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Phytic Acid Assay Kit

Play Training Video

00:02  Introduction & Kit Description
00:34  Principle
01:50   Preparation: (Solution A)
04:11    Preparation: (Solution B)
05:11    Preparation of Colour Reagent
05:56   Calibration
06:21   Assay Procedure: A. Sample Extraction
09:21   Assay Procedure: B. Enzymatic Dephosphorylation Reaction
14:35   Assay Procedure: C. Colourimetric Determination of Phosphorous
17:33   Calculations

Phytic Acid Assay Kit K-PHYT Scheme
Product code: K-PHYT

50 assays per kit

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Content: 50 assays per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: Phytic Acid, Phosphorus
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 655
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: ~ 0.5 to ~ 7.5 µg of phosphorus per assay
Limit of Detection: ~ 11.3 mg phosphorus (~ 40 mg phytic acid)
Reaction Time (min): 25 min enzymic; 1 h for phosphate determination
Application examples: Seed materials, feeds and foodstuffs.
Method recognition: Novel method

The Phytic Acid test kit is a simple method for the measurement and analysis of phytic acid/total phosphorus in food and feed samples. This method does not require purification of phytic acid via anion-exchange chromatography making it amenable to high numbers of samples.

Display our complete list of organic acid assay kits.

Scheme-K-PHYT PHYT Megazyme

  • Very cost effective 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Validation Report
Megazyme publication

A Novel and Rapid Colorimetric Method for Measuring Total Phosphorus and Phytic Acid in Foods and Animal Feeds.

McKie, V. A. & McCleary, B. V. (2016). J. AOAC Int. , 99(3), 738-743.

Phytic acid, or myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, is the primary source of inositol and storage phosphorus in plant seeds and has considerable nutritional importance. In this form, phosphorus is unavailable for absorption by monogastric animals, and the strong chelating characteristic of phytic acid reduces the bioavailability of multivalent minerals such as iron, zinc, and calcium. Currently, there is no simple quantitative method for phytic acid; existing methods are complex, and the most commonly accepted method, AOAC Official MethodSM 986.11, has limitations. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple, high-throughput method for the measurement of total phosphorus and phytic acid in foods and animal feeds. The method described here involves acid extraction of phytic acid, followed by dephosphorylation with phytase and alkaline phosphatase. The phosphate released from phytic acid is measured using a modified colorimetric molybdenum blue assay and calculated as total phosphorus or phytic acid content of the original sample. The method was validated to a maximum linearity of 3.0 g phytic acid/100 g sample. Accuracy ranged from 98 to 105% using pure phytic acid and from 97 to 115% for spiked samples. Repeatability ranged from 0.81 to 2.32%, and intermediate precision was 2.27%.

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Effect of parboiling on starch digestibility and mineral bioavailability in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Kumar, A., Lal, M. K., Nayak, S., Sahoo, U., Behera, A., Bagchi, T. B., Parameswaran, C. Swain, P. & Sharma, S. (2022). LWT, 156, 113026.

Parboiled rice is preferably consumed in many countries due to its nutritional superiority and lower starch digestibility. Parboiling affects rice cooking quality, starch digestibility and phytic acid which affects minerals bioavailability. Cooking quality was improved in parboiled brown (PB) and parboiled milled (PM) rice. Parboiling has significantly (P < 0.05) reduced glycemic index in both PB and PM rice with a proportionately increase in resistant starch. After milling, the phytic acid (PA) and Fe were reduced significantly (P < 0.05), however, parboiling further reduced PA but increased Fe content and bioavailability in PM rice due to its inward diffusion. Zn content was lower in PB and PM rice due to its outward movement during parboiling. The impact of Zn retention on its bioavailability was insignificant in parboiled rice as non-parboiled rice. This study provides better insights on rice parboiling as a method to reduce starch digestibility and improve mineral bioavailability which could be beneficial for diabetics and malnourished population.

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Trends of antinutritional compounds in groundnut pod at development stages during drought conditions.

Solanki, M. V., Rathod, P. J., & Mahatma, M. K. The Pharma Innovation Journal, (2021), SP-10(10), 1107-1111.

