|Content:||100 assays per kit|
|Storage Temperature:|| Short term stability: 2-8oC, |
Long term stability: See individual component labels
|Stability:||> 2 years under recommended storage conditions|
|Linear Range:||4 to 100 μg of glucose per assay|
|Limit of Detection:||0.036 g/100 g|
|Reaction Time (min):||~ 120 min|
|Application examples:||Plant materials, starch samples and other materials.|
|Method recognition:||AACC Method 32-40.01, AOAC Method 2002.02 and CODEX Method Type II|
The Resistant Starch Assay Kit for the measurement and analysis of resistant starch in plant materials and starch samples. Official analysis methods: AOAC Method 2002.02, AACC Method 32-40.01, CODEX Type II Method.
By definition, resistant starch (RS) is that portion of the starch that is not broken down by human enzymes in the small intestine. It enters the large intestine where it is partially or wholly fermented. RS is generally considered to be one of the components that make up total dietary fiber (TDF).
See our full range of starch and dietary fiber products.
- Very cost effective
- All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation
- Only enzymatic kit available
- Measures enzyme resistant starch
- Simple format
- Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing
- Standard included
Measurement of available carbohydrates, digestible, and resistant starch in food ingredients and products.
McCleary, B. V., McLoughlin, C., Charmier, L. M. J. & McGeough, P. (2019). Cereal Chemistry, 97(1), 114-137.
Background and objectives: The importance of selectively measuring available and unavailable carbohydrates in the human diet has been recognized for over 100 years. The levels of available carbohydrates in diets can be directly linked to major diseases of the Western world, namely Type II diabetes and obesity. Methodology for measurement of total carbohydrates by difference was introduced in the 1880s, and this forms the basis of carbohydrate determination in the United States. In the United Kingdom, a method to directly measure available carbohydrates was introduced in the 1920s to assist diabetic patients with food selection. The aim of the current work was to develop simple, specific, and reliable methods for available carbohydrates and digestible starch (and resistant starch). The major component of available carbohydrates in most foods is digestible starch. Findings: Simple methods for the measurement of rapidly digested starch, slowly digested starch, total digestible starch, resistant starch, and available carbohydrates have been developed, and the digestibility of phosphate cross‐linked starch has been studied in detail. The resistant starch procedure developed is an update of current procedures and incorporates incubation conditions with pancreatic α‐amylase (PAA) and amyloglucosidase (AMG) that parallel those used AOAC Method 2017.16 for total dietary fiber. Available carbohydrates are measured as glucose, fructose, and galactose, following complete and selective hydrolysis of digestible starch, maltodextrins, maltose, sucrose, and lactose to glucose, fructose, and galactose. Sucrose is hydrolyzed with a specific sucrase enzyme that has no action on fructo‐oligosaccharides (FOS). Conclusions: The currently described “available carbohydrates” method together with the total dietary fiber method (AOAC Method 2017.16) allows the measurement of all carbohydrates in food products, including digestible starch. Significance and novelty: This paper describes a simple and specific method for measurement of available carbohydrates in cereal, food, and feed products. This is the first method that provides the correct measurement of digestible starch and sucrose in the presence of FOS. Such methodology is essential for accurate labeling of food products, allowing consumers to make informed decisions in food selection.Hide Abstract
An integrated procedure for the measurement of total dietary fibre (including resistant starch), non-digestible oligosaccharides and available carbohydrates.
McCleary, B. V. (2007). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 389(1), 291-308.
