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Protease (Subtilisin A from Bacillus licheniformis)

Product code: E-BSPRT-40ML



2 grams - 40ML

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Content: 0.5 grams - 10 mL or
2 grams - 40 mL or
5 grams - 100 mL or
2.5 grams - 100 mL (ANKOM)
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: 2-8oC
Formulation: In 50% (v/v) glycerol
Physical Form: Solution
Stability: > 4 years at 4oC
Enzyme Activity: Protease
EC Number:
CAS Number: 9014-01-1
Synonyms: subtilisin; subtilisin A
Source: Bacillus licheniformis
Molecular Weight: 30,250
Expression: Purified from Bacillus licheniformis
Specificity: Hydrolysis of proteins with broad specificity for peptide bonds, and a preference for a large uncharged residue in P1. Hydrolyses peptide amides.
Specific Activity: ~ 6 U/mg of protein (40oC, pH 8.0 on casein)
Unit Definition: One Unit will hydrolyse casein to produce colour equivalent to one μmole (181 µg) of tyrosine per minute at pH 7.0 at 40oC (colour by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent). 
Temperature Optima: 60oC
pH Optima: 7
Application examples: This enzyme is recommended for use in the Megazyme Total Dietary Fiber test method and AOAC INTERNATIONAL Total Dietary Fiber analytical procedures.

High purity Protease (Subtilisin A from Bacillus licheniformis) (liquid) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.

For use in Megazyme Total Dietary Fiber test method. 

E-BSPRT-A-100ML specifically to be used with ANKOMTDF Dietary Fiber Analyzer.

Show all analytical enzymes products.

Data booklets for each pack size are located in the Documents tab.

Megazyme publication

Measurement of available carbohydrates, digestible, and resistant starch in food ingredients and products.

McCleary, B. V., McLoughlin, C., Charmier, L. M. J. & McGeough, P. (2019). Cereal Chemistry, 97(1), 114-137.

Background and objectives: The importance of selectively measuring available and unavailable carbohydrates in the human diet has been recognized for over 100 years. The levels of available carbohydrates in diets can be directly linked to major diseases of the Western world, namely Type II diabetes and obesity. Methodology for measurement of total carbohydrates by difference was introduced in the 1880s, and this forms the basis of carbohydrate determination in the United States. In the United Kingdom, a method to directly measure available carbohydrates was introduced in the 1920s to assist diabetic patients with food selection. The aim of the current work was to develop simple, specific, and reliable methods for available carbohydrates and digestible starch (and resistant starch). The major component of available carbohydrates in most foods is digestible starch. Findings: Simple methods for the measurement of rapidly digested starch, slowly digested starch, total digestible starch, resistant starch, and available carbohydrates have been developed, and the digestibility of phosphate cross‐linked starch has been studied in detail. The resistant starch procedure developed is an update of current procedures and incorporates incubation conditions with pancreatic α‐amylase (PAA) and amyloglucosidase (AMG) that parallel those used AOAC Method 2017.16 for total dietary fiber. Available carbohydrates are measured as glucose, fructose, and galactose, following complete and selective hydrolysis of digestible starch, maltodextrins, maltose, sucrose, and lactose to glucose, fructose, and galactose. Sucrose is hydrolyzed with a specific sucrase enzyme that has no action on fructo‐oligosaccharides (FOS). Conclusions: The currently described “available carbohydrates” method together with the total dietary fiber method (AOAC Method 2017.16) allows the measurement of all carbohydrates in food products, including digestible starch. Significance and novelty: This paper describes a simple and specific method for measurement of available carbohydrates in cereal, food, and feed products. This is the first method that provides the correct measurement of digestible starch and sucrose in the presence of FOS. Such methodology is essential for accurate labeling of food products, allowing consumers to make informed decisions in food selection.

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Megazyme publication

Modification to AOAC Official Methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 to allow for minor overestimation of low molecular weight soluble dietary fiber in samples containing starch.

McCleary, B. V. (2014). Journal of AOAC International, 97(3), 896-901.