This study was investigated for the anti-nutritional compounds in groundnut kernels of two varieties at various stages of pod development in moisture deficit condition. The pods were collected at difference stages at 90 DAS, 105 DAS and 120 DAS of GJG-22 and TG-37A. Irrigation was withdrawn for moisture deficit condition and these days sampling was determined for phytic acid, oxalic acid and trypsin inhibitors. The GJG-22 and TG-37A groundnut verities shown significant differences in antinutritional compound viz, oxalic acid, phytic acid a trypsin inhibitor in seed and it was found to be increased in control condition as compared to drought condition. In drought condition verities TG-37A was shown decreased in content of phytic acid and oxalic acid. While in case of GJG-22, it was found to be decreased in trypsin inhibitors in all stages of pod development. One surprising effect was observed at 90-DAS in control condition as compared to drought condition for oxalic acids content. Overall antinutritional compounds were found to be decreased at 105-DAS to 120-DAS. The quality of groundnut seed kernel is based on anti-nutritional factors. It is fact proven notes that seeds with lower values in oxalate and trypsin inhibitors are being designated as biochemical markers for moisture deficit conditions.

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Evolution of microbial communities and nutritional content of fermented Amaranthus sp. leaves.

Misci, C., Taskin, E., Vaccari, F., Dall'Asta, M., Fontanella, M. C., Bandini, F., Vezzulli, F., Imathiu, S., Sila, D., Bertuzzi, T., Cocconcelli, P. S. & Puglisi, E. (2021). International Journal of Food Microbiology, 109445, In Press.

Amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) is a promising indigenous leafy vegetable plant capable of contributing to food security in sub-Saharan Africa, thanks to its adaptability to diverse soils and its drought tolerance. Its edible parts such as leaves, are characterized by high nutrient content. Food losses along the supply chain due to spoilage however, especially of fresh produce is a challenge facing most of sub-Saharan African countries in tackling food insecurity in the region. This calls for innovative yet inexpensive solutions such as natural fermentation to preserve the quality and safety of the commodity. To demonstrate the feasibility of natural fermentation in the preservation of vegetable amaranth, leaves were submerged (1:0.5 w/v) in distilled water with 3% sucrose and 3% NaCl dissolved. Control batches were prepared using only distilled water (1:0.5 w/v) with amaranth leaves. Sampling of both treated leaves and controls occurred at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 168 h to measure the pH and determine microbial population changes using culture and molecular-based techniques. Furthermore, the effects of treatment on nutritional content were assayed at the end of the process to determine the levels of B-group vitamins, β-carotene, lutein, and anti-nutrient phytic acid from unfermented fresh air-dried and 3% sucrose and 3% NaCl treated amaranth leaves. Finally, a visive and olfactive analysis was carried out to evaluate the acceptability of the final product. The significant drop of pH and the correct growth of Lactobacillaceae occurred only in treated batches, although Lactococcus was found in both treated and control samples. Furthermore, mean counts observed on selective media for controls and molecular high-throughput sequencing (HTS) analyses confirmed that in control samples, the undesired bacteria represented more than 60% of microbial population. In treated amaranth leaves the amount of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, β-carotene and lutein content were higher compared to the fresh unfermented air-dried leaves, and phytic acid content diminished after 7-days treatment. These findings suggests that treatment of amaranth leaves using 3% sucrose and 3% NaCl does not only preserve the commodity by arresting the growth of undesired microorganisms involved in spoilage and fosters the lactic acid bacteria, but also improves the nutritional content of the fermented end product that has been warmly welcomed by panelists.

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Feeding value improvement of corn-ethanol co-product and soybean hull by fungal fermentation: fiber degradation and digestibility improvement.

Sun, X., Devi, D., Urriola, P., Tiffany, D., Jang, J. C., Shurson, G. & Hu, B. (2021). Food and Bioproducts Processing, 130, 143-153.

Fungal pre-treatment and fermentation could improve nutritional value of wet corn distillers’ grains and solubles (WDGS), soybean hull (SH), and their blend in swine and poultry diets, which can potentially increase revenues for corn-ethanol and soybean processing industries while reducing feed cost in swine and poultry production systems. This study evaluated the effectiveness of pre-treatment of SH, WDGS, and their mixture by Trichoderma reesei and fermentation by Aspergillus oryzae to improve the nutritional profile and digestibility of these ingredients. T. reesei produced cellulase and xylanase, resulting in structural carbohydrates reduction by 69.2% while concentrating amino acids from 6.8% to 11% in SH. Fermentation with A. oryzae degraded phytate by over 50% and improved in vitro digestibility of amino acids in WDGS and its mixture with SH. Fermenting T. reesei pre-treated SH by A. oryzae showed higher in vitro dry matter digestibility than non-fermented substrate. Moreover, the proportion of key amino acids (arginine, threonine, methionine, and lysine) in both T. reesei and A. oryzae fermented substrates were significantly improved. The results demonstrated the feasibility of combining T. reesei and A. oryzae in improving feeding value of WDGS and SH for potential use as feed ingredients for monogastric animals.

