD(r)) ranged from 2.1 to 3.9%, and relative standard deviations for reproducibility (RSD(R)) ranged from 2.9 to 5.7%. The RSD(R) value for high amylose maize starch analyzed by the standard (non-DMSO) procedure was 5.7%; the value was reduced to 2.9% when the DMSO procedure was used, and the determined starch values increased from 86.9 to 97.2%.

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Megazyme publication

Collaborative evaluation of a simplified assay for total starch in cereal products (AACC Method 76-13).

McCleary, B. V., Gibson, T. S. & Mugford, D. C. (1997). Cereal Foods World, 42, 476-480.

A procedure for the quantitative analysis of total starch in plant materials has been developed and subjected to a comprehensive interlaboratory study involving 32 laboratories, in accordance with the protocol for collaborative studies recommended by American Association of Cereal Chemists and AOAC International. The method involved treatment of a sample at approximately 95°C with thermostable α-amylase to obtain starch depolymerization and solubilisation. The slurry is then treated with purified amyloglucosidase to give quantitative hydrolysis of the starch fragments to glucose, which is measured with glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. Test samples used in the interlaboratory study included modified and native starches, cereal flours and brans, processed cereal products, animal feeds, and plant material. Results were statistically analysed according to AOAC International guidelines (1). The procedure was shown to be highly repeatable (relative standard deviation 2.1-3.9%) and reproducible (relative standard deviation 2.9-5.0%), and on the basis of these results has gained first approval status with AACC (AACC Method 76-13) and approval as AOAC Method 986.11. The method is more robust than a method previously reported (AACC Method 76-12), and 20 samples can be analysed within 2 hr.

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Megazyme publication
Total starch measurement in cereal products: interlaboratory evaluation of a rapid enzymic test procedure.

McCleary, B. V., Gibson, T. S., Solah, V. & Mugford, D. C. (1994). Cereal Chemistry, 71(5), 501-505.

The precision of an enzymatic procedure for analysis of total starch in cereal flours and products was determined in a comprehensive inter-laboratory study involving 29 laboratories. Test samples represented a range of sample types, including modified and native starches, cereal flours and brans, processed cereal products, animal feeds, and plant material. Results were statistically analyzed according to AOAC guidelines. The procedure was shown to be highly repeatable (relative standard deviation 1.5-7.3%) and reproducible (relative standard deviation 4.1-11.3%). It is now available, in a slightly modified form, as an assay kit. The assay, therefore, provides a convenient alternative to existing procedures for quantitative measurement of starch in cereal products.

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Megazyme publication
Quantitative measurement of total starch in cereal flours and products.

McCleary, B. V., Solah, V. & Gibson, T. S. (1994). Journal of Cereal Science, 20(1), 51-58.

A rapid and quantitative method has been developed for the determination of total starch in a wide range of materials, including high-amylose maize starches and food materials containing resistant starch. The method allows the analysis of 20 samples in 3 h. A single assay can be performed in 2 h. For a range of samples, the total starch values obtained with this method were significantly higher than those obtained with current standard methods. Two assay formats have been developed. In assay format 1, the sample is incubated solubilised with the chaotropic agent dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) to gelatinise the starch, which is then solubilised and partially depolymerised by controlled incubation at ∼ 100°C with a defined level of thermostable alpha-amylase. This allowed near-complete solubilisation of most starches. The remaining starch is then solubilised and the starch fragments are converted to maltose and maltotriose by the combined action of highly purified pullulanase and beta-amylase. After volume adjustment and filtration (if necessary), the maltooligo-saccharides are hydrolysed by high-purity amyloglucosidase to glucose, which is measured with a glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. This assay format gave quantitative starch determination in all native starch samples, including high-amylose maize starches. In assay format 2, which is applicable to most starches and cereal flours, the DMSO pre-treatment step is omitted. Samples containing glucose and/or maltosaccharide are pre-washed with aqueous ethanol before analysis.

