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Resistant Starch Assay Kit

Product code: K-RSTAR

100 assays per kit

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Content: 100 assays per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: Resistant Starch
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 510
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 4 to 100 μg of glucose per assay
Limit of Detection: 0.036 g/100 g
Reaction Time (min): ~ 120 min
Application examples: Plant materials, starch samples and other materials.
Method recognition: AACC Method 32-40.01, AOAC Method 2002.02 and CODEX Method Type II

The Resistant Starch Assay Kit for the measurement and analysis of resistant starch in plant materials and starch samples. Official analysis methods: AOAC Method 2002.02, AACC Method 32-40.01, CODEX Type II Method.

By definition, resistant starch (RS) is that portion of the starch that is not broken down by human enzymes in the small intestine. It enters the large intestine where it is partially or wholly fermented. RS is generally considered to be one of the components that make up total dietary fiber (TDF).

See our full range of starch and dietary fiber products.

Scheme-K-RSTAR RSTAR Megazyme

  • Very cost effective 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation 
  • Only enzymatic kit available 
  • Measures enzyme resistant starch 
  • Simple format 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included
Validation of Methods
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Product Performance
Megazyme publication

Measurement of available carbohydrates, digestible, and resistant starch in food ingredients and products.

McCleary, B. V., McLoughlin, C., Charmier, L. M. J. & McGeough, P. (2019). Cereal Chemistry, 97(1), 114-137.

Background and objectives: The importance of selectively measuring available and unavailable carbohydrates in the human diet has been recognized for over 100 years. The levels of available carbohydrates in diets can be directly linked to major diseases of the Western world, namely Type II diabetes and obesity. Methodology for measurement of total carbohydrates by difference was introduced in the 1880s, and this forms the basis of carbohydrate determination in the United States. In the United Kingdom, a method to directly measure available carbohydrates was introduced in the 1920s to assist diabetic patients with food selection. The aim of the current work was to develop simple, specific, and reliable methods for available carbohydrates and digestible starch (and resistant starch). The major component of available carbohydrates in most foods is digestible starch. Findings: Simple methods for the measurement of rapidly digested starch, slowly digested starch, total digestible starch, resistant starch, and available carbohydrates have been developed, and the digestibility of phosphate cross‐linked starch has been studied in detail. The resistant starch procedure developed is an update of current procedures and incorporates incubation conditions with pancreatic α‐amylase (PAA) and amyloglucosidase (AMG) that parallel those used AOAC Method 2017.16 for total dietary fiber. Available carbohydrates are measured as glucose, fructose, and galactose, following complete and selective hydrolysis of digestible starch, maltodextrins, maltose, sucrose, and lactose to glucose, fructose, and galactose. Sucrose is hydrolyzed with a specific sucrase enzyme that has no action on fructo‐oligosaccharides (FOS). Conclusions: The currently described “available carbohydrates” method together with the total dietary fiber method (AOAC Method 2017.16) allows the measurement of all carbohydrates in food products, including digestible starch. Significance and novelty: This paper describes a simple and specific method for measurement of available carbohydrates in cereal, food, and feed products. This is the first method that provides the correct measurement of digestible starch and sucrose in the presence of FOS. Such methodology is essential for accurate labeling of food products, allowing consumers to make informed decisions in food selection.

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Megazyme publication

An integrated procedure for the measurement of total dietary fibre (including resistant starch), non-digestible oligosaccharides and available carbohydrates.

McCleary, B. V. (2007). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 389(1), 291-308.

A method is described for the measurement of dietary fibre, including resistant starch (RS), non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) and available carbohydrates. Basically, the sample is incubated with pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase under conditions very similar to those described in AOAC Official Method 2002.02 (RS). Reaction is terminated and high molecular weight resistant polysaccharides are precipitated from solution with alcohol and recovered by filtration. Recovery of RS (for most RS sources) is in line with published data from ileostomy studies. The aqueous ethanol extract is concentrated, desalted and analysed for NDO by high-performance liquid chromatography by a method similar to that described by Okuma (AOAC Method 2001.03), except that for logistical reasons, D-sorbitol is used as the internal standard in place of glycerol. Available carbohydrates, defined as D-glucose, D-fructose, sucrose, the D-glucose component of lactose, maltodextrins and non-resistant starch, are measured as D-glucose plus D-fructose in the sample after hydrolysis of oligosaccharides with a mixture of sucrase/maltase plus β-galactosidase.