A method is described for the measurement of dietary fibre, including resistant starch (RS), non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) and available carbohydrates. Basically, the sample is incubated with pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase under conditions very similar to those described in AOAC Official Method 2002.02 (RS). Reaction is terminated and high molecular weight resistant polysaccharides are precipitated from solution with alcohol and recovered by filtration. Recovery of RS (for most RS sources) is in line with published data from ileostomy studies. The aqueous ethanol extract is concentrated, desalted and analysed for NDO by high-performance liquid chromatography by a method similar to that described by Okuma (AOAC Method 2001.03), except that for logistical reasons, D-sorbitol is used as the internal standard in place of glycerol. Available carbohydrates, defined as D-glucose, D-fructose, sucrose, the D-glucose component of lactose, maltodextrins and non-resistant starch, are measured as D-glucose plus D-fructose in the sample after hydrolysis of oligosaccharides with a mixture of sucrase/maltase plus β-galactosidase.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V., Charnock, S. J., Rossiter, P. C., O’Shea, M. F., Power, A. M. & Lloyd, R. M. (2006). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86(11), 1648-1661.
Procedures for the measurement of starch, starch damage (gelatinised starch), resistant starch and the amylose/amylopectin content of starch, β-glucan, fructan, glucomannan and galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose and verbascose) in plant material, animal feeds and foods are described. Most of these methods have been successfully subjected to interlaboratory evaluation. All methods are based on the use of enzymes either purified by conventional chromatography or produced using molecular biology techniques. Such methods allow specific, accurate and reliable quantification of a particular component. Problems in calculating the actual weight of galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides in test samples are discussed in detail.Hide Abstract
Measurement of resistant starch.
McCleary, B. V. & Monaghan, D. A. (2002). Journal of AOAC International, 85(3), 665-675.
A robust and reliable method was developed to measure resistant starch (RS), i.e., starch that enters the large intestine. In vivo conditions were reflected as much as possible while a user-friendly format was maintained. Parameters investigated included α-amylase concentration, pH of incubation, maltose inhibition of α-amylase, the need for amyloglucosidase inclusion, the effect of shaking and stirring on determined values, and problems in recovering and analyzing the RS-containing pellet. The RS values obtained were in good agreement with published in vivo data. An interlaboratory evaluation of the method has been completed (First Action Method 2002.02).Hide Abstract
Measurement of resistant starch by enzymatic digestion in starch and selected plant materials: Collaborative study.
McCleary, B. V., McNally, M. & Rossiter, P. (2002). Journal of AOAC International, 85(5), 1103-1111.
Interlaboratory performance statistics was determined for a method developed to measure the resistant starch (RS) content of selected plant food products and a range of commercial starch samples. Food materials examined contained RS (cooked kidney beans, green banana, and corn flakes) and commercial starches, most of which naturally contain, or were processed to yield, elevated RS levels. The method evaluated was optimized to yield RS values in agreement with those reported for in vivo studies. Thirty-seven laboratories tested 8 pairs of blind duplicate starch or plant material samples with RS values between 0.6 (regular maize starch) and 64% (fresh weight basis). For matrixes excluding regular maize starch, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values ranged from 1.97 to 4.2%, and reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) values ranged from 4.58 to 10.9%. The range of applicability of the test is 2-64% RS. The method is not suitable for products with <1% RS (e.g., regular maize starch; 0.6% RS). For such products, RSDr and RSDR values are unacceptably high.Hide Abstract
Two issues in dietary fiber measurement.
McCleary, B. V. (2001). Cereal Foods World, 46, 164-165.
Enzyme activity and purity of these topics, the easiest to deal with is the importance of enzyme purity and activity. As a scientist actively involved in polysaccharide research over the past 25 years, I have come to appreciate the importance of enzyme purity and specificity in polysaccharide modification and measurement (7). These factors translate directly to dietary fiber (DF) methodology, because the major components of DF are carbohydrate polymers and oligomers. The committee report published in the March issue of Cereal FOODS WORLD refers only to the methodology for measuring enzyme purity and activity (8) that led up the AOAC method 985.29 (2). In this work enzyme purity was gauged by the lack of hydrolysis (i.e., complete recovery) of a particular DF component (e.g. β-glucan, larch galactan or citrus pectin). Enzyme activity was measured by the ability to completely hydrolyze representative starch and protein (namely wheat starch and casein). These requirements and restrictions on enzyme purity and activity were adequate at the time the method was initially developed and served as a useful working guide. However, it was recognized that there was a need for more stringent quality definitions and assay procedures for enzymes used in DF measurements.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V., Gibson, T. S. & Mugford, D. C. (1997). Journal of AOAC International, 80, 571-579.
