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Phytic Acid Assay Kit

Play Training Video

00:02  Introduction & Kit Description
00:34  Principle
01:50   Preparation: (Solution A)
04:11    Preparation: (Solution B)
05:11    Preparation of Colour Reagent
05:56   Calibration
06:21   Assay Procedure: A. Sample Extraction
09:21   Assay Procedure: B. Enzymatic Dephosphorylation Reaction
14:35   Assay Procedure: C. Colourimetric Determination of Phosphorous
17:33   Calculations

Phytic Acid Assay Kit K-PHYT Scheme
Product code: K-PHYT

50 assays per kit

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Content: 50 assays per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: Phytic Acid, Phosphorus
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 655
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: ~ 0.5 to ~ 7.5 µg of phosphorus per assay
Limit of Detection: ~ 11.3 mg phosphorus (~ 40 mg phytic acid)
Reaction Time (min): 25 min enzymic; 1 h for phosphate determination
Application examples: Seed materials, feeds and foodstuffs.
Method recognition: Novel method

The Phytic Acid test kit is a simple method for the measurement and analysis of phytic acid/total phosphorus in food and feed samples. This method does not require purification of phytic acid via anion-exchange chromatography making it amenable to high numbers of samples.

Display our complete list of organic acid assay kits.

Scheme-K-PHYT PHYT Megazyme

  • Very cost effective 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Validation Report
Megazyme publication

A Novel and Rapid Colorimetric Method for Measuring Total Phosphorus and Phytic Acid in Foods and Animal Feeds.

McKie, V. A. & McCleary, B. V. (2016). J. AOAC Int. , 99(3), 738-743.

Phytic acid, or myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, is the primary source of inositol and storage phosphorus in plant seeds and has considerable nutritional importance. In this form, phosphorus is unavailable for absorption by monogastric animals, and the strong chelating characteristic of phytic acid reduces the bioavailability of multivalent minerals such as iron, zinc, and calcium. Currently, there is no simple quantitative method for phytic acid; existing methods are complex, and the most commonly accepted method, AOAC Official MethodSM 986.11, has limitations. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple, high-throughput method for the measurement of total phosphorus and phytic acid in foods and animal feeds. The method described here involves acid extraction of phytic acid, followed by dephosphorylation with phytase and alkaline phosphatase. The phosphate released from phytic acid is measured using a modified colorimetric molybdenum blue assay and calculated as total phosphorus or phytic acid content of the original sample. The method was validated to a maximum linearity of 3.0 g phytic acid/100 g sample. Accuracy ranged from 98 to 105% using pure phytic acid and from 97 to 115% for spiked samples. Repeatability ranged from 0.81 to 2.32%, and intermediate precision was 2.27%.

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Effect of solid-state fermentation on select antinutrients and protein digestibility of cold-pressed and hexane-extracted canola meals.

Li, C., Shi, D., Stone, A., Wanasundara, J., Tanaka, T. & Nickerson, M. (2022). Authorea Preprints, In Press

In this study, the effects of solid-state fermentation (SSF), including strain (Aspergillus niger NRRL 334 and A. oryzae NRRL 5590) and fermentation time (24, 48, and 72 h) on the nutritional value of cold-pressed (CP) and hexane-extracted (HE) canola meals were examined. SSF increased the protein content of both types of meals (from ~36 to ~40%) while reducing the oil content of CP meals (from ~12 to 9%). There was a significant reduction (~80%) in the phytic acid content of both types of meals after fermentation using either fungi. Overall, fermented samples showed a decrease in the total phenolic content from 2.7-3.1 to ~1.0 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g DM (a ~65% reduction), of which specifically the HE meal fermented with A. niger sample had the greatest decrease from 3.1 to 0.6 mg GAE/g DM (~81% reduction). Seventy-two hours of fermentation decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of the meals. In contrast, a shorter fermentation time (24 h) increased the IVPD as compared to the controls (from ~73% to 77-81%), with the exception of the CP meal fermented with A. niger which had decreased IVPD at all fermentation times. Overall, the changes indicate that SSF using A. niger or A. oryzae can be useful to positively modify the composition of different canola meals and improve their nutritional value by significantly increasing the protein content, decreasing the levels of antinutrients, while only slightly reducing IVPD.