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Megazyme publication
Measurement of carbohydrates in grain, feed and food.

McCleary, B. V., Charnock, S. J., Rossiter, P. C., O’Shea, M. F., Power, A. M. & Lloyd, R. M. (2006). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86(11), 1648-1661.

Procedures for the measurement of starch, starch damage (gelatinised starch), resistant starch and the amylose/amylopectin content of starch, β-glucan, fructan, glucomannan and galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose and verbascose) in plant material, animal feeds and foods are described. Most of these methods have been successfully subjected to interlaboratory evaluation. All methods are based on the use of enzymes either purified by conventional chromatography or produced using molecular biology techniques. Such methods allow specific, accurate and reliable quantification of a particular component. Problems in calculating the actual weight of galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides in test samples are discussed in detail.

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Megazyme publication

Measurement of resistant starch.

McCleary, B. V. & Monaghan, D. A. (2002). Journal of AOAC International, 85(3), 665-675.

A robust and reliable method was developed to measure resistant starch (RS), i.e., starch that enters the large intestine. In vivo conditions were reflected as much as possible while a user-friendly format was maintained. Parameters investigated included α-amylase concentration, pH of incubation, maltose inhibition of α-amylase, the need for amyloglucosidase inclusion, the effect of shaking and stirring on determined values, and problems in recovering and analyzing the RS-containing pellet. The RS values obtained were in good agreement with published in vivo data. An interlaboratory evaluation of the method has been completed (First Action Method 2002.02).

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Megazyme publication

Measurement of resistant starch by enzymatic digestion in starch and selected plant materials: Collaborative study.

McCleary, B. V., McNally, M. & Rossiter, P. (2002). Journal of AOAC International, 85(5), 1103-1111.

Interlaboratory performance statistics was determined for a method developed to measure the resistant starch (RS) content of selected plant food products and a range of commercial starch samples. Food materials examined contained RS (cooked kidney beans, green banana, and corn flakes) and commercial starches, most of which naturally contain, or were processed to yield, elevated RS levels. The method evaluated was optimized to yield RS values in agreement with those reported for in vivo studies. Thirty-seven laboratories tested 8 pairs of blind duplicate starch or plant material samples with RS values between 0.6 (regular maize starch) and 64% (fresh weight basis). For matrixes excluding regular maize starch, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values ranged from 1.97 to 4.2%, and reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) values ranged from 4.58 to 10.9%. The range of applicability of the test is 2-64% RS. The method is not suitable for products with <1% RS (e.g., regular maize starch; 0.6% RS). For such products, RSDr and RSDR values are unacceptably high.

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Megazyme publication

Two issues in dietary fiber measurement.

McCleary, B. V. (2001). Cereal Foods World, 46, 164-165.

Enzyme activity and purity of these topics, the easiest to deal with is the importance of enzyme purity and activity. As a scientist actively involved in polysaccharide research over the past 25 years, I have come to appreciate the importance of enzyme purity and specificity in polysaccharide modification and measurement (7). These factors translate directly to dietary fiber (DF) methodology, because the major components of DF are carbohydrate polymers and oligomers. The committee report published in the March issue of Cereal FOODS WORLD refers only to the methodology for measuring enzyme purity and activity (8) that led up the AOAC method 985.29 (2). In this work enzyme purity was gauged by the lack of hydrolysis (i.e., complete recovery) of a particular DF component (e.g. β-glucan, larch galactan or citrus pectin). Enzyme activity was measured by the ability to completely hydrolyze representative starch and protein (namely wheat starch and casein). These requirements and restrictions on enzyme purity and activity were adequate at the time the method was initially developed and served as a useful working guide. However, it was recognized that there was a need for more stringent quality definitions and assay procedures for enzymes used in DF measurements.