AOAC Official Methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 have been modified to allow removal of resistant maltodextrins produced on hydrolysis of various starches by the combination of pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase (AMG) used in these assay procedures. The major resistant maltodextrin, 63,65-di-α-D-glucosyl maltopentaose, is highly resistant to hydrolysis by microbial α-glucosidases, isoamylase, pullulanase, pancreatic, bacterial and fungal α-amylase and AMG. However, this oligosaccharide is hydrolyzed by the mucosal α-glucosidase complex of the pig small intestine (which is similar to the human small intestine), and thus must be removed in the analytical procedure. Hydrolysis of these oligosaccharides has been by incubation with a high concentration of a purified AMG at 60°C. This incubation results in no hydrolysis or loss of other resistant oligosaccharides such as FOS, GOS, XOS, resistant maltodextrins (e.g., Fibersol 2) or polydextrose. The effect of this additional incubation with AMG on the measured level of low molecular weight soluble dietary fiber (SDFS) and of total dietary fiber in a broad range of samples is reported. Results from this study demonstrate that the proposed modification can be used with confidence in the measurement of dietary fiber.

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Megazyme publication

Measurement of total dietary fiber using AOAC method 2009.01 (AACC International approved method 32-45.01): Evaluation and updates.

McCleary, B. V., Sloane, N., Draga, A. & Lazewska, I. (2013). Cereal Chemistry, 90(4), 396-414.

The Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling recently recommended 14 methods for measurement of dietary fiber, eight of these being type I methods. Of these type I methods, AACC International Approved Method 32-45.01 (AOAC method 2009.01) is the only procedure that measures all of the dietary fiber components as defined by Codex Alimentarius. Other methods such as the Prosky method (AACCI Approved Method 32-05.01) give similar analytical data for the high-molecular-weight dietary fiber contents of food and vegetable products low in resistant starch. In the current work, AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 has been modified to allow accurate measurement of samples high in particular fructooligosaccharides: for example, fructotriose, which, in the HPLC system used, chromatographs at the same point as disaccharides, meaning that it is currently not included in the measurement. Incubation of the resistant oligosaccharides fraction with sucrase/β-galactosidase removes disaccharides that interfere with the quantitation of this fraction. The dietary fiber value for resistant starch type 4 (RS4), varies significantly with different analytical methods, with much lower values being obtained with AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 than with 32-05.01. This difference results from the greater susceptibility of RS4 to hydrolysis by pancreatic α-amylase than by bacterial α-amylase, and also a greater susceptibility to hydrolysis at lower temperatures. On hydrolysis of samples high in starch in the assay format of AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 (AOAC method 2009.01), resistant maltodextrins are produced. The major component is a heptasaccharide that is highly resistant to hydrolysis by most of the starch-degrading enzymes studied. However, it is hydrolyzed by the maltase/amyloglucosidase/isomaltase enzyme complex present in the brush border lining of the small intestine. As a consequence, AOAC methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 (AACCI Approved Methods 32-45.01 and 32-50.01, respectively) must be updated to include an additional incubation with amyloglucosidase to remove these oligosaccharides.

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Megazyme publication

Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (codex definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: Collaborative Study.

McCleary, B. V., DeVries, J. W., Rader, J. I., Cohen, G., Prosky, P., Mugford, D. C., Champ, M. & Okuma, K. (2012). Journal of AOAC International, 95(3), 824-844.

A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official MethodsSM 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (sR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within-laboratory variability sr for SDF ranged from 0.28 to 1.03, and the between-laboratory variability sR for SDF ranged from 0.85 to 1.66. The within-laboratory variability sr for TDF ranged from 0.47 to 1.41, and the between-laboratory variability sR for TDF ranged from 0.95 to 3.14. This is comparable to other official and approved dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.

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Megazyme publication

Determination of total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

McCleary, B. V., DeVries, J. W., Rader, J. I., Cohen, G., Prosky, L., Mugford, D. C., Champ, M. & Okuma, K. (2010). Journal of AOAC International, 93(1), 221-233.

A method for the determination of total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official MethodsSM 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates high- and low-molecular-weight dietary fiber (HMWDF and LMWDF, respectively). In 2007, McCleary described a method of extended enzymatic digestion at 37°C to simulate human intestinal digestion followed by gravimetric isolation and quantitation of HMWDF and the use of LC to quantitate low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF). The method thus quantitates the complete range of dietary fiber components from resistant starch (by utilizing the digestion conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02) to digestion resistant oligosaccharides (by incorporating the deionization and LC procedures of AOAC Method 2001.03). The method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Eighteen laboratories participated with 16 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 11.57 to 47.83. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02 followed by the isolation and gravimetric procedures of AOAC Methods 985.29 and 991.43 results in quantitation of HMWDF. The filtrate from the quantitation of HMWDF is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the LMWSDF, i.e., all nondigestible oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization 3. TDF is calculated as the sum of HMWDF and LMWSDF. Repeatability standard deviations (Sr) ranged from 0.41 to 1.43, and reproducibility standard deviations (SR) ranged from 1.18 to 5.44. These results are comparable to other official dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.