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Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Water-Based Extracts of Vicia faba L.: A Potential Innovative Source of Nutraceutical Ingredients.

Castaldo, L., Izzo, L., Lombardi, S., Gaspari, A., De Pascale, S., Grosso, M. & Ritieni, A. (2022). Antioxidants, 11(12), 2453.

The water-based extract of broad bean hulls contains several bioactive molecules, including polyphenols well-known to exert antioxidant activity, which could justify its use in nutraceutical formulations. Hence, the current investigation aimed to establish the polyphenolic profile of water-based extracts from broad bean hulls through UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS analysis. The findings highlighted that p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, and epicatechin were the most common compounds found in the tested extracts, being quantified at a mean concentration of 42.1, 32.6, and 31.2 mg/100 g, respectively. Moreover, broad bean hull extracts were encapsulated into a nutraceutical formulation, after which the antioxidant properties and the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds during the simulated gastrointestinal (GI) process were investigated and compared with the digested non-encapsulated extract. The data highlighted that following the GI process, the capsules were able to preserve active compounds from the adverse effects of digestion, resulting in a greater antioxidant capacity and polyphenol bioaccessibility in the duodenal and colonic phases, compared with the non-encapsulated extract. Our results showed that the water extract from broad bean hulls may be considered a valuable source of natural polyphenolic compounds; in addition, the use of a gastric-resistant capsule could be a suitable alternative to transport these bioactive compounds to the target tissues.

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Effects of Irrigation Levels on Biochemical Traits of Popcorn Kernels.

Kaplan, M., Tas, I., Ciftci, B., Varol, I. S. & Akçura, S. (2022). Gesunde Pflanzen, 1-8.

Popcorn, directly consumed as foodstuff, is among the most popular products. Biochemical quality traits of popcorn may exhibit significant variations based on growing conditions. Number of studies about the irrigation-dependent changes in biochemical traits of popcorn kernels is quite limited. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation levels (50%, 75%, 100% and 125% of depleted water from the field capacity) on protein characteristics (crude protein and pepsin protein digestibility), starch characteristics (total starch, resistant and non-resistant starch, amylose-amylopectin content), oil and fatty acids and mineral contents of popcorn kernels. Experimental results were assessed through variance and biplot analyses. Irrigation levels had highly significant effects on biochemical traits of popcorn kernels. Irrigations increased kernel protein and starch contents and decreased dietary fiber and amylose contents. Linoleic acid contents increased and oleic acid contents decreased with increasing irrigation levels. The greatest palmitic and stearic acid contents were obtained from I100 treatments. Na and Fe contents increased with increasing irrigation levels. The greatest Mg and Zn contents were obtained from I100 irrigation level and the greatest Ca content was obtained from I75 irrigation level. In present biplots generated for visual assessment of the changes in investigated traits with irrigation levels, oleic acid, amylopectin and dietary fiber contents were placed into the same sector with I50 treatment; Zn, stearic acid, palmitic acid and Mg contents were placed into the same sector with I100 treatment; the other traits were placed into the same sector with I125 treatment. Two principle components (PC1 and PC2) explained 96.55 of total variation indicating significance of investigated traits based on irrigation levels. It was concluded based on present findings that biochemical traits, fatty acid composition and mineral contents of popcorn kernels could be improved through the use of different irrigation levels and irrigation levels should be arranged based on soil conditions to improve quality traits of popcorn kernels.

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Nutritional profiling and GIS-based grid mapping of Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) germplasm.

Laxmisha, K. M., Semwal, D. P., Gupta, V., Katral, A., Bisht, I. S., Mehta, P. S., Arya, M., Bhardwaj, R. & Bhatt, K. C. (2022). Applied Food Research, 2(2), 100169.