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Megazyme publication
Measurement of total starch in cereal products by amyloglucosidase-alpha-amylase method: collaborative study.

McCleary, B. V., Gibson, T. S. & Mugford, D. C. (1997). Journal of AOAC International, 80, 571-579.

An American Association of Cereal Chemists/AOAC collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of an enzyme assay kit procedure for measurement of total starch in a range of cereal grains and products. The flour sample is incubated at 95 degrees C with thermostable alpha-amylase to catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to maltodextrins, the pH of the slurry is adjusted, and the slurry is treated with a highly purified amyloglucosidase to quantitatively hydrolyze the dextrins to glucose. Glucose is measured with glucose oxidase-peroxidase reagent. Thirty-two collaborators were sent 16 homogeneous test samples as 8 blind duplicates. These samples included chicken feed pellets, white bread, green peas, high-amylose maize starch, white wheat flour, wheat starch, oat bran, and spaghetti. All samples were analyzed by the standard procedure as detailed above; 4 samples (high-amylose maize starch and wheat starch) were also analyzed by a method that requires the samples to be cooked first in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSD(r)) ranged from 2.1 to 3.9%, and relative standard deviations for reproducibility (RSD(R)) ranged from 2.9 to 5.7%. The RSD(R) value for high amylose maize starch analyzed by the standard (non-DMSO) procedure was 5.7%; the value was reduced to 2.9% when the DMSO procedure was used, and the determined starch values increased from 86.9 to 97.2%.

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Improvement of wheat cookies’ nutritional quality, by partial substitution with common bean and maize flours, sustained human glycaemia and enhanced satiety perception.

Mecha, E., Correia, V., da Silva, A. B., Ferreira, A., Sepodes, B., Figueira, M. E., Vaz Vatto, M. C. & Bronze, M. R. Cereal Chemistry., 98(5), 1123-1134.

Background: As a dietetic source of fiber, protein, vitamins, minerals, and phenolic compounds, common beans have potential benefits in human health, namely in chronic diseases’ prevention (e.g., cardiovascular diseases and colon cancer). Still, legume consumption, especially in European countries, is below recommendations. The consumers demand for innovative, attractive legume-based food products suggests a potential future increase in consumption of legumes, especially in modern societies, keen on ready-to-eat foods with known health benefits. Objectives: With the aim of studying, the impact of wheat flour's partial substitution by common bean (56%) and maize (22%) flours in the nutritional composition of formulated cookies and its effect on human glycemia and consumers’ satiety perception, after ingestion, a human intervention study (n = 16) was designed. Findings: Approved by consumers, common bean enriched cookies were responsible by reducing glycemic response, and by increasing satiety perception. The nutritional composition of common bean enriched cookies contributed to explain these effects. Conclusions: Common bean enriched bakery food products are valuable nutritional options for consumers concerned with satiety and chronic diseases’ prevention.

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Relationship between starch digestibility and physicochemical properties of aged rice grain.

Tamura, M., Tsujii, H., Saito, T. & Sasahara, Y. (2021). LWT, 111887.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between starch digestibility and physicochemical properties of aged rice grains. Fresh rice (FR), aged rice (AR), and accelerated aged rice (AAR) grains were prepared and used as samples. Freshness evaluations of pH and L* based on lipid deterioration showed that polished AR and AAR were degraded samples. Crude protein and apparent amylose contents and molecular weight profiles of proteins did not differ between polished rice. Although there was no significant difference in surface firmness between cooked grains, cooked AAR grains had significantly lower surface adhesiveness and adhesion than cooked FR and AR grains. Microscopic observations showed that intracellular disruption of the aleurone layer tended to increase in the order of polished AR > AAR > FR grains. No significant differences were found in the equilibrium concentration of starch hydrolysis (111.69-112.82%), kinetic constant (k) (7.57 × 10−3-8.61 × 10−3 min−1), and estimated glycemic index (eGI) (88.78-93.27) of the cooked grains. However, k and eGI showed significant linear correlations with pH and L*, respectively. These results revealed that changes in the tissue structure of polished grains due to aging affected lipid deterioration, correlating with the starch digestibility of cooked grains.