An American Association of Cereal Chemists/AOAC collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of an enzyme assay kit procedure for measurement of total starch in a range of cereal grains and products. The flour sample is incubated at 95 degrees C with thermostable alpha-amylase to catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to maltodextrins, the pH of the slurry is adjusted, and the slurry is treated with a highly purified amyloglucosidase to quantitatively hydrolyze the dextrins to glucose. Glucose is measured with glucose oxidase-peroxidase reagent. Thirty-two collaborators were sent 16 homogeneous test samples as 8 blind duplicates. These samples included chicken feed pellets, white bread, green peas, high-amylose maize starch, white wheat flour, wheat starch, oat bran, and spaghetti. All samples were analyzed by the standard procedure as detailed above; 4 samples (high-amylose maize starch and wheat starch) were also analyzed by a method that requires the samples to be cooked first in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSD(r)) ranged from 2.1 to 3.9%, and relative standard deviations for reproducibility (RSD(R)) ranged from 2.9 to 5.7%. The RSD(R) value for high amylose maize starch analyzed by the standard (non-DMSO) procedure was 5.7%; the value was reduced to 2.9% when the DMSO procedure was used, and the determined starch values increased from 86.9 to 97.2%.Hide Abstract
Effect of parboiling on starch digestibility and mineral bioavailability in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Kumar, A., Lal, M. K., Nayak, S., Sahoo, U., Behera, A., Bagchi, T. B., Parameswaran, C. Swain, P. & Sharma, S. (2022). LWT, 156, 113026.
Parboiled rice is preferably consumed in many countries due to its nutritional superiority and lower starch digestibility. Parboiling affects rice cooking quality, starch digestibility and phytic acid which affects minerals bioavailability. Cooking quality was improved in parboiled brown (PB) and parboiled milled (PM) rice. Parboiling has significantly (P < 0.05) reduced glycemic index in both PB and PM rice with a proportionately increase in resistant starch. After milling, the phytic acid (PA) and Fe were reduced significantly (P < 0.05), however, parboiling further reduced PA but increased Fe content and bioavailability in PM rice due to its inward diffusion. Zn content was lower in PB and PM rice due to its outward movement during parboiling. The impact of Zn retention on its bioavailability was insignificant in parboiled rice as non-parboiled rice. This study provides better insights on rice parboiling as a method to reduce starch digestibility and improve mineral bioavailability which could be beneficial for diabetics and malnourished population.Hide Abstract
Wheat starch-tannic acid complexes modulate physicochemical and rheological properties of wheat starch and its digestibility. Kan, L., Capuano, E., Oliviero, T. & Renzetti, S. (2022). Food Hydrocolloids, 126, 107459.
Wheat starch-tannic acid complexes modulate physicochemical and rheological properties of wheat starch and its digestibility. Kan, L., Capuano, E., Oliviero, T. & Renzetti, S. (2022). Food Hydrocolloids, 126, 107459.
In this study, the interactions of wheat starch (WS) and tannic acid (TA) were investigated for their gelatinization, pasting, structural, rheological properties and digestibility of wheat starch. TA was either complexed with starch (WS-TA complexes) or mixed with starch (WS-TA mixtures) right before the characterization of its properties. The increase of melting enthalpy and temperature range (Tpeak - Tonset) associated with melting of amylose-lipid complex and the increase in the X-ray diffraction peak at 2θ = 20° possibly indicated the formation of inclusion types of complexes. The appearance of an endothermic transition at 130-160°C indicated the formation of non-inclusion types of complexes. Non-inclusion type of complexes were mostly formed by co-gelatinization of WS-TA mixtures, while inclusion complexes would be mostly formed by complexation of TA with ungelatinized starch. TA in mixtures increased G′ and viscosity and decreased frequency dependency of the moduli, thus producing a stronger gel. TA in complexes decreased G′ and viscosity at low TA%, thus producing a weak gel, but increased gel strength at high TA%. The storage moduli G′ increased depending on the amount of TA involved in non-inclusion complexes. The formation of complexes between WS and TA largely slowed down the digestibility of gelatinized starch. The insights gained in this study provide opportunities to modulate starch techno-functional properties and digestibility in processing of starchy food.Hide Abstract
Functional, thermal, and pasting properties of cooked carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) flours.