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Effect of temperature during flowering, pod set, and seed development on yield components and accumulation of protein, starch, and low molecular weight carbohydrates in two faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars.

Lundby, A. M., Waalen, W., Uhlen, A. K., Knutsen, S. H. & Wold, A. B. (2024). Legume Science, 6(1), e212.

The aim was to explore the impact of temperature during seed development on yield performance and seed quality in faba bean when grown at cool temperatures representative for high latitude regions. Two varieties, an early and a medium late maturing, were grown in climate chambers with three temperature regimes (day/night temperatures of 14°C/12°C, 19°C/12°C, and 24°C/12°C) from onset of flowering to maturation. Yield components were recorded, and the accumulation of protein, starch, and low molecular weight carbohydrates including the raffinose family oligosaccharides was followed during the accumulation phase until physiological maturity. The lower temperature regimes strongly delayed pod and seed development compared with 24°C/12°C. Temperature affected the number of pods per plant for the upper node group. Plants grown at 19°C had the highest total dry seed weight compared with plants grown at 14°C and 24°C. Temperature per se did not influence the content of starch, protein, and low molecular weight carbohydrates, while their accumulation followed the moisture content in the seed, and thus the seed development stage. The content of raffinose family oligosaccharides increased sharply when the seed moisture dropped below 70% and leveled off at about 40% and 50% moisture for verbascose and stachyose, respectively, coinciding with physiological maturity. The results provide more knowledge about the seed maturation and accumulation in faba bean under low temperatures, important for cultivation under high latitude regions.

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Presence of digestible starch impacts in vitro fermentation of resistant starch.

Klostermann, C. E., Endika, M. F., Kouzounis, D., Buwalda, P. L., de Vos, P., Zoetendal, E. G., Bitter, J. H. & Schols, H. A. (2024). Food & Function, 15(1), 223-235.

Starch is an important energy source for humans. Starch escaping digestion in the small intestine will transit to the colon to be fermented by gut microbes. Many gut microbes express α-amylases that can degrade soluble starch, but only a few are able to degrade intrinsic resistant starch (RS), which is insoluble and highly resistant to digestion (≥80% RS). We studied the in vitro fermentability of eight retrograded starches (RS-3 preparations) differing in rapidly digestible starch content (≥70%, 35–50%, ≤15%) by a pooled adult faecal inoculum and found that fermentability depends on the digestible starch fraction. Digestible starch was readily fermented yielding acetate and lactate, whereas resistant starch was fermented much slower generating acetate and butyrate. Primarily Bifidobacterium increased in relative abundance upon digestible starch fermentation, whereas resistant starch fermentation also increased relative abundance of Ruminococcus and Lachnospiraceae. The presence of small fractions of total digestible starch (±25%) within RS-3 preparations influenced the fermentation rate and microbiota composition, after which the resistant starch fraction was hardly fermented. By short-chain fatty acid quantification, we observed that six individual faecal inocula obtained from infants and adults were able to ferment digestible starch, whereas only one adult faecal inoculum was fermenting intrinsic RS-3. This suggests that, in contrast to digestible starch, intrinsic RS-3 is only fermentable when specific microbes are present. Our data illustrates that awareness is required for the presence of digestible starch during in vitro fermentation of resistant starch, since such digestible fraction might influence and overrule the evalution of the prebiotic potential of resistant starches.

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Influence of fiber type and carbohydrase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, energy and nitrogen balance, and physiology of sows at mid and late gestation.

Crome, T. A., Giesemann, M. A., Miller, H. E. & Petry, A. L. (2023). Journal of animal science, 101, skad390.