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Ultrasound-treated lupin (Lupinus albus L.) flour: Protein-and fiber-rich ingredient to improve physical and textural quality of bread with a reduced glycemic index.

Yaver, E. & Bilgiçli, N. (2021). LWT, 148, 111767.

In this study, lupin (Lupinus albus L.) flours (0, 10, 15 and 20%) debittered by ultrasound application and traditional method, and resistant starch type 4 (RS4) (0, 5 and 10%) were used in bread production to improve nutritional quality. The effect of ultrasound application on physical, textural and chemical properties of bread enriched with lupin flour and RS4 was investigated. Experiments were conducted at (2 × 4 × 3)×2 factorial design. Ultrasound application presented higher volume, specific volume and lower weight, firmness, hardness and chewiness values in bread compared to the traditional method. Besides, ultrasound had no adverse effect on chemical properties of bread. While the addition of lupin flour decreased volume and specific volume values, increased ash, fat, protein, total dietary fiber, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P and Zn contents of bread. The bread prepared with 5% RS4 revealed statistically similar volume and specific volume values to bread prepared without RS4 (P > 0.05). Compared to white bread, the use of lupin flour and RS4 in bread formulation significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in vitro glycemic index. These results obtained in this study may provide useful information in the food industry to improve quality of protein- and fiber-rich bread by ultrasound application.

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Effect of Non-Conventional Drying Methods on In Vitro Starch Digestibility Assessment of Cooked Potato Genotypes.

Larder, C. E., Baeghbali, V., Pilon, C., Iskandar, M. M., Donnelly, D. J., Pacheco, S., Godbout, S., Ngadi,  & Kubow, S. (2019). Foods, 8(9), 382.

Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are a good dietary source of carbohydrates in the form of digestible starch (DS) and resistant starch (RS). As increased RS content consumption can be associated with decreased chronic disease risk, breeding efforts have focused on identifying potato varieties with higher RS content, which requires high-throughput analysis of starch profiles. For this purpose, freeze drying of potatoes has been used but this approach leads to inaccurate RS values. The present study objective was to assess the starch content (RS, DS and total starch (TS)) of three cooked potato genotypes that were dried using freeze drying and innovative drying techniques (microwave vacuum drying, instant controlled pressure drop drying and conductive hydro-drying) relative to freshly cooked potato samples. Depending on the genotype, all drying methods showed one or more starch measures that were significantly different from freshly cooked values. The combination of ultrasound and infrared assisted conductive hydro-drying was the only method identified to be associated with accurate assessment of DS and TS content relative to fresh samples. The drying treatments were all generally associated with highly variable RS content relative to fresh controls. We conclude that freshly cooked samples must be used for selecting varieties with a high proportion of RS starch as drying of cooked potatoes leads to unreliable RS measurements.

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Use of Underexploited Flours for the Reduction of Glycaemic Index of Gluten-Free Biscuits: Physicochemical and Sensory Characterization.

Di Cairano, M., Condelli, N., Caruso, M. C., Cela, N., Tolve, R. & Galgano, F. (2021). Food and Bioprocess Technology, 1-13.

The type and the amount of starch present in bakery products affect their glycaemic index. The control of glycaemic index in our diet can be relevant to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart diseases. The use of alternative flours to rice, maize, and their starches may improve the nutritional quality of gluten-free baked goods by reducing the glycaemic index. This work aimed at the formulation of satisfactory gluten-free biscuits by using underexploited flour mixes (from cereals, pseudocereals, and legumes), at the evaluation of their physical properties, starch digestibility and subsequent estimation of the glycaemic index. The presence of chickpea flour increased biscuit hardness and gluten-free flours darkened biscuit surface. The greatest differences in starch composition and its digestion were found between gluten-free samples and wheat-containing control. Experimental biscuits had also a lower predicted glycaemic index compared to commercial products, whereas experimental formulations presented similar values between each other. Consumers’ acceptance and sensory profiling by Check All That Apply questionnaire were carried out. All formulations but one were above the acceptance threshold (50); crumbliness and easiness to swallow were drivers of acceptance, whereas sandiness exerted a negative impact on liking score.