Bento, J. A. C., Morais, D. K., de Berse, R. S., Bassinello, P. Z., Caliari, M. & Júnior, M. S. S. (2022). Applied Food Research, 2(1), 100027.
This study verified if cooking presoaked beans in the steam of autoclave improves the pasting properties, texture profile, water-solubility (WSI), emulsifying capacities of aged carioca bean’ flours. The carioca beans flour presented high content of protein (20.7-22.3 g·100g−1), resistant starch (RS) (8.3-31.1 g·100g−1), and dietary fiber (TDF) (18.9-23.7 g·100g−1), and the cultivar Notavel presented the highest content of total dietary fiber and resistant starch for both cooked and raw flour. The pretreatment promoted an increase in TDF (8.8%, cultivar Dama) and a decrease in RS (19.5%, 33.4%, and 47.0% for cultivars Imperador, Gol, and Bola Cheia, respectively). Regarding the pasting properties, the heating process promoted a reduction in the values of peak viscosity, final viscosity, breakdown, and setback for all carioca bean cultivars. The other parameters, i.e., gel hardness, WSI, emulsifying capacity, and stability also presented a significant decrease in the cooked flours. So, the pretreatment promoted a total or/partially starch pre-gelatinization and the denaturation of the proteins of the flours which might increase their acceptability for food development.Hide Abstract
Feeding with Sustainably Sourdough Bread Has the Potential to Promote the Healthy Microbiota Metabolism at the Colon Level.
Da Ros, A., Polo, A., Rizzello, C. G., Acin-Albiac, M., Montemurro, M., Di Cagno, R. & Gobbetti, M. (2021). Microbiology spectrum, 9(3), e00494-21.
The contribution of sustainably food processing to healthy intestinal microbial functions is of recent acquisition. The sourdough fermentation fits well with the most sustainable bread making. We manufactured baker’s yeast (BYB) and sourdough (t-SB30) breads, which first underwent to an in-depth characterization. According to nutritional questionnaires, we selected 40 volunteers adhering to the Mediterranean diet. Data on their fecal microbiota and metabolome allowed the selection of two highly representative fecal donors to separately run the Twin Mucosal-SHIME (Twin M-SHIME) under 2-week feeding with BYB and t-SB30. Bread feeding did not affect the microbial composition at phylum and family levels of both donors, in all Twin M-SHIME colon tracts, and lumen and mucosal compartments. The genus core microbiota showed few significant fluctuations, which regarded the relative abundances of Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc according to feeding with BYB and t-SB30, respectively. Compared with BYB, the content of all short chain fatty acids (SCFA), and isovaleric and 2-methylbutyric acids significantly increased with t-SB30 feeding. This was evident for all Twin M-SHIME colon tracts and both donors. The same was found for the content of Asp, Thr, Glu, GABA, and Orn. The bread characterization made possible to identify the main features responsible for this metabolic response. Compared with BYB, t-SB30 had much higher contents of resistant starch, peptides, and free amino acids, and an inhomogeneous microstructure. We used the most efficient approach to investigate a staple food component, excluding interferences from other dietary factors and attenuating human physiology overlaps. The daily consumption of sourdough bread may promote the healthy microbiota metabolism at colon level.Hide Abstract
Physicochemical characteristics, microstructure and health promoting properties of green banana flour.
Khoza, M., Kayitesi, E. & Dlamini, B. C. (2021). Foods, 10(12), 2894.