Carbohydrase supplementation in grow-finish pig diets improves energy, nutrient digestibility, and gastrointestinal function, but their efficacy in gestation diets is understudied. The experimental objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a multicarbohydrase to improve digestion, energetics, and various physiological functions in gestating sows fed soluble and insoluble fiber diets. On day 28 of gestation, 36 sows (186 ± 4.6 kg body weight), blocked by parity, were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments (n = 9). Factors included fiber type of insoluble (IF; 20% dried distiller grains with solubles) or soluble fiber (SF; 20% sugar beet pulp) and with (+) or without (−) enzyme (0.05%, Rovabio Advance P10; Adisseo, Antony, France). Diets were fed from days 28 to 109 of gestation at a feeding level of 2.1 kg (SID-Lys 11 g/d and 4.5 net energy-Mcal/d). Two separate 9-d metabolism periods were conducted on days 50 to 59 (mid) and 99 to 108 (late) of gestation. During each period, days 1 to 3 served as an adaptation period, days 4 to 7 total urine and feces were collected (96-h) and followed by a 48-h lactulose-mannitol study. Serum and plasma were collected on days 50 and 99. Data were analyzed as repeated records using a linear mixed model with block as a random effect and fiber type, enzyme, and period and their interactions as fixed effects. Sows fed SF+ had increased serum IL-1ra (Fiber × Enzyme P = 0.035), and IL-2 (Fiber × Enzyme P = 0.042). In the presence of IF, multicarbohydrases increased serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, but not when supplemented with SF (Fiber × Enzyme P = 0.028). Circulating IL-8 and TNF-α were decreased in sows fed multicarbohydrases (P < 0.05). Multicarbohydrase supplementation increased the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), dry matter, and neutral detergent fiber by 2.8%, 3.4%, and 8.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared to IF−, the ATTD of hemicellulose was 5.3% greater in sows fed IF+ but did not differ from SF− and SF+ (Fiber × Enzyme P = 0.037). Sows fed IF+ had the greatest ATTD of insoluble dietary fiber (Fiber × Enzyme P = 0.011). Sows fed multicarbohydrases excreted less energy in their urine (519 vs. 469 GE kcal/d; Enzyme P = 0.033) and in their feces (985 vs. 900 GE kcal/d; Enzyme P = 0.003). This resulted in an improvement in both digestible energy (Enzyme P < 0.01) and metabolizable energy (Enzyme P = 0.041), irrespective of fiber type. In conclusion, multicarbohydrase supplementation increased the digestibility and energetic contribution of fiber, irrespective of adaptation time or fiber type, but modulation of inflammatory responses was unique to dietary fiber type.

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In vitro starch digestibility of maize flour and maize extruded noodles based on different particle-size effects.

Ge, R., Qian, X., Sun, B., Ma, S. & Wang, X. (2023). Journal of Cereal Science, 114, 103814.

In this study, the particle characteristics of the bimodal distribution of maize flour were utilized to screen maize flour with different grinding degrees. The changes in the digestibility characteristics of maize flour and extruded noodles were compared under the effects of grinding size and screening size. Under the effect of grinding size, the decrease in particle size was accompanied by an increase in the specific surface area and damaged starch contents of maize flour, enhanced the hydration ability of maize flour. And the digestion rate constants of raw flour and cooked flour increased from 0.0278, 0.0646 to 0.0514 and 0.0847, respectively. The digestion rate constant of extruded noodles increased from 0.0088 to 0.0097. Under the effect of screening size, compared to maize large particle flour (LF), small particle flour (SF) had higher total and damaged starch content, higher peak viscosity, and faster starch digestion. However, the digestion rate was lower after cooking. LF contained a higher protein content, and the prepared extruded noodles had thicker edges and a lower digestion rate. Therefore, SF after screening is more suitable for flour products with a low-glycemic index (GI), while LF is more suitable for preparing extruded noodles with a low-GI.

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Effects of grass silage, preserved using formic acid or lactic acid bacteria, on milk production of dairy cows, supplemented with concentrates high or low in metabolizable protein.

Grøseth, M., Karlsson, L., Steinshamn, H., Johansen, M., Kidane, A. & Prestløkken, E. (2024). Livestock Science, 279, 105375.