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A Ca+2 independent Pullulanase from Bacillus licheniformis and its application in the synthesis of resistant starch.

Khan, A., Irfan, M., Rahman, U., Azhar, F., Shah, A. A., Badshah, M., Hasan, F., ur Rehman, F., Malik, Z. A. & Khan, S. (2021). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 58(2), 699-709.

Polysaccharides including resistant starch can be categorized as a part of dietary fiber and used as an important prebiotic. Like soluble fibers, resistant starch also has a number of physiological effects which have been proved to be beneficial for health. Enzymatically modified starch with resistant to digestion may find unique applications. Starch hydrolyzing enzymes display essential roles in the production of resistant starch, and the most important is pullulanase. In current study, an industrially important pullulanase from Bacillus licheniformis has been produced and purified for its potential use in synthesis of resistant starch type III. B. licheniformis is an efficient producer of pullulanase when checked on pullulan containing media. Different organic substrates were evaluated for production of pullulanase in fermentation media and ascribe that corn bran was an excellent source for pullulanase production (16 U/mg). The pullulanase was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of about 75 kDa on SDS-PAGE and specific activity of 191 U/mg. Pullulanase was optimally active at pH 5 and 50°C . In addition, Ca+2 and EDTA have no noticeable effect on pullulanase activity. Substrate specificity and thin layer chromatography results specify pullulanase as pullulanase type I. Purified pullulanase were used for the preparation of resistant starch from maize flour. Addition of pullulanase into gelatinized maize starches significantly increased the yield of resistant starch III. Final yields of resistant starch III with pullulanase treated maize starches were increased (14.32%) as compare to untreated (1.34%) and heat treated maize starch (4.25%). These results provided new information that may shed light on the further development of method to modify starches with enzymatic treatment.

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Extrusion pregelatinization improves texture, viscoelasticity and in vitro starch digestibility of mango and amaranth flours.

Garcia-Valle, D. E., Agama-Acevedo, E., del Carmen Nuñez-Santiago, M., Alvarez-Ramirez, J. & Bello-Pérez, L. A. (2021). Journal of Functional Foods, 80, 104441.

Non-conventional flours from unripe fruits and pseudocereals have potential as functional ingredients given their high protein contents and antioxidant activity. Pregelatinized starch and flours are increasingly used in gluten-free foods and as fat substitutes. The present work aimed to address the effect of extruding pregelatinization in the viscoelasticity and in vitro starch digestibility of amaranth and mango flours. Differences in starch, protein, and lipid contents between these flours were shown, which impacted the characteristics of the extruded flours. The gelatinization degree was 51% (amaranth) and 56% (mango). FTIR analysis showed that extrusion disrupted the hydrated and short-range ordered starch structure. Amaranth flour presented higher content of slowly digestible starch (41.13% raw and 49.39% extruded flour), which can be due to its higher protein conten (18.3%) with the potential of forming complexes with starch. A principal component analysis revealed that extrusion had a strong effect on the properties of both flours.

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Using a novel hyperthermophilic amylopullulanase to simplify resistant starch preparation from rice starches.

Peng, H., Qian, L., Fu, Z., Xin, L., Hua, Z., Woolf, J., Xioa, Y. & Gao, Y. (2021). Journal of Functional Foods, 80, 104429.

A glycoside hydrolase family 57 protein, designated APU_Aquae, from hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus was expressed in Escherichia coli. APU_Aquae was biochemically defined as a novel bifunctional amylopullulanase, which exhibited efficient activity towards rice starches. It is extremely thermostable with half-life of 7 h at 100°C. Therefore, APU_Aquae was used to simplify the process of enzymatic debranching treatment in resistant starch type III (RS3) preparation from rice starches. Starch pregelatinization and enzymatic hydrolysis were combined into one step. It took only 7 h, which was much shorter than that of other enzymatic treatments. RS3 content of treated rice starches was 40.5 ± 0.7%. APU_Aquae treatment resulted in more medium branch chains B1 with degree of polymerization (DP) values 13-24, which might be one main reason to promote the RS3 formation. This study provides the new design for the industrial RS3 production.