Thirty-two accessions of Coix lacryma-jobi belonging to different parts of North-Eastern India were taken from National Gene Bank at ICAR-NBPGR. Accessions were evaluated for nutritional traits and grid mapped to identify trait-specific germplasm and their geographic relationship. Proximate composition, total soluble sugars, total starch, total phytate in g/100 g, total phenol and antioxidant activity in % GAE, and minerals viz. iron, copper, zinc, and calcium in mg/100 g were estimated. Biochemical parameters like protein (15.9%), crude fat (4.66%), iron (13.6 mg/100 g), zinc (3.61 mg/100 g), and calcium (146 mg/100 g) have been recorded, which was higher than some members of its crop group. Principal component analysis revealed that the biochemical parameters such as starch, phenol, sugar, moisture, and antioxidants contributed significantly to generating diversity. Grid mapping for trait-specific germplasm revealed that high protein accessions could be collected from Meghalaya's East Khasi Hills and Arunachal Pradesh's Dibang valley; high iron and zinc content accessions from Meghalaya's East Khasi Hills; and low phytate content accessions from Nagaland-Manipur and Manipur-Myanmar border areas. IC0089381 and IC0416884 were identified as nutritionally superior accessions that can be used in breeding programs.

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Defatted durum wheat germ to produce type-II and III sourdoughs: Characterization and use as bread ingredient.

Perri, G., Miani, M. G., Amendolagine, G., Pontonio, E. & Rizzello, C. G. (2022). LWT, 163, 113566.

A fermentation protocol including selected lactic acid bacteria has been applied to defatted durum wheat germ, resulting from the oil extraction, to produce a nutritionally valuable ingredient for bread production. An integrated approach was used to evaluate the microbiological, nutritional, technological, and sensory properties of the fermented ingredient and the corresponding fortified bread. The fermentation led to a significant increase of the concentration of free amino acids (3-times) and decrease of the phytic acid (50%) and raffinose (93%) contents. The bread fortified with the sourdough-fermented defatted wheat germ could be labelled as source of fiber (3.3 g/100 g of bread) and source of protein (15.4% of the energy value was provided by proteins), according to the Regulation EC No. 1924/2006. When the fermented ingredient was used, the free amino acids concentration was 80% higher and the glycemic index lower (84 vs 95) than the control bread. Although final volume, hardness and chewiness of bread fortified with the fermented ingredient were similar to those of the control bread, an easier fracturability was found probably due to the high content of dietary fibers and acidity. Sensory analysis showed that fermented defatted wheat germ conferred perceptible acidic odor and taste to the bread.

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Nutritional and genetic variation in a core set of Ethiopian Tef (Eragrostis tef) varieties.

Ereful, N. C., Jones, H., Fradgley, N., Boyd, L., Cherie, H. A. & Milner, M. J. (2022). BMC Plant Biology, 22(1), 1-14.

Background: Tef (Eragrostis tef) is a tropical cereal domesticated and grown in the Ethiopian highlands, where it has been a staple food of Ethiopians for many centuries. Food insecurity and nutrient deficiencies are major problems in the country, so breeding for enhanced nutritional traits, such as Zn content, could help to alleviate problems with malnutrition. Results: To understand the breeding potential of nutritional traits in tef a core set of 24 varieties were sequenced and their mineral content, levels of phytate and protein, as well as a number of nutritionally valuable phenolic compounds measured in grain. Significant variation in all these traits was found between varieties. Genome wide sequencing of the 24 tef varieties revealed 3,193,582 unique SNPs and 897,272 unique INDELs relative to the tef reference var. Dabbi. Sequence analysis of two key transporter families involved in the uptake and transport of Zn by the plant led to the identification of 32 Zinc Iron Permease (ZIP) transporters and 14 Heavy Metal Associated (HMA) transporters in tef. Further analysis identified numerous variants, of which 14.6% of EtZIP and 12.4% of EtHMA variants were non-synonymous changes. Analysis of a key enzyme in flavanol synthesis, flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3’H), identified a T-G variant in the tef homologue Et_s3159-0.29-1.mrna1 that was associated with the differences observed in kaempferol glycoside and quercetin glycoside levels. Conclusions: Wide genetic and phenotypic variation was found in 24 Ethiopian tef varieties which would allow for breeding gains in many nutritional traits of importance to human health.