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Megazyme publication
Development and evaluation of an integrated method for the measurement of total dietary fibre.

McCleary, B. V., Mills, C. & Draga, A. (2009). Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, 1(4), 213–224.

An integrated total dietary fibre (TDF) method, consistent with the recently accepted CODEX definition of dietary fibre, has been developed. The CODEX Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU) has been deliberating for the past 8 years on a definition for dietary fibre that correctly reflects the current consensus thinking on what should be included in this definition. As this definition was evolving, it became evident to us that neither of the currently available methods for TDF (AOAC Official Methods 985.29 and 991.43), nor a combination of these and other methods, could meet these requirements. Consequently, we developed an integrated TDF procedure, based on the principals of AOAC Official Methods 2002.02, 991.43 and 2001.03, that is compliant with the new CODEX definition. This procedure quantitates high- and low-molecular weight dietary fibres as defined, giving an accurate estimate of resistant starch and non-digestible oligosaccharides also referred to as low-molecular weight soluble dietary fibre. In this paper, the method is discussed, modifications to the method to improve simplicity and reproducibility are described, and the results of the first rounds of interlaboratory evaluation are reported.

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Megazyme publication

An integrated procedure for the measurement of total dietary fibre (including resistant starch), non-digestible oligosaccharides and available carbohydrates.

McCleary, B. V. (2007). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 389(1), 291-308.

A method is described for the measurement of dietary fibre, including resistant starch (RS), non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) and available carbohydrates. Basically, the sample is incubated with pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase under conditions very similar to those described in AOAC Official Method 2002.02 (RS). Reaction is terminated and high molecular weight resistant polysaccharides are precipitated from solution with alcohol and recovered by filtration. Recovery of RS (for most RS sources) is in line with published data from ileostomy studies. The aqueous ethanol extract is concentrated, desalted and analysed for NDO by high-performance liquid chromatography by a method similar to that described by Okuma (AOAC Method 2001.03), except that for logistical reasons, D-sorbitol is used as the internal standard in place of glycerol. Available carbohydrates, defined as D-glucose, D-fructose, sucrose, the D-glucose component of lactose, maltodextrins and non-resistant starch, are measured as D-glucose plus D-fructose in the sample after hydrolysis of oligosaccharides with a mixture of sucrase/maltase plus β-galactosidase.

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Megazyme publication

Measurement of novel dietary fibres.

McCleary, B. V. & Rossiter, P. (2004). Journal of AOAC International, 87(3), 707-717.

With the recognition that resistant starch (RS) and nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) act physiologically as dietary fiber (DF), a need has developed for specific and reliable assay procedures for these components. The ability of AOAC DF methods to accurately measure RS is dependent on the nature of the RS being analyzed. In general, NDO are not measured at all by AOAC DF Methods 985.29 or 991.43, the one exception being the high molecular weight fraction of fructo-oligosaccharides. Values obtained for RS, in general, are not in good agreement with values obtained by in vitro procedures that more closely imitate the in vivo situation in the human digestive tract. Consequently, specific methods for the accurate measurement of RS and NDO have been developed and validated through interlaboratory studies. In this paper, modifications to AOAC fructan Method 999.03 to allow accurate measurement of enzymically produced fructo-oligosaccharides are described. Suggested modifications to AOAC DF methods to ensure complete removal of fructan and RS, and to simplify pH adjustment before amyloglucosidase addition, are also described.

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Megazyme publication
Dietary fibre analysis.

McCleary, B. V. (2003). Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62, 3-9.

The 'gold standard' method for the measurement of total dietary fibre is that of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000; method 985.29). This procedure has been modified to allow measurement of soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, and buffers employed have been improved. However, the recognition of the fact that non-digestible oligosaccharides and resistant starch also behave physiologically as dietary fibre has necessitated a re-examination of the definition of dietary fibre, and in turn, a re-evaluation of the dietary fibre methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. With this realisation, the American Association of Cereal Chemists appointed a scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. It organised various workshops and accepted comments from interested parties worldwide through an interactive website. More recently, the (US) Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Health, National Academy of Sciences, under the oversight of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, assembled a panel to develop a proposed definition(s) of dietary fibre. Various elements of these definitions were in agreement, but not all. What was clear from both reviews is that there is an immediate need to re-evaluate the methods that are used for dietary fibre measurement and to make appropriate changes where required, and to find new methods to fill gaps. In this presentation, the 'state of the art' in measurement of total dietary fibre and dietary fibre components will be described and discussed, together with suggestions for future research.