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The moisture plasticizing effect on enzyme-catalyzed reactions in model and real systems in view of legume ageing and their hard to cook development.

Aravindakshan, S., Kyomugasho, C., Tafiire, H., Van Loey, A., Grauwet, T. & Hendrickx, M. E. (2022). Journal of Food Engineering, 314, 110781.

This study aims to understand the role of storage conditions (temperature, T and moisture content) in the reactions involved in the cation-pectin-phytate hypothesis, postulated to cause the Hard-to-cook (HTC) defect in beans as influenced by the plasticizing effect of moisture (glass transition (Tg) concept). The enzyme catalysed reactions, demethylesterification of pectin and hydrolysis of phytic acid, were monitored respectively in simplified pectin and phytic acid/protein model systems. In addition, both reactions were studied in a real system, red kidney bean cotyledon during storage at 35°C and different relative humidity conditions (6%, 54%, 66%, 72% and 82%) for 15 weeks. The Tg-moisture relation of the model systems and the bean cotyledon were established by Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). The Tg-line, fitted using the Gordon-Taylor equation, was combined with the moisture sorption isotherm to create a stability diagram. The stability diagram obtained can be used to ascertain the biochemical stability during post-harvest ageing of beans. Results displayed that there was significant hydrolysis of phytic acid in the phytic acid/protein model system and the real system when stored above their glass transition values. On the other hand, in the model system the pectin degree of methylesterifcation (DM) did not significantly change during storage. In the real system, significant, although small, changes of the DM were noted when T-Tg > 20°C. An examination of the glass transition lines revealed that the reactions were influenced by the plasticizing effect of moisture.

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Evaluation of nutritional attributes of whey-cereal based probiotic beverage.

Ganguly, S., Sabikhi, L. & Singh, A. K. (2021). LWT, 152, 112292.

Probiotic composite beverage was prepared from underutilized resources, whey-skim milk (60:40, v/v), germinated pearl millet flour (4.5%, w/v), liquid barley malt extract (3.0%, w/v) and fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 13. In vivo feeding trials on mice revealed better weight gain and blood haemoglobin level in the probiotic beverage-fed group (P) than in the control group (casein diet) and unfermented beverage-fed group (UF) which indicates that the nutritional quality in terms of protein efficiency ratio and apparent protein digestibility was better for probiotic group than UF and control group. The relative weights of organs of mice fed on the P were not significantly different from the organs of the mice fed on the basal diet, indicating no abnormality induced due to feeding of probiotic beverage. Probiotic beverage can be a cost-effective source of nutrition for wide segments of population in the society specially for underprivileged one.

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Effects of highly purified rapeseed protein isolate as fishmeal alternative on nutrient digestibility and growth performance in diets fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Kaiser, F., Harloff, H. J., Tressel, R. P., Kock, T. & Schulz, C. (2021). Aquaculture Nutrition, 27(5), 1352-1362.

The effective inclusion of rapeseed protein products as fishmeal alternatives in diets for carnivorous fish is still limited. Previous studies observed restrictions in both nutrient utilization and feed intake. Contents of nitrogen-free extracts (NfE) and anti-nutritive substances (ANFs) were made responsible for the latter mentioned limitations. Consequently, a highly purified rapeseed protein isolate with high protein content and low levels of both NfE and ANF was investigated in this study. In the first experiment, digestibility of the rapeseed protein isolate was determined. In the second experiment, the fishmeal portion (190 g kg-1 ) of a control diet was gradually replaced by rapeseed protein isolate to 33%, 66% and 100% of digestible protein and energy. Diets were fed twice per day to apparent satiation to triplicate groups of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). After 56 days of feeding, growth performance and health parameters were evaluated. Protein digestibility of the rapeseed protein isolate was 95.2%, and up to 66% of dietary fishmeal could be replaced without significantly affecting growth or health parameters. Total replacement of fishmeal led to significantly reduced feed intake and consequently reduced growth performance.