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The effect of dehulling of yellow peas and faba beans on the distribution of carbohydrates upon dry fractionation.

do Carmo, C. S., Silventoinen-Veijalainen, P., Zobel, H., Holopainen-Mantila, U., Sahlstrøm, S. & Knutsen, S. H. (2022). LWT, 163, 113509.

The impact of dehulling as a pre-treatment for dry fractionation on the distribution of inositol phosphate and the composition and quantity of different carbohydrates in the fine and coarse fractions from yellow peas and faba beans was elucidated. For peas, low molecular weight carbohydrates markedly increased during air classification in the fine fraction whereas for faba beans this tendency was less pronounced. Sucrose and raffinose series oligosaccharides were higher in the coarse and fine fractions, respectively, independently on dehulling pre-treatment. A large part of the insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) was removed by dehulling and mostly assigned to cellulose. Dehulled faba beans and peas contained similar amount of total and soluble NSP, of which the latter were assigned to pectin and arabinogalactan. In general, dehulling increased the amounts of soluble NSP. Dehulling enriched phytic acid in remaining seeds and it was further enriched with protein in fine fractions. Regarding the aimed product e.g., fine fraction, dehulling gives a slight reduction of non-digestible oligosaccharides and phytic acid in peas but not in faba beans.

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Effect of enzyme‐assisted hydrolysis on brewer's spent grain protein solubilization-peptide composition and sensory properties.

Kriisa, M., Taivosalo, A., Föste, M., Kütt, M. L., Viirma, M., Priidik, R., Korzeniowska, M., Tian, Y., Laaksonen, O., Yang, B. & Vilu, R. (2022). Applied Food Research, 2(1), 100108.

This study aimed to valorize brewer's spent grain (BSG) from a side-stream into protein ingredients suitable for human consumption. The impact of protease treatments was studied for solubilizing BSG proteins. Treatment with Protamex or simultaneous co-incubation of Protamex and Flavourzyme solubilized up to 60% of the total protein in BSG, whereas co-incubation with Flavourzyme increased the availability of hydrophobic amino acids (Val, Phe, Ala, Leu, Ile) in extracts. The scale-up of protease treatments demonstrated comparable solubilized protein fractions in 0.1 L and 10 L reaction volumes. Thorough sequence-based peptide analysis by liquid chromatography-ion mobility-mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of 479 and 451 water-soluble peptides in the hydrolysates obtained with Protamex or co-incubation of Protamex and Flavourzyme, respectively. Main cutting sites on BSG proteins were identified between Leu-Gln, Tyr-Phe, Pro-X (Protamex), complementing with a variety of cutting sites mainly next to Gln, Pro, Ile, and Phe when combined with Flavourzyme. Uniform protease activity throughout the entire B-hordein sequence and the formation of peptides with varying sequence lengths did not increase the bitterness of the hydrolysates compared to the BSG sample with water extraction. These results support the characterization of enzymatic treatments in plant-based materials and the production of hydrolysates with desired composition.

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Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein concentrates from wet and dry industrial fractionation: Molecular properties, nutritional composition, and anisotropic structuring.

Nasrollahzadeh, F., Roman, L., Swaraj, V. S., Ragavan, K. V., Vidal, N. P., Dutcher, J. R. & Martinez, M. M. (2022). Food Hydrocolloids, 131, 107755.