This study aimed to investigate the proximate composition, mineral content, functional properties, molecular structure, in vitro starch digestibility, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP) of green banana flour (GBF) cultivars grown in South Africa. With proximate composition, Finger Rose and Pisang Awak had the highest protein (4.33 g/100 g) and fat (0.85 g/100 g) content, respectively. The highest ash content (3.50 g/100 g) occurred with both Grand Naine and FHIA-01 cultivars. Potassium and copper were the most abundant and least minerals, respectively. Pisang Awak cultivar had the highest water absorption capacity (67.11%), while Du Roi had the highest swelling power (0.83 g/g) at 90 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that starch granules from all GBF cultivars were irregular in shape and they had dense surfaces with debris. All the GBF cultivars had similar diffraction patterns with prominent peaks from 15°-24° diffraction angles. The resistant starch (RS) and amylose content of the FHIA-01 cultivar indicates that the GBF has the potential to lower risks of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The highest TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity occurred with the Grande Naine cultivar. Based on their functional characteristics, the Grand Naine and FHIA-01 GBF cultivars could potentially be used as raw materials for bakery products as well as for the fortification of snacks.Hide Abstract
Physicochemical properties, structure and digestibility in simulated gastrointestinal environment of bread added with green lentil flour.
Gallo, V., Romano, A., Miralles, B., Ferranti, P., Masi, P., Santos-Hernández, M. & Recio, I. (2022). LWT, 154, 112713.
Aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of bread enrichment with different concentrations of lentil flour (LF) (0 g/100g, 10 g/100g and 20 g/100g) on some physico-chemical, structural, and nutritional features of bread. The addition of LF in formulation affected its properties, leading to a darker appearance and to a more compact structure (e.g., higher density and lower gas bubble area fraction). Besides, it led to a significant rise in the protein, free glucose, and rapidly digestible starch content as well as in the expected glycemic index. Concerning the investigation of nutritional properties, starch and protein digestibility has been evaluated by the combination of different digestion models. Each type of bread was subjected to an in vivo oral phase followed by a semi-dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. During the oral and the gastric phases of digestion, bread with the greatest LF content (20 g/100g) exhibited an extensive starch digestibility and a partial protein digestibility compared to the other samples, due to its higher protein content. In contrast, during the intestinal phase, control (0 g/100g) showed a stronger starch digestibility compared with the LF samples, while no differences could be observed in terms of protein digestibility investigated by SDS-PAGE.Hide Abstract
Physicochemical characterization of flours and starches derived from selected underutilized roots and tuber crops grown in Sri Lanka.
Chiranthika, N. N. G., Chandrasekara, A. & Gunathilake, K. D. P. P. (2022). Food Hydrocolloids, 124, 107272.
Underutilized roots and tuber crops have the potential to commercialize and contribute to the regular diet of the consumers. These crops provide several nutrients and health benefits, besides, to serve as major sources of carbohydrates. This study was aimed to characterize the flours and starches of Dioscorea alata (Kahata-ala-KA and Hingurala-H), Dioscorea esculenta (Java-ala-JA), Lasia spinosa and Nelumbo nucifera concerning compositional, functional and morphological parameters. The composition of carbohydrates, starch granular morphology and functional properties of selected roots and tubers were analyzed. The total dietary fiber and resistant starch contents were in the range of 6.83 ± 0.66–39.42 ± 0.74% and 4.65 ± 0.56–9.54 ± 0.71 respectively on a dry weight basis. The shapes of starch granules of D. alata, D. esculenta, L. spinosa and N. nucifera were spherical, polygonal, elongated and round to elongate respectively. There were considerable variations in total starch, total dietary fiber, resistant starch, amylose and amylopectin, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, swelling power, water solubility and gelatinization parameters among five varieties. All tested varieties showed a considerable amount of dietary fiber and resistant starch contents that could lead to health benefits along with preferable functional properties that favorable for food product formulation.Hide Abstract
Physicochemical and morphological characterization of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) starch and potential application in nano-encapsulation by spray drying.