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Daily development of nutritional composition of canola sprouts followed by solid-state fungal fermentation.

Alhomodi, A. F., Zavadil, A., Berhow, M., Gibbons, W. R. & Karki, B. (2021). Food and Bioprocess Technology, 1-11.

Sprouting is a beneficial way to increase the nutritional value of the original seeds. Besides, fungal fermentation of sprouts can further improve sprouts composition by reducing antinutritional factors and concentrating protein content. Thus, this study characterized the daily nutritional changes in canola sprouts and further evaluated the effect of fungal fermentation on 144 h sprouts under solid state fermentation conditions. Sprouting process resulted in high moisture containing sprouts (75.3%) due to water uptake by seeds. The oil content of sprouts (27.2% at 144 h) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced when compared to raw seeds (39.6%). Likewise, phytic acid, crude fiber, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fibers were reduced by 49.7, 32.8, 19.7, and 16.6%, respectively, when compared to raw seeds. There were significant increases in protein and carbohydrate contents of sprouts, and glucosinolates also increased from 1.3 to 3.5 µM/g post sprouting. Fungal fermentation with Neurospora crassa resulted in the highest protein increase (32.8%). Heat-sterilization reduced total glucosinolates by 38.8%, and a further reduction (4.0%) was obtained by fermentation with Trichoderma reesei. A reduction in phytic acid content of 81.4, 45.8, and 10.2% was achieved by fermentation with N. crassa, T. reesei, and Aureobasidium pullulans, respectively. Total carbohydrates was reduced by 3.3 mg/mL post heat-sterilization, and fungal fermentation led to the further reduction of total carbohydrates, but total fibers were found to be increased post fermentation. These results highlight the enhancement of nutritional values of sprouted seeds and further fermented sprouts compared to ungerminated seeds and unfermented sprouts, respectively.

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Rice bran fermentation using Lactiplantibacillus plantarum EM as a starter and the potential of the fermented rice bran as a functional food.

Moon, S. H. & Chang, H. C. (2021). Foods, 10(5), 978.

Rice bran was fermented using a functional starter culture of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum EM, which exhibited high cholesterol removal and strong antimicrobial activity. Highest viable cell counts (9.78 log CFU/mL) and strong antimicrobial activity were obtained by fermenting 20% rice bran supplemented with 1% glucose and 3% corn steep liquor (pH 6.0) at 30°C for 48 h. The fermented rice bran slurry was hot air-dried (55°C, 16 h) and ground (HFRB). HFRB obtained showed effective cholesterol removal (45–68%) and antimicrobial activities (100-400 AU/mL) against foodborne pathogenic bacteria and food spoilage fungi. Phytate levels were significantly reduced during fermentation by 53% due to the phytase activity of L. plantarum EM, indicating HFRB does not present nutrient deficiency issues. In addition, fermentation significantly improved overall organoleptic quality. Our results indicate that HFRB is a promising functional food candidate. Furthermore, HFRB appears to satisfy consumer demands for a health-promoting food and environmental and legal requirements concerning the re-utilization of biological byproducts.

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Faster cooking times and improved iron bioavailability are associated with the down regulation of procyanidin synthesis in slow-darkening pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

Wiesinger, J. A., Osorno, J. M., McClean, P. E., Hart, J. J. & Glahn, R. P. (2021). Journal of Functional Foods, 82, 104444.

Seed coat darkening after a delayed harvest or prolonged storage reduces the commercial value of dry beans and is caused by the oxidation of procyanidin compounds (condensed tannins). Slow-darkening (SD) pinto beans have a recessive gene (Psd), which alters procyanidin production – postponing their darkening over time. Procyanidins are important for the processing and nutrient bioavailability of beans, therefore, this study compared the postharvest cooking times and iron bioavailability of SD pinto varieties to regular-darkening (RD) pinto varieties. The results show SD pinto beans cook 30% faster and provide 2-7 times more bioavailable iron than RD pinto beans. No relationship between iron bioavailability, iron and phytate concentrations were detected among the pinto beans. However, lower procyanidin concentrations were strongly associated with faster cooking times and improved iron bioavailability of SD pinto beans. These findings indicate that the SD trait benefits the cooking quality and iron bioavailability of stored beans.