Hemp seeds stand as a rich source of globulins and albumins with all the essential amino acids and a balanced amino acid profile. Nevertheless, the potential of dry- and wet-extracted hemp protein concentrates to create plant-based, fibrous High Moisture Meat Analogues (HMMAs) remains unknown. In this study, five distinct hemp seed protein concentrates (55.9–76.4% protein, d.b.) produced at industrial scale using dry or wet fractionation were investigated and compared for their functionality and protein molecular properties. Furthermore, non-proteinaceous components were also analysed to elaborate on the underlying mechanisms for the structuring behaviour of hemp protein concentrates during wet extrusion. Although dry fractionation resulted in lower protein concentration, hemp proteins retained their native oligomeric state and their albumin fraction, thus showing higher surface hydrophobicity and solubility, and lower gelation concentration than wet-extracted counterparts. Furthermore, hemp samples were richer in bound polyphenols (>1800 mg/100 g), presumably phenolic acids, than the control pea sample (1363 mg/100 g), which resulted in dark colours in wet-extracted samples. Selected HMMA prototypes were developed and investigated for anisotropy, viscoelasticity, and proton NMR relaxometry. Visual and instrumental anisotropy dramatically increased with the use of hemp protein concentrates, from 0.69% using pea, to 0.98% and 1.41% using dry- and wet-fractionated fractionated hemp, respectively. Nonetheless, dry-fractionated hemp HMMA showed the highest proportion of free water in the system (T23 proton relaxation time), and an intermediate viscoelasticity between pea and wet-fractionated hemp HMMAs. Interestingly, SDS-PAGE revealed a significant contribution of disulphide bonds on hemp protein aggregation during processing.

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Effect of parboiling on starch digestibility and mineral bioavailability in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Kumar, A., Lal, M. K., Nayak, S., Sahoo, U., Behera, A., Bagchi, T. B., Parameswaran, C. Swain, P. & Sharma, S. (2022). LWT, 156, 113026.

Parboiled rice is preferably consumed in many countries due to its nutritional superiority and lower starch digestibility. Parboiling affects rice cooking quality, starch digestibility and phytic acid which affects minerals bioavailability. Cooking quality was improved in parboiled brown (PB) and parboiled milled (PM) rice. Parboiling has significantly (P < 0.05) reduced glycemic index in both PB and PM rice with a proportionately increase in resistant starch. After milling, the phytic acid (PA) and Fe were reduced significantly (P < 0.05), however, parboiling further reduced PA but increased Fe content and bioavailability in PM rice due to its inward diffusion. Zn content was lower in PB and PM rice due to its outward movement during parboiling. The impact of Zn retention on its bioavailability was insignificant in parboiled rice as non-parboiled rice. This study provides better insights on rice parboiling as a method to reduce starch digestibility and improve mineral bioavailability which could be beneficial for diabetics and malnourished population.

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Trends of antinutritional compounds in groundnut pod at development stages during drought conditions.

Solanki, M. V., Rathod, P. J., & Mahatma, M. K. The Pharma Innovation Journal, (2021), SP-10(10), 1107-1111.

This study was investigated for the anti-nutritional compounds in groundnut kernels of two varieties at various stages of pod development in moisture deficit condition. The pods were collected at difference stages at 90 DAS, 105 DAS and 120 DAS of GJG-22 and TG-37A. Irrigation was withdrawn for moisture deficit condition and these days sampling was determined for phytic acid, oxalic acid and trypsin inhibitors. The GJG-22 and TG-37A groundnut verities shown significant differences in antinutritional compound viz, oxalic acid, phytic acid a trypsin inhibitor in seed and it was found to be increased in control condition as compared to drought condition. In drought condition verities TG-37A was shown decreased in content of phytic acid and oxalic acid. While in case of GJG-22, it was found to be decreased in trypsin inhibitors in all stages of pod development. One surprising effect was observed at 90-DAS in control condition as compared to drought condition for oxalic acids content. Overall antinutritional compounds were found to be decreased at 105-DAS to 120-DAS. The quality of groundnut seed kernel is based on anti-nutritional factors. It is fact proven notes that seeds with lower values in oxalate and trypsin inhibitors are being designated as biochemical markers for moisture deficit conditions.

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Evolution of microbial communities and nutritional content of fermented Amaranthus sp. leaves.