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Megazyme publication

Two issues in dietary fiber measurement.

McCleary, B. V. (2001). Cereal Foods World, 46, 164-165.

Enzyme activity and purity of these topics, the easiest to deal with is the importance of enzyme purity and activity. As a scientist actively involved in polysaccharide research over the past 25 years, I have come to appreciate the importance of enzyme purity and specificity in polysaccharide modification and measurement (7). These factors translate directly to dietary fiber (DF) methodology, because the major components of DF are carbohydrate polymers and oligomers. The committee report published in the March issue of Cereal FOODS WORLD refers only to the methodology for measuring enzyme purity and activity (8) that led up the AOAC method 985.29 (2). In this work enzyme purity was gauged by the lack of hydrolysis (i.e., complete recovery) of a particular DF component (e.g. β-glucan, larch galactan or citrus pectin). Enzyme activity was measured by the ability to completely hydrolyze representative starch and protein (namely wheat starch and casein). These requirements and restrictions on enzyme purity and activity were adequate at the time the method was initially developed and served as a useful working guide. However, it was recognized that there was a need for more stringent quality definitions and assay procedures for enzymes used in DF measurements.

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Megazyme publication

Measuring dietary fibre.

McCleary, B. V. (1999). The World of Ingredients, 50-53.

Interest in dietary fibre is undergoing a dramatic revival thanks in part to the introduction of new carbohydrates as dietary fibre components. Much emphasis is being placed on determining how much fibre is present in a food. Linking a particular amount of fibre to a specific health benefit is now an important area of research. Total Dietary Fibre. The term “dietary fibre” first appeared in 1953 and referred to hemicelluloses, celluloses and lignin (1). In 1974, Trowell (2) recommended this term as a replacement for the no longer acceptable term “crude fibre” Burkitt (3) has likened the interest in dietary fibre to the growth of a river from its first trickle to a mighty torrent. He observes that dietary fibre “was viewed as merely the less digestible constituent of food which exerts a laxative action by irritating the gut “thus acquiring the designation “roughage” a term which was later replaced by “crude fibre” and ultimately by “dietary fibre” Various definitions of dietary fibre have appeared over the years, partly due the various concepts used in deriving the term (i.e. origin of material, resistance to digestion, fermentation in the colon etc.), and partly to the difficulties associated with its measurement and labelling (4). The principle components of dietary fibre, as traditionally understood, are non-starch polysaccharides, which in plant fibre are principally hemicelluloses and celluloses, and the non-carbohydrate phenolic components, cutin, suberin and waxes with which they are associated in Nature.

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A chemical valorisation of melon peels towards functional food ingredients: Bioactives profile and antioxidant properties.

Gómez-García, R., Campos, D. A., Oliveira, A., Aguilar, C. N., Madureira, A. R. & Pintado, M. (2020). Food Chemistry, 335, 127579.

The goal of this work was to characterize the profile of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of inodorus melon peels. Melon peels were divided into three fractions: a solid fraction with a higher content of carbohydrates (84.81%); a liquid fraction with a higher ash content (11.5%); and a pellet fraction with a higher protein content (34.90%). The structural carbohydrates study revealed a composition of cellulose (27.68%), hemicellulose (8.2%) and lignin (26.46%) in the solid fraction. The liquid fraction had the highest antioxidant activity based on results from DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays. Flavones, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids were the main phenolic classes found in all fractions. In addition, β-carotene, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin and violaxanthin had also been quantified. Melon fractions were rich in nutrients and bioactive substances and could be useful in the development of novel functional products, considering the growing market demand for safe and healthy food products.

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Structural modifications to water-soluble wheat bran arabinoxylan through milling and extrusion.

Demuth, T., Betschart, J. & Nyström, L. (2020). Carbohydrate Polymers, 240, 116328.

Feruloylated arabinoxylan (AX) is one of the most predominant dietary fiber in cereal grains. In recent decades, soluble AX has gained interest, as a result of its well-established health benefits. Apart from enzymatic degradation during cereal storage, food processing causes AX degradation. These reactions lead to structural modifications and influence both the AX functionalities and its health promoting effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the structural modifications and related property changes of health promoting water-extractable (WE) wheat bran AX through grain milling and extrusion. Multi-detector HPSEC revealed a correlation between Mw, conformational changes and the related viscosity behaviour depending on the processing type. Processing caused molecular degradation of insoluble high Mw AX, which increased the solubility significantly. Moreover, extrusion leaded to a more heterogenic AX fine structure. The detailed characterization of processed dietary fiber may help to facilitate the optimized incorporation of AX in health-promoting foods.