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Fat encapsulation and supplementation with free amino acids cannot compensate for negative effects from dietary rapeseed protein isolate on growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Kaiser, F., Harloff, H. J., Tressel, R. P., Graßl, A. L., Parsche, F., & Schulz, C. (2021). Aquaculture Reports, 20, 100702.

There are still restrictions when using rapeseed protein products as fish meal alternatives in diets for rainbow trout. Digestibility of a particularly purified rapeseed protein isolate (protein content: 98.7 g 100g−1) was determined in rainbow trout (initial body weight: 178.2 ± 20.9 g) and it was used to exchange fish meal gradually (0 %, 66 % and 100 %) in diets based on commercial trout diets. To overcome potential limiting factors on growth performance from rapeseed protein isolates, duplicates of these experimental diets were encapsulated with stearic acid and one diet devoid of fish meal included rapeseed protein isolate as well as a mixture of free amino acids. The highest recorded crude protein digestibility (mean = 99.8 % ± standard deviation = 1.6 %) of rapeseed protein was reached using the stripping method. Daily feed intake (DFI) of the dietary group devoid of fish meal (DFI: 2.1 ± 0.06) was significantly reduced in comparison with control (DFI: 2.6 ± 0.07) at the end of the experiment. Similarly, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly impaired when comparing control (FCR: 0.9 ± 0.01) to the dietary group with complete exchange of fish meal (FCR: 1.1 ± 0.02). Neither encapsulation of diets nor supplementation with free amino acids could overcome negative effects on growth performance from dietary rapeseed protein isolate inclusion. Results suggest that even highly purified rapeseed protein products can impair growth performance of rainbow trout and that factors other than ANFs could determine the effectiveness of rapeseed protein products as fish meal alternatives.

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A note on distribution and potential of Japanese wild adzuki bean [Vigna angularis var. nipponensis (Ohwi) Ohwi and H. Ohashi] in India.

Bhatt, K. C., Malav, P. K., Gore, P. G., Tripathi, K., Rathi, R. S., Tiwari, U. L. & Ahlawat, S. P. (2021). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 68(5), 2157-2166.

The present paper deals with the report on the potential of Vigna angularis var. nipponensis (Ohwi) Ohwi and H. Ohashi assembled from Northeastern hill region (NEH) of India. The total of four exploration missions were conducted in remote and highaltitude areas of Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram during 2011, 2016, 2017 and 2019 to confirm the occurrence, localities of new distribution and genetic resource study. Preliminary studies on seed germination and morpho-nutritional evaluation of seed of both cultivated and wild forms were also conducted. Conserving precious germplasm of this less represented wild relative of adzuki bean {Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi} assumes great significance for its use in breeding and improvement of Vigna crop group.

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Monitoring bioaccessibility of iron and zinc in pearl millet grain after sequential milling.

Krishnan, R. & Meera, M. S. (2021). Journal of Food Science and Technology, 1-12.

The present study was to understand the effect of sequential milling on the distribution of inhibitory factors and their relation to iron-zinc bioaccessibility in the two pearl millet cultivars differing in grain shape and size. The studies revealed that the yield of decorticated grain and bran fractions differed between the cultivars. The initial bran fractions had lower iron content, which increased on increase of decortication duration (2.33-25.14 mg/100 g), while zinc did not follow this pattern. Among the inhibitory factors, polyphenols and phytic acid were low in the initial stages of milling and subsequently increased as the milling duration increased. Microscopic studies further confirmed that iron–zinc and inhibitory factors coexist in the same tissues of the grain. The β- carotene was more concentrated in the middle layers of the pericarp. It was observed that iron bioaccessibility was the highest in the 4 min milling bran (7.7%, 3.34%) and final decorticated grain fractions (13.79%, 18.45%) of both the cultivars. Iron bioaccessibility could not be related to any particular inhibitory factors, in bran insoluble fibre and phytic acid were prominent while in decorticated grain galloyls, catechols and phytic acid were the maxima. In both the cultivars, zinc bioaccessibility was high in fractions with low phytic acid and insoluble fibre. The data presented suggest that 6 min decortication that removed around 10-15% of the bran had the highest iron and zinc bioaccessibility. The iron-rich bran fraction after appropriate processing can also be used in speciality food and thereby addresses the problem of micronutrient deficiency.

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Application of cocultures of fungal mycelium during solid‐state fermentation of canola meal for potential feed application.

Alhomodi, A. F., Zavadil, A., Berhow, M., Gibbons, W. R. & Karki, B. (2021). Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society., 98(5), 509-517.