Misci, C., Taskin, E., Vaccari, F., Dall'Asta, M., Fontanella, M. C., Bandini, F., Vezzulli, F., Imathiu, S., Sila, D., Bertuzzi, T., Cocconcelli, P. S. & Puglisi, E. (2021). International Journal of Food Microbiology, 109445, In Press.

Amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) is a promising indigenous leafy vegetable plant capable of contributing to food security in sub-Saharan Africa, thanks to its adaptability to diverse soils and its drought tolerance. Its edible parts such as leaves, are characterized by high nutrient content. Food losses along the supply chain due to spoilage however, especially of fresh produce is a challenge facing most of sub-Saharan African countries in tackling food insecurity in the region. This calls for innovative yet inexpensive solutions such as natural fermentation to preserve the quality and safety of the commodity. To demonstrate the feasibility of natural fermentation in the preservation of vegetable amaranth, leaves were submerged (1:0.5 w/v) in distilled water with 3% sucrose and 3% NaCl dissolved. Control batches were prepared using only distilled water (1:0.5 w/v) with amaranth leaves. Sampling of both treated leaves and controls occurred at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 168 h to measure the pH and determine microbial population changes using culture and molecular-based techniques. Furthermore, the effects of treatment on nutritional content were assayed at the end of the process to determine the levels of B-group vitamins, β-carotene, lutein, and anti-nutrient phytic acid from unfermented fresh air-dried and 3% sucrose and 3% NaCl treated amaranth leaves. Finally, a visive and olfactive analysis was carried out to evaluate the acceptability of the final product. The significant drop of pH and the correct growth of Lactobacillaceae occurred only in treated batches, although Lactococcus was found in both treated and control samples. Furthermore, mean counts observed on selective media for controls and molecular high-throughput sequencing (HTS) analyses confirmed that in control samples, the undesired bacteria represented more than 60% of microbial population. In treated amaranth leaves the amount of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, β-carotene and lutein content were higher compared to the fresh unfermented air-dried leaves, and phytic acid content diminished after 7-days treatment. These findings suggests that treatment of amaranth leaves using 3% sucrose and 3% NaCl does not only preserve the commodity by arresting the growth of undesired microorganisms involved in spoilage and fosters the lactic acid bacteria, but also improves the nutritional content of the fermented end product that has been warmly welcomed by panelists.

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Feeding value improvement of corn-ethanol co-product and soybean hull by fungal fermentation: fiber degradation and digestibility improvement.

Sun, X., Devi, D., Urriola, P., Tiffany, D., Jang, J. C., Shurson, G. & Hu, B. (2021). Food and Bioproducts Processing, 130, 143-153.

Fungal pre-treatment and fermentation could improve nutritional value of wet corn distillers’ grains and solubles (WDGS), soybean hull (SH), and their blend in swine and poultry diets, which can potentially increase revenues for corn-ethanol and soybean processing industries while reducing feed cost in swine and poultry production systems. This study evaluated the effectiveness of pre-treatment of SH, WDGS, and their mixture by Trichoderma reesei and fermentation by Aspergillus oryzae to improve the nutritional profile and digestibility of these ingredients. T. reesei produced cellulase and xylanase, resulting in structural carbohydrates reduction by 69.2% while concentrating amino acids from 6.8% to 11% in SH. Fermentation with A. oryzae degraded phytate by over 50% and improved in vitro digestibility of amino acids in WDGS and its mixture with SH. Fermenting T. reesei pre-treated SH by A. oryzae showed higher in vitro dry matter digestibility than non-fermented substrate. Moreover, the proportion of key amino acids (arginine, threonine, methionine, and lysine) in both T. reesei and A. oryzae fermented substrates were significantly improved. The results demonstrated the feasibility of combining T. reesei and A. oryzae in improving feeding value of WDGS and SH for potential use as feed ingredients for monogastric animals.

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The moisture plasticizing effect on enzyme-catalyzed reactions in model and real systems in view of legume ageing and their hard to cook development.