A continuous production experiment was conducted in Norway with 48 Norwegian Red dairy cows in early- to mid-lactation, to investigate the effect of grass silage with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or formic acid (FA) additives, on milk yield (MY) and milk protein yield (MPY). Grass wilted to 250 g dry matter (DM)/kg was inoculated with homofermentative LAB to obtain LAB silage, whilst FA silage was produced adding a FA-based additive. The two silages were fed ad libitum and supplemented with an average 10.3 kg of either high (H) or low (L) metabolizable protein (MP) concentrates, in a 2 ✗ 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The treatments were LAB silage and L concentrate, LAB silage and H concentrate, FA silage and L concentrate and FA silage and H concentrate. The use of FA resulted in lower levels of residual water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and higher levels of ammonia nitrogen (NH3N), compared to LAB. In situ results for FA silage showed lower rumen degradability of crude protein (CP), while gas in vitro results showed lower utilizable CP (uCP), compared to LAB silage (782 vs. 750 g/kg DM and 128 vs. 119 g/kg DM, respectively). The purine over creatinine (PDC) index did not indicate any effects on the microbial protein synthesis (MPS) from any of the treatments. The higher daily intake of FA silage (12.5 vs.13.7 kg DM for LAB and FA, respectively, P < 0.001), did not result in significant differences in daily MY (31.0 vs. 30.2 kg, P = 0.208), nor MPY (1.08 vs.1.07 kg/day, P = 0.878) for LAB and FA, respectively. Feeding H concentrate gave higher MPY (P = 0.036), higher urea in milk (P < 0.001), plasma (P < 0.001) and urine (P = 0.008) and tended to give higher MY (P = 0.063) for both silages. For amino acids (AA) in plasma, alanine was higher for FA silage than for LAB silage (P = 0.030), while histidine (P = 0.001), leucine (P = 0.015) and glutamine (P = 0.007) were higher for both silages when cows were fed H concentrate. In conclusion, the FA and LAB additives did not affect MY or MPY any differently. Feeding H concentrate resulted in higher MPY for both silages, but reduced nitrogen (N) efficiency.

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The effect of Dictyophora indusiata, oats and Polygonatum kingianum on the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestion of pizza crust.

Chen, K., Brennan, C., Brennan, M., Cheng, G., Li, L., Qin, Y., & Chen, H. (2024). International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 59(2), 785-796.

A high-glycaemic index diet can lead to elevated blood glucose levels and chronic diseases. In this study, Dictyophora indusiata powder, oats powder and Polygonatum kingianum powder were substituted for some wheat flour to make pizza crust. The aim was to investigate the effects of the three powders on the chemical composition, physical quality, antioxidant properties, in vitro digestibility of starch and sensory characteristics of pizza crust. The addition of the three powders enhanced the nutritional value of the pizza crust, especially the dried Dictyophora indusiata flour and oats powder were rich in dietary fibre and protein, the three powders also increased the total phenolic content (214%) and antioxidant activity (ABTS+185%, DPPH30.5%) of the pizza crust and improved the shelf-life of the pizza crust. In addition, the three powders increased the slowly digestible starch (25.9%) and decreased the reducing sugar levels and hydrogenation index, and expected glycaemic index of the pizza crust compared to the control group. The results suggest that the three powders could be used as functional ingredients to enhance the nutritional value and lower the glycaemic index of pizza crusts. This study provides new ideas for the development of nutritious and hypoglycaemic functional bakery products.

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Effects of supplementing colostrum beyond the first day of life on growth and health parameters of preweaned Holstein heifers. 

McCarthy, H. R., Cantor, M. C., Lopez, A. J., Pineda, A., Nagorske, M., Renaud, D. L. & Steele, M. A. (2023). Journal of Dairy Science, In Press.