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Comparison of standard and non-standard buckwheat groats for cooking, physicochemical and nutritional properties, and in vitro starch digestibility.

Tamura, M., Yoshimura, Y., Saito, T. & Koyama, T. (2021). Future Foods, 3, 100029.

In Japan, harvested buckwheat is classified as standard (SBG) and non-standard buckwheat groats (NBG) based on their density, though NBG are used as feed or incinerated. This study aimed to investigate the potential of NBG as a new food by comparing the cooking, physicochemical, and nutritional properties and in vitro starch digestibility of SBG and NBG. The thousand grain weight and whole grain ratio were significantly less for raw NBG (21.72 g and 75.06%) than for raw SBG (27.51 g and 89.39%) (p < 0.05). With the exception of adhesiveness, texture was not significantly different between cooked samples. Although there was no significant difference in crude protein and resistant starch contents between cooked samples, cooked NBG was significantly lower in total starch content and higher in total phenol content than cooked SBG (p < 0.05). The equilibrium concentration of hydrolyzed starch was significantly higher in cooked NBG (102.07%) than in cooked SBG (81.73%) during in vitro digestion (p < 0.05). After in vitro digestion, more voids on the starchy endosperm of cooked NBG were observed than those of cooked SBG. These results indicated that NBG can be a high starch digestibility food that satisfies the texture and nutrition of buckwheat.

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Functionalisation of rice bran assisted by ultrasonication and fermentation for the production of rice bran-lingonberry pulp‐based probiotic nutraceutical.

Vaitkeviciene, R., Zadeike, D., Gaizauskaite, Z., Valentaviciute, K., Marksa, M., Mazdzieriene, R., Bartkiene, E., Lele, V., Juodeikiene, G. & Jakstas, V. (2021). International Journal of Food Science & Technology, In Press.

A probiotic nutraceutical based on functionalised rice bran (RB) supplemented with lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) pulp (LP) at various levels (10‒50 g/100 g d.w.) was developed. Prior to immobilisation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cells, RB-LP matrix was structured by ultrasound (US) (850 kHz; power 160 W) for 20 min at 40°C. Xanthan gum and sodium alginate were used for the stabilisation of RB-LP matrix. Survival and fermentative activity of the immobilised LAB cells was studied by monitoring pH, cell number, antimicrobial activity, lactic acid and acetic acid production. US treatment increased by 17.5% soluble dietary fibre (SDS) contents in RB but reduced on average by 49.9% hyperoside, quercetin, quercitrin and coumaric acid contents in LP material. RB substrate supplemented with LP (20-50 g/100 g d.w.) resulted in higher antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus for Lactobacillus brevis, and against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus for Pediococcus acidilactici. RB-LP matrix stabilised with alginate-xanthan and alginate maintained 8.09-8.67 log CFU g−1 live cells of immobilised L. brevis after 7 weeks of storage at 4°C. In the case of protection under simulated in vitro digestion conditions, RB-LP gels with sodium alginate demonstrated the highest cell survival with 4.25 CFU g−1 viable cells remaining in the product and 5.23 log CFU g−1 live cells in the digestion medium.

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Nutritional, physical and sensory characteristics of gluten-free biscuits incorporated with a novel resistant starch ingredient.

Cervini, M., Frustace, A., Garrido, G. D., Rocchetti, G. & Giuberti, G. (2021). Heliyon, 7(3), e06562.