In this study, the mono-, bi-, and tri-cultivation of Aureobasidium pullulans, Neurospora crassa, and Trichoderma reesei in solid-state fermentation were applied to improve the nutritional values of hexane extracted canola meal (HECM) along with the reduction of antinutritional factors for animal feed applications. Static fermentation trials of 50% moisture content HECM were conducted in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flasks for 168 hours at 30°C. The results showed that fungal cultivation had positive effects on the level of protein, fiber, and, glucosinolates (GLS). Monoculture of N. crassa exhibited the highest protein level of 49%. The combination of A. pullulans and N. crassa provided the highest reduction of crude fiber, acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber by 21.9%, 1.7%, and 9.1%, respectively. Bi-culture of A. pullulans and T. reesei resulted in the best GLS reduction by 81.3% (0.3 vs. 1.6 μM g−1 GLS of uninoculated control). These results indicate that each fungal strain possesses different enzymatic ability and selectively can work with other fungi in synergistic relationship for better fungal conversion of canola meal.

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Composition of canola seed sprouts fermented by Aureobasidium pullulans, Neurospora crassa, and Trichoderma reesei under submerged-state fermentation.

Alhomodi, A. F., Zavadil, A., Berhow, M., Gibbons, W. R. & Karki, B. (2021). Food and Bioproducts Processing, 126, 256-264.

Seed sprouts are nutrient-rich components, and their use in human and animal diets have increased in recent times. Microbial fermentation of seed sprouts not only improves the nutrient digestibility but also elevates the nutritional characteristics by lowering the level of antinutritional factors (ANFs). This study evaluates the effect of sprouting followed by fungal fermentation on the nutritional characteristics of canola seed sprouts. Canola seeds were soaked overnight and sprouted over a 6-day period. Dried and ground seed sprouts were subjected to submerged fermentation for 5 days using three fungal strains (Aureobasidium pullulans, Trichoderma reesei, Neurospora crassa). Results showed an improvement in proteins and reduction in ANFs of sprouts when compared to seeds. Fermentation with T. reesei resulted in higher protein titers, while N. crassa fermented sprouts exhibited slight reduction in crude fiber. Sprouting prior to fermentation helped in enhancing the protein solubility of canola seed and reducing the overall fermentation duration. Based on these findings it could be concluded that sprouting prior to fermentation can potentially lead to the production of nutritionally enriched canola based high protein ingredient. However, further research needs to be conducted to develop a mechanism for minimizing the oil loss during seed sprouting process.

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Innovative Fermented Beverages Made with Red Rice, Barley, and Buckwheat.

Cardinali, F., Osimani, A., Milanović, V., Garofalo, C., & Aquilanti, L. (2021). Foods, 10(3), 613.

The increase in food intolerances, allergies, and food-based lifestyle choices has dramatically increased the consumer demand for healthy foods characterized by pleasant sensory traits. In such a context, innovative cereal-based beverages are characterized by high nutritional value, pleasant palatability, and potential healthy properties. In the present study, a pool of 23 lactic acid bacteria strains was preliminary assayed as monocultures for the fermentation of three ad hoc formulated cereal- (red rice and barley) and pseudocereal (buckwheat) -based substrates. Eight strains with the best performance in terms of acidification rate were selected for the formulation of three multiple strain cultures to be further exploited for the manufacture of laboratory-scale prototypes of fermented beverages. The compositional and microbiological features of the three experimental beverages highlighted their high biological value for further exploitation.

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An Inositol 1, 3, 4, 5, 6-Pentakisphosphate 2-Kinase 1 Mutant with a 33-nt Deletion Showed Enhanced Tolerance to Salt and Drought Stress in Rice.

Jiang, M., Liu, Y., Li, R., Li, S., Tan, Y., Huang, J. & Shu, Q. (2021). Plants, 10(1), 23.