Vázquez-León, L. A., Aparicio-Saguilán, A., Martínez-Medinilla, R. M., Utrilla-Coello, R. G., Torruco-Uco, J. G., Carpintero-Tepole, V. & Páramo-Calderón, D. E. (2021). Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 24, 1-14.
The objective of this work was to analyze the morphological and physicochemical properties of bean starch and its use in nanoencapsulation by spray drying. Starch purity was 81.21 ± 1.43% db with a resistant starch content higher than a commercial corn starch, but with a high protein content and a low amylose content. Starch granules presented smooth surfaces, polyhedral shape and sizes from ~ 1 to 6.3 µm. Black bean starch exhibited an A-type X-ray diffraction pattern with a crystallinity highest than corn starch. Black bean starch showed higher thermal stability than a commercial corn starch. At 90 °C, solubility was 31.0% and swelling power was 31.2 g g−1. The black bean starch gel showed a high stability under refrigeration and freeze–thaw. Small particles and viscosity profile suggested the potential application of black bean starch as wall material during nano spray drying. Black bean starch tends to form spherical aggregates during nano spray drying due to the protein content. Capsules size was in the range of 1.0–2.5 µm, however were observed agglomerated particles by SEM. The encapsulation efficiency of L-ascorbic acid was 36.88 ± 0.55%. The results indicate that black bean starch possesses properties with potential applications in food industries.Hide Abstract
Exploring differences in the physicochemical, functional, structural, and pasting properties of banana starches from dessert, cooking, and plantain cultivars (Musa spp.).
Paramasivam, S. K., Saravanan, A., Narayanan, S., Shiva, K. N., Ravi, I., Mayilvaganan, M., Pushpa, R. & Uma, S. (2021). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 191, 1056-1067.
Banana starch, with its nutritional and functional properties, opens up new opportunities for the food industry, which is seeking new starch sources to fulfil rising demand. Herein, physico-chemical, and functional properties of banana starches isolated from dessert, plantain, and cooking cultivars were investigated. Starch yield was higher in Popoulu (30.58%) and Monthan (27.82%). Starch granules registered irregular forms with granule sizes ranging from 8.9 to 55.09 μm. Among the cultivars, the amylose content was ranged between 25.05 and 31.86%. Total starch (95.86 and 95.60%,) and resistant starch (65.56 and 59.20%) were higher in Saba and Monthan respectively. Flour colour index (86.2-90.6) was higher in banana starches. Differential scanning calorimetry and rapid viscosity studies confirmed that starches from Saba (87.67 and 85.71°C) Monthan (85.36 and 81.65°C) have a higher gelatinization property. Banana starches were B and C-type with varying crystallinity levels (21.19-52.01%). The in-vitro starch digestibility revealed that Saba starch has a lower hydrolysis rate with lesser glycemic index. PCA showed the greater impact of amylose and resistant starch content on the grouping of varieties. These findings would be useful for food and non-food industries in terms of using banana starch in various food compositions and other industrial applications.Hide Abstract
Physical, chemical, and antioxidant analysis of sorghum grain and flour from five hybrids to determine the drivers of liking of gluten-free sorghum breads.
de Oliveira, L. D. L., de Oliveira, G. T., de Alencar, E. R., Queiroz, V. A. V. & de Alencar Figueiredo, L. F. (2022). LWT, 153, 112407.
Physical, chemical, and antioxidant analysis of grain and flour of five sorghum hybrids with different pericarp color (brown, red, and white) and endosperm texture were conducted to prepare gluten-free bread. Specific volume, texture, and acceptance were assessed in the breads. All characteristics were correlated to identify the drivers of liking. Only the brown BRS 305 and 1167048 hybrids presented pigmented testa layer with higher total phenolic contents (TPC) and total condensed tannins (TAN). The former stood out for antioxidants (1493 mg/100 g of TPC, 609.9 mg/100 g of TAN). The negative effect of antioxidants and fibers on bread acceptance was highlighted. Red sorghum BRS 332 presented higher acceptance, besides an interesting content of antioxidants (218 mg/100 g of TPC and 21.4 mg/100 g of TAN). Proteins, carbohydrates, and soluble starch were drivers of liking. Their contents could be adjusted with other ingredients to improve formulations of higher antioxidant sorghum breads.Hide Abstract
Effects of stirring during gelatinization and shaking during hydrolysis on the characteristics of short-chain glucan aggregates (SCGA).