Gluten-free (GF) biscuits were prepared by replacing part of a GF flour mix (GFM) with 0, 15, 30 and 45 g/100 g (total flour) with a novel resistant starch-rich ingredient obtained from annealed white sorghum starch (RSWS). The chemical composition, physical characteristics, in vitro starch digestion and sensory evaluation of biscuits were considered. The chemical composition of samples was influenced by the addition of the RSWS. The highest total dietary fibre and RS contents (p < 0.05) were measured in 45-RSWS biscuits. The starch hydrolysis index values decreased when the level of RSWS increased in the composite. With regard to quality parameters, the use of RSWS influenced the hardness of the biscuits, and the highest value obtained for 45-RSWS. Some of the selected sensory attributes, along with the overall acceptability score, were negatively influenced by the RSWS addition, even if all remained above the limit of acceptability. The use of RSWS in GF biscuit formulation can contribute towards the creation of food products likely having slowly digestible starch properties, and this can be achieved without drastically compromising on the quality and sensory attributes.

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Characteristics of functional brown rice prepared by parboiling and microwave drying.

Huang, W., Song, E., Lee, D., Seo, S., Lee, J., Jeong, J., Chang, Y., Lee, Y. & Hwang, J. (2021). Journal of Stored Products Research, 92, 101796.

Brown rice (BR) is well known for its functional properties; however, it is considered unsuitable for consumption in modern diet owing to its hard texture, low digestibility, and high lipid peroxidation. In this study, we investigated the physicochemical properties, and cooking and storage characteristics of functional BR prepared by parboiling (100°C, 15 min) and microwave drying (100 kW, 8 rpm, 91°C, 40 min) processes. These processes significantly increased resistant starch (RS) content by 1.5-fold and total dietary fiber (TDF) content by 1.8-fold; Parboiling and microwave drying processes increased the umami taste by 10% using electronic tongue and decreased the hardness by 10% using texture analyzer, respectively. Additionally, irrespective of the storage duration, these processes remarkably decreased acidity and bacterial counts in the parboiled BR group compared to that in the BR group. Presumably, higher RS and TDF contents, enhanced umami taste, and longer shelf-life of BR would help patients with obesity and diabetes, and industries developing relevant high-value food products.

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Evaluation of indigenous aromatic rice cultivars from sub-Himalayan Terai region of India for nutritional attributes and blast resistance.

Mondal, D., Kantamraju, P., Jha, S., Sundarrao, G. S., Bhowmik, A., Chakdar, H., Mandel, S., Sahana, N., Roy, B., Bhattacharya, P. M., Chowdhury, A. K. & Choudhury, A. (2021). Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-25.

Indigenous folk rice cultivars often possess remarkable but unrevealed potential in terms of nutritional attributes and biotic stress tolerance. The unique cooking qualities and blissful aroma of many of these landraces make it an attractive low-cost alternative to high priced Basmati rice. Sub-Himalayan Terai region is bestowed with great agrobiodiversity in traditional heirloom rice cultivars. In the present study, ninety-nine folk rice cultivars from these regions were collected, purified and characterized for morphological and yield traits. Based on traditional importance and presence of aroma, thirty-five genotypes were selected and analyzed for genetic diversity using micro-satellite marker system. The genotypes were found to be genetically distinct and of high nutritive value. The resistant starch content, amylose content, glycemic index and antioxidant potential of these genotypes represented wide variability and ‘Kataribhog’, ‘Sadanunia’, ‘Chakhao’ etc. were identified as promising genotypes in terms of different nutritional attributes. These cultivars were screened further for resistance against blast disease in field trials and cultivars like ‘Sadanunia’, ‘T4M-3-5’, ‘Chakhao Sampark’ were found to be highly resistant to the blast disease whereas ‘Kalonunia’, ‘Gobindabhog’, ‘Konkanijoha’ were found to be highly susceptible. Principal Component analysis divided the genotypes in distinct groups for nutritional potential and blast tolerance. The resistant and susceptible genotypes were screened for the presence of the blast resistant pi genes and association analysis was performed with disease tolerance. Finally, a logistic model based on phenotypic traits for prediction of the blast susceptibility of the genotypes is proposed with more than 80% accuracy.

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Safety Information
Symbol : GHS05, GHS08
Signal Word : Danger
Hazard Statements : H314, H315, H319, H334
Precautionary Statements : P260, P261, P264, P280, P284, P301+P330+P331, P302+P352, P303+P361+P353, P304+P340, P342+P311, P501
Safety Data Sheet
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