Aravindakshan, S., Kyomugasho, C., Tafiire, H., Van Loey, A., Grauwet, T. & Hendrickx, M. E. (2022). Journal of Food Engineering, 314, 110781.

This study aims to understand the role of storage conditions (temperature, T and moisture content) in the reactions involved in the cation-pectin-phytate hypothesis, postulated to cause the Hard-to-cook (HTC) defect in beans as influenced by the plasticizing effect of moisture (glass transition (Tg) concept). The enzyme catalysed reactions, demethylesterification of pectin and hydrolysis of phytic acid, were monitored respectively in simplified pectin and phytic acid/protein model systems. In addition, both reactions were studied in a real system, red kidney bean cotyledon during storage at 35°C and different relative humidity conditions (6%, 54%, 66%, 72% and 82%) for 15 weeks. The Tg-moisture relation of the model systems and the bean cotyledon were established by Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). The Tg-line, fitted using the Gordon-Taylor equation, was combined with the moisture sorption isotherm to create a stability diagram. The stability diagram obtained can be used to ascertain the biochemical stability during post-harvest ageing of beans. Results displayed that there was significant hydrolysis of phytic acid in the phytic acid/protein model system and the real system when stored above their glass transition values. On the other hand, in the model system the pectin degree of methylesterifcation (DM) did not significantly change during storage. In the real system, significant, although small, changes of the DM were noted when T-Tg > 20°C. An examination of the glass transition lines revealed that the reactions were influenced by the plasticizing effect of moisture.

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Evaluation of nutritional attributes of whey-cereal based probiotic beverage.

Ganguly, S., Sabikhi, L. & Singh, A. K. (2021). LWT, 152, 112292.

Probiotic composite beverage was prepared from underutilized resources, whey-skim milk (60:40, v/v), germinated pearl millet flour (4.5%, w/v), liquid barley malt extract (3.0%, w/v) and fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 13. In vivo feeding trials on mice revealed better weight gain and blood haemoglobin level in the probiotic beverage-fed group (P) than in the control group (casein diet) and unfermented beverage-fed group (UF) which indicates that the nutritional quality in terms of protein efficiency ratio and apparent protein digestibility was better for probiotic group than UF and control group. The relative weights of organs of mice fed on the P were not significantly different from the organs of the mice fed on the basal diet, indicating no abnormality induced due to feeding of probiotic beverage. Probiotic beverage can be a cost-effective source of nutrition for wide segments of population in the society specially for underprivileged one.

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Effects of highly purified rapeseed protein isolate as fishmeal alternative on nutrient digestibility and growth performance in diets fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Kaiser, F., Harloff, H. J., Tressel, R. P., Kock, T. & Schulz, C. (2021). Aquaculture Nutrition, 27(5), 1352-1362.

The effective inclusion of rapeseed protein products as fishmeal alternatives in diets for carnivorous fish is still limited. Previous studies observed restrictions in both nutrient utilization and feed intake. Contents of nitrogen-free extracts (NfE) and anti-nutritive substances (ANFs) were made responsible for the latter mentioned limitations. Consequently, a highly purified rapeseed protein isolate with high protein content and low levels of both NfE and ANF was investigated in this study. In the first experiment, digestibility of the rapeseed protein isolate was determined. In the second experiment, the fishmeal portion (190 g kg-1 ) of a control diet was gradually replaced by rapeseed protein isolate to 33%, 66% and 100% of digestible protein and energy. Diets were fed twice per day to apparent satiation to triplicate groups of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). After 56 days of feeding, growth performance and health parameters were evaluated. Protein digestibility of the rapeseed protein isolate was 95.2%, and up to 66% of dietary fishmeal could be replaced without significantly affecting growth or health parameters. Total replacement of fishmeal led to significantly reduced feed intake and consequently reduced growth performance.

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Daily development of nutritional composition of canola sprouts followed by solid-state fungal fermentation.

Alhomodi, A. F., Zavadil, A., Berhow, M., Gibbons, W. R. & Karki, B. (2021). Food and Bioprocess Technology, 1-11.