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A HPLC-UV Method for the Quantification of Phenolic Acids in Cereals.

Hefni, M. E., Amann, L. S. & Witthöft, C. M. (2019). Food Analytical Methods, 12(12), 2802-2812.

Cereals are a good source of phenolic acids, most of which are present in bound form. The aim of this study was to develop a method for quantifying total phenolic acids in cereals that includes a robust step for hydrolysis of bound forms. Different hydrolysis procedures were evaluated. Acid hydrolysis, even with subsequent use of enzymes, proved unsuitable for releasing bound phenolic acids from the cereal matrix. Base hydrolysis (3 M, 90 min) resulted in the highest extractability, with average recoveries of 88-108% for cereal phenolic acids. The phenolic acid content in cereals (two cultivars each of rye, barley, and oats, and eight cultivars of wheat) varied up to 2-fold between cereal genotypes and 1.5-fold within genotypes. The highest content was found in rye, followed by wheat, barley, and oats. Ferulic acid dominated in all cereals, amounting to 48-72% of total phenolic acid content.

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In vitro bioaccessibility of added folic acid in commercially available baby foods formulated with milk and milk products.

Yaman, M., Mızrak, Ö. F., Catak, J. & Sargın, H. S. (2019). Food Science and Biotechnology, 28(6), 1837-1844.

Milk contains a certain amount of folate binding proteins. The binding capacity varies in acidic conditions and affects the bioavailability of folic acid. Folic acid is commonly added into baby foods to ensure adequate intake of infants. The aim of this study was to determine the bioaccessibility of added folic acid in baby foods formulated with milk and milk products under different gastric pH values by an in vitro digestive system. The bioaccessibility of folic acid ranged between 56-71 and 35-49% in infant formula samples, between 59-78 and 31-67% in cereal-based baby foods, and between 42-67 and 38-57% in follow-on baby milk at gastric pH 1.5 and pH 4, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the bioaccesibility of folic acid that is added to baby food is affected by gastric pH. Therefore, it was observed that the bioaccesibility of folic acid was lower in the higher gastric pH.

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NMR and methylation analysis of hemicellulose purified from corn bran.

Kang, J., Guo, Q. & Shi, Y. C. (2019). Food Hydrocolloids, 94, 613-621.

Corn bran hemicellulose was extracted from de-oiled and de-starched corn bran using 0.3 M alkali at 120°C. Following neutralization, ethanol (75%) precipitation, dialysis, protein digestion, re-precipitation in ethanol, and freeze-drying, purified corn fiber gum (PCFG) was obtained in overall yield of 45.96%. PCFG gave a single peak by high performance size exclusion chromatograph, and had average molecular weight of 296 kDa. Monosaccharide composition, methylation, and GC–MS analysis indicated that PCFG was comprised of three monosaccharides, arabinose (araf), xylose (xylp) and galactose (galp) with the following linkage: t-araf, 17.09%; 1,3-araf, 12.43%; t-xylp, 16.13%; 1,4-xylp, 11.57%; 1,3,4-xylp, 26.02%; 1,2,3,4-xylp, 10.46%; t-galp, 6.37%. Partial acid hydrolysis suggested that arabinofuranose sugar residues were substituted onto a 1,4-linked xylan backbone. Extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy was used to identify and confirm the following linkages: t-xylp, 1,2,3,4-β-D-xylp, t-α-L-araf, 1,2-α-L-araf and 1,4-β-D-xylp. Several other linkage fragments were also deduced: t-araf→2-araf→2-O-(1,3,4-xyl), t-araf→2-araf→3-O-(1,2,4-xyl), t-araf→2-araf→3-araf, and t-gal→2-ara.

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Improvement of nutritional value, bioactivity and volatile constituents of quinoa seeds by fermentation with Lactobacillus casei.

Li, S., Chen, C., Ji, Y., Lin, J., Chen, X. & Qi, B. (2018). Journal of Cereal Science, 84, 83-89.