OsIPK1 encodes inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase, which catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol-1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate to myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate (IP6) in rice. By clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas9)-mediated mutagenesis in the 3rd exon of the gene, three OsIPK1 mutations, i.e., osipk1_1 (a 33-nt deletion), osipk1_2 (a 1-nt deletion), and osipk1_3 (a 2-nt deletion) were identified in T0 plants of the rice line Xidao #1 (wild type, WT). A transfer DNA free line with the homozygous osipk1_1 mutation was developed; however, no homozygous mutant lines could be developed for the other two mutations. The comparative assay showed that the osipk1_1 mutant line had a significantly lower level of phytic acid (PA, IP6; −19.5%) in rice grain and agronomic traits comparable to the WT. However, the osipk1_1 mutant was more tolerant to salt and drought stresses than the WT, with significantly lower levels of inositol triphosphate (IP3), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced IP6, and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes in seedlings subjected to these stresses. Further analyses showed that the transcription of stress response genes was significantly upregulated in the osipk1_1 mutant under stress. Thus, the low phytic acid mutant osipk1_1 should have potential applications in rice breeding and production.

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Phytic Acid in Brown Rice Can Be Reduced by Increasing Soaking Temperature.

Fukushima, A., Uchino, G., Akabane, T., Aiseki, A., Perera, I. & Hirotsu, N. (2021). Foods, 10(1), 23.

Phytic acid (PA) is a storage form of phosphorus in seeds. Phytase enzyme is activated at germination and hydrolyses PA into myo-inositol and inorganic phosphate. PA inhibits the absorption of minerals in the human intestine by chelation. Its degradation, therefore, is a key factor to improve mineral bioavailability in rice. Germinated brown rice (GBR) is favoured because it improves the availability of nutrients, and thus have a positive effect on health. In this study, we show the effects of soaking temperature on phytase activity and PA content in GBR. Rice phytase showed thermostability and its activity peaked at 50°C. After 36 h of soaking, phytase activity was significantly increased at 50°C and PA content was significantly decreased, compared to that at 30°C. Zinc (Zn) analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in Zn content among different temperature treatments. Calculated total daily absorbed Zn (TAZ) was significantly higher in GBR compared with non-soaked seeds. Moreover, brown rice grains germinated at 50°C showed a higher TAZ value than that at 30°C. Seed germination and seed water soaking at high temperatures reduce PA content in brown rice showing a potentially effective way to improve mineral bioavailability in brown rice.

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The Effect of Wet Milling and Cryogenic Milling on the Structure and Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bran.

De Bondt, Y., Liberloo, I., Roye, C., Windhab, E. J., Lamothe, L., King, R. & Courtin, C. M. (2020). Foods, 9(12), 1755.

Wheat bran consumption is associated with several health benefits, but its incorporation into food products remains low because of sensory and technofunctional issues. Besides, its full beneficial potential is probably not achieved because of its recalcitrant nature and inaccessible structure. Particle size reduction can affect both technofunctional and nutrition-related properties. Therefore, in this study, wet milling and cryogenic milling, two techniques that showed potential for extreme particle size reduction, were used. The effect of the milling techniques, performed on laboratory and large scale, was evaluated on the structure and physicochemical properties of wheat bran. With a median particle size (d50) of 6 µm, the smallest particle size was achieved with cryogenic milling on a laboratory scale. Cryogenic milling on a large scale and wet milling on laboratory and large scale resulted in a particle size reduction to a d50 of 28-38 µm. In the milled samples, the wheat bran structure was broken down, and almost all cells were opened. Wet milling on laboratory and large scale resulted in bran with a more porous structure, a larger surface area and a higher capacity for binding water compared to cryogenic milling on a large scale. The extensive particle size reduction by cryogenic milling on a laboratory scale resulted in wheat bran with the highest surface area and strong water retention capacity. Endogenous enzyme activity and mechanical breakdown during the different milling procedures resulted in different extents of breakdown of starch, sucrose, β-glucan, arabinoxylan and phytate. Therefore, the diverse impact of the milling techniques on the physicochemical properties of wheat bran could be used to target different technofunctional and health-related properties.

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Raffinose Sucrose D-Glucose Assay Kit K-RAFGL RAFGL
Raffinose/Sucrose/D-Glucose Assay Kit
alpha-Amylase Reagent Ceralpha R-CAAR4
α-Amylase Reagent (Ceralpha)
Formaldehyde Assay Kit K-FRHYD FRHYD
Formaldehyde Assay Kit
Histamine Assay Kit K-HISTA HISTA
Histamine Assay Kit
Resistant Starch Assay Kit Rapid K-RAPRS RAPRS
Resistant Starch Assay Kit (Rapid)
beta-Glucazyme Tablets T-BGZ
β-Glucazyme Tablets
Amylazyme Tablets T-AMZ
Amylazyme Tablets