Sprouting is a beneficial way to increase the nutritional value of the original seeds. Besides, fungal fermentation of sprouts can further improve sprouts composition by reducing antinutritional factors and concentrating protein content. Thus, this study characterized the daily nutritional changes in canola sprouts and further evaluated the effect of fungal fermentation on 144 h sprouts under solid state fermentation conditions. Sprouting process resulted in high moisture containing sprouts (75.3%) due to water uptake by seeds. The oil content of sprouts (27.2% at 144 h) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced when compared to raw seeds (39.6%). Likewise, phytic acid, crude fiber, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fibers were reduced by 49.7, 32.8, 19.7, and 16.6%, respectively, when compared to raw seeds. There were significant increases in protein and carbohydrate contents of sprouts, and glucosinolates also increased from 1.3 to 3.5 µM/g post sprouting. Fungal fermentation with Neurospora crassa resulted in the highest protein increase (32.8%). Heat-sterilization reduced total glucosinolates by 38.8%, and a further reduction (4.0%) was obtained by fermentation with Trichoderma reesei. A reduction in phytic acid content of 81.4, 45.8, and 10.2% was achieved by fermentation with N. crassa, T. reesei, and Aureobasidium pullulans, respectively. Total carbohydrates was reduced by 3.3 mg/mL post heat-sterilization, and fungal fermentation led to the further reduction of total carbohydrates, but total fibers were found to be increased post fermentation. These results highlight the enhancement of nutritional values of sprouted seeds and further fermented sprouts compared to ungerminated seeds and unfermented sprouts, respectively.

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Rice bran fermentation using Lactiplantibacillus plantarum EM as a starter and the potential of the fermented rice bran as a functional food.

Moon, S. H. & Chang, H. C. (2021). Foods, 10(5), 978.

Rice bran was fermented using a functional starter culture of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum EM, which exhibited high cholesterol removal and strong antimicrobial activity. Highest viable cell counts (9.78 log CFU/mL) and strong antimicrobial activity were obtained by fermenting 20% rice bran supplemented with 1% glucose and 3% corn steep liquor (pH 6.0) at 30°C for 48 h. The fermented rice bran slurry was hot air-dried (55°C, 16 h) and ground (HFRB). HFRB obtained showed effective cholesterol removal (45–68%) and antimicrobial activities (100-400 AU/mL) against foodborne pathogenic bacteria and food spoilage fungi. Phytate levels were significantly reduced during fermentation by 53% due to the phytase activity of L. plantarum EM, indicating HFRB does not present nutrient deficiency issues. In addition, fermentation significantly improved overall organoleptic quality. Our results indicate that HFRB is a promising functional food candidate. Furthermore, HFRB appears to satisfy consumer demands for a health-promoting food and environmental and legal requirements concerning the re-utilization of biological byproducts.

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Faster cooking times and improved iron bioavailability are associated with the down regulation of procyanidin synthesis in slow-darkening pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

Wiesinger, J. A., Osorno, J. M., McClean, P. E., Hart, J. J. & Glahn, R. P. (2021). Journal of Functional Foods, 82, 104444.

Seed coat darkening after a delayed harvest or prolonged storage reduces the commercial value of dry beans and is caused by the oxidation of procyanidin compounds (condensed tannins). Slow-darkening (SD) pinto beans have a recessive gene (Psd), which alters procyanidin production – postponing their darkening over time. Procyanidins are important for the processing and nutrient bioavailability of beans, therefore, this study compared the postharvest cooking times and iron bioavailability of SD pinto varieties to regular-darkening (RD) pinto varieties. The results show SD pinto beans cook 30% faster and provide 2-7 times more bioavailable iron than RD pinto beans. No relationship between iron bioavailability, iron and phytate concentrations were detected among the pinto beans. However, lower procyanidin concentrations were strongly associated with faster cooking times and improved iron bioavailability of SD pinto beans. These findings indicate that the SD trait benefits the cooking quality and iron bioavailability of stored beans.

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