The preweaning period for a dairy calf is characterized by high morbidity and mortality rates, leading to financial losses for producers. Identifying strategies to improve the health and welfare of calves while reducing antimicrobial use continues to be crucial to the success of the dairy industry. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding colostrum replacer (CR) to dairy heifer calves beyond day one of life on growth, serum IgG, the incidence of diarrhea and bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and the risk of mortality in the preweaning period. At birth, Holstein heifer calves (n = 200; 50/treatment) weighing 40.7 ± 0.35 kg (mean ± SE) were fed 3.2 L of CR (205 g IgG/feeding) at 0 h and 12 h of life. Calves were then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 450 g of milk replacer (MR) from d 2 to d 14 (control, CON), 380 g CR + 225 g MR from d 2 to d 3, then 450 g MR from d 4 to d 14 (transition, TRAN), 45 g CR + 450 g MR from d 2 to d 14 (extended, EXT); or 380 g CR + 225 g MR from d 2 to d 3, then 45 g CR + 450 g MR from d 4 to d 14 (transition + extended, TRAN+EXT). Each treatment was reconstituted to 3 L and fed twice daily. All CR treatments were fed using bovine derived CR containing 27% IgG. From d 15 to d 41, all calves were fed 600 g MR reconstituted to 4 L twice daily. Body weight was recorded at birth and every 7 d until study completion on d 49. Blood samples were taken daily until d 7 to evaluate serum IgG and then every 7 d until d 49. A health assessment was performed daily to evaluate calves for BRD and diarrhea. Data were analyzed using mixed linear regression, mixed logistic regression, and survival analysis models in SAS 9.4. Serum IgG concentrations were not affected by treatment for the study period. The EXT and TRAN+EXT groups had greater average daily gain (ADG) from d 7 – d 14 (0.14 kg/day) and the TRAN group had greater ADG from d 14 – d 21 (0.11 kg/d), compared with CON. There was no association of treatment with the odds or the duration of a diarrhea bout. However, provision of CR to the TRAN and EXT calves was associated with a reduced hazard of diarrhea compared with CON calves. Furthermore, TRAN and EXT calves have a lower hazard of mortality compared with CON calves, with TRAN and EXT calves had a 2.8- and 3.8-times lower hazard of mortality, respectively. Our findings suggest that the supplementation of CR to dairy calves positively impacts ADG, and reduces the hazard of diarrhea and mortality during the preweaning period. Future research should look to further refine the supplementation strategy of CR to calves and explore the mechanism of action.

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Physicochemical properties of different size fractions of potato starch cultivated in Highland China. 

Xie, X., Chen, J., Cheng, L., Zhang, B., Zhu, H., Xu, C. & Liang, D. (2024). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 256, 128065.

Location influences the properties of potato starch. Potato starch granules cultivated in highland of China were separated into three fractions according to the sedimentation time: large- (~81 μm, large fraction potato starch, LFPS), medium- (~28 μm, medium fraction potato starch, MFPS), and small-size (~15 μm, small fraction potato starch, SFPS) fractions. SFPS showed a spherical shape, MFPS showed an ellipsoid shape and LFPS showed an elongated shape. The three fractions showed the similar XRD patterns, while the relative crystallinity decreased with the decrease of granule size (LFPS 23.61%, MFPS 20.74% and SFPS 20.48%). The water solubility was positively corelated with the granule size, while the swelling power showed a negative relationship with the granule size. For the rheological properties, all the three fractions showed a shear-shinning behavior; and SFPS had the highest peak temperature. However, the MFPS showed the lowest storage modulus during the temperature sweep. The granule size didn’t influence the nutritional properties of potato starch and LFPS had the highest slowly digestible starch (SDS) (83.77%) and resistant starch (RS) (13.66%) contents. Some of the properties are different from the previous studies.

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Safety Information
Symbol : GHS05, GHS08
Signal Word : Danger
Hazard Statements : H314, H315, H319, H334
Precautionary Statements : P260, P261, P264, P280, P284, P301+P330+P331, P302+P352, P303+P361+P353, P304+P340, P342+P311, P501
Safety Data Sheet
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