Oh, S. M., Seo, D. H., Park, C. S., Kim, Y. R. & Baik, M. Y. (2022). Food Hydrocolloids, 123, 107174.
Effects of stirring during gelatinization and shaking during hydrolysis on physicochemical properties of short-chain glucan aggregates (SCGA) were investigated. Both stirring and shaking improved SCGA yield, and also affected the formation and crystallization kinetics of SCGA. Without stirring and shaking, slow SCGA forming rate, large size (~1.32 μm), high relative crystallinity (RC), high endothermic onset temperature, and high melting enthalpy (ΔH) were observed. Stirring and shaking yielded the fastest SCGA formation and crystallization rates as well as the smallest SCGA size (~0.57 μm). Small SCGA had a low RC and low heat stability, possibly due to the presence of imperfections and low double helix content. Formation yield was negatively correlated with size, ΔH, RC, and the resistant starch content of SCGA. The highest correlations were observed between ΔH and RC. This study proves that the SCGA characteristics can easily be controlled by stirring during gelatinization and shaking during enzymatic hydrolysis.Hide Abstract
A novel approach for resistant starch production from green banana flour using amylopullulanase.
Das, M., Rajan, N., Biswas, P. & Banerjee, R. (2022). LWT, 153, 112391.
The present article emphasizes on improving the intrinsic content of resistant starch % in green banana flour through enzymatic intervention. The enzyme amylopullulanase has been selected for the study because of its bifunctional properties that are specifically acting on α 1-4 and α 1-6 glycosidic linkages present in the starch molecule. To evaluate the effective action of enzyme on starch, optimization studies have been performed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), which was further compared with Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modelling. The basic objective of this study is to increase the resistant starch content of green banana flour by adopting enzyme technology. After the optimized study, it has been observed that, 240 min of incubation time, 1:7 sample: water ratio (g: mL), particle size 3 (as coded in Section 2.1) of green banana flour and an enzyme titre of 7% (v/v) (0.04 IU/g of amylase; 0.01 IU/g of pullulanase) at 37°C are the optimum conditions for the maximum increment of the RS%. Upon enzymatic treatment, the RS% increased from 38.5% for native substrate to 68.99% in the enzymatically modified green banana flour. The flour samples were further subjected to characterization to assess its physico-chemical, functional, digestibility and thermal properties.Hide Abstract
Resistant starches and non-communicable disease: A focus on mediterranean diet.
Cione, E., Fazio, A., Curcio, R., Tucci, P., Lauria, G., Cappello, A. R. R. & Dolce, V. (2021). Foods, 10(9), 2062.
Resistant starch (RS) is the starch fraction that eludes digestion in the small intestine. RS is classified into five subtypes (RS1–RS5), some of which occur naturally in plant-derived foods, whereas the others may be produced by several processing conditions. The different RS subtypes are widely found in processed foods, but their physiological effects depend on their structural characteristics. In the present study, foods, nutrition and biochemistry are summarized in order to assess the type and content of RS in foods belonging to the Mediterranean Diet (MeD). Then, the benefits of RS consumption on health are discussed, focusing on their capability to enhance glycemic control. RS enters the large bowel intestine, where it is fermented by the microbiome leading to the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids as major end products, which in turn have systemic health effects besides the in situ one. It is hoped that this review will help to understand the pros of RS consumption as an ingredient of MeD food. Consequently, new future research directions could be explored for developing advanced dietary strategies to prevent non-communicable diseases, including colon cancer.Hide Abstract