The effect of fermentation with Lactobacillus casei on selected parameters of quinoa seeds (QS) was studied. The protein, free amino acids, carbohydrate, ash, thiamin (B1) and riboflavin (B2) of fermented quinoa seeds (FQS) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than QS. Fermentation of quinoa seeds increased the DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing ability and Fe2+-chelating activity in comparison with QS. However, the contents of fat and dietary fibre decreased by 52.05% and 45.87%, respectively. FQS showed a higher (p < 0.05) total phenolic content (16.53 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g−1 extract, dry weight) than QS (13.85 mg GAE g−1). Fermentation resulted in an increase in free phenolics and a decrease in bound phenolics. With regard to amino acid compositions, FQS showed higher essential amino acids and an essential amino acid index than QS. The percentages of protein <180 kDa fractions increased from 39.31% to 61.94% after fermentation. FQS showed an increase of total volatile compounds from 30 to 47 after fermentation, and they belong to different kinds of volatile compounds: acids, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, phenols, alkanes, alkene and esters. The L. casei fermentation could be recommended as a promising method to improve the quality of quinoa seeds.

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Comparative study on the chemical composition, anthocyanins, tocopherols and carotenoids of selected legumes.

Kan, L., Nie, S., Hu, J., Wang, S., Bai, Z., Wang, J., Zhou, Y., Jiang, J., Zeng, Q. & Song, K. (2018). Food Chemistry, 260, 317-326.

Twenty-nine legumes were assessed for their nutritional and phytochemical compositions. Soybean and black soybean had the highest protein contents (34.05-42.65 g/100 g DW, dry weight of legumes), particularly being a rich source of lysine (1.78-2.23 g/100 g DW. Soybean and black soybean had the highest fat contents (14.13–22.19 g/100 g DW). Broad beans had the highest unsaturated fatty acids (83.57-89.01 g/100 g fatty acid), particularly rich in α-linolenic and linoleic acid. The highest and the lowest dietary fiber were found in red kidney beans (35.36 g/100 g DW) and mung beans (22.77 g/100 g DW), respectively. Except for soybean and white kidney bean, 6 major anthocyanins in the legumes samples were identified. The soybean contained the highest total tocopherols content (90.40-120.96 μg/g dry weight of beans), followed by black soybean (66.13-100.76 μg/g DW). The highest carotenoids were found in lentils (4.53-21.34 μg/g DW) and red kidney beans (8.29-20.95 μg/g DW).

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Maturation-related modifications of cell wall structures of kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes).

Schäfer, J. & Bunzel, M. (2017).  European Food Research and Technology, 244, 893-902.

Changes of the cell wall composition of plant-based foods affect both texture and potential physiological effects of cell wall-based dietary fiber components. In this study, maturation-related cell wall modifications were analyzed using the example of kohlrabi. Kohlrabi samples, which were suitable for consumption, were harvested at different time points. Non-starch polysaccharides and lignin structures were characterized, and quantitative lignin determinations were performed. Cell wall analyses demonstrate slight changes of polysaccharide portions during maturation of kohlrabi; arabinan and galactan portions decreased, whereas xylan portions increased. Furthermore, increasing lignin contents were accompanied by compositional changes, e.g. increased sinapyl alcohol incorporation was demonstrated. These modifications suggest being the result from increased deposition of secondary cell walls.

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In vitro measurements of luminal viscosity and glucose/maltose bioaccessibility for oat bran, instant oats, and steel cut oats.

AlHasawi, F. M., Fondaco, D., Ben-Elazar, K., Ben-Elazar, S., Fan, Y. Y., Corradini, M. G., Ludescher, R. D., Bolster, D., Carder, G.,Chu, Y., Chung, Y., Kasturi, P., Johnson, J. & Rogers, M. A.. (2017). Food Hydrocolloids, 70, 293-303.

Three commercially available oat products-instant oats, steel cut oats, and oat bran-were studied using the TNO Intestinal Model-1 (TIM-1) coupled with fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular rotors to evaluate carbohydrate digestion and in vitro gastric viscosity as a function of time. A proportional relationship between total bioaccessible sugars and the concentration of available carbohydrates was observed for the different oat-based foods. The rate of starch digestion was greatest for instant oats and lowest for steel cut oats. β-glucan, starch, and total carbohydrate concentrations were proportional to the initial gastric viscosity. Overall, gastric viscosity differed considerably between samples. Instant oat and oat bran viscosities were highest at the onset of digestion and decreased with time, whereas the viscosity of steel cut oats at the onset of digestion was the lowest viscosity observed, increasing with time. These findings suggest that modification of food form and formulation during processing alters sugar bioaccessibility and luminal viscosity.

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Safety Information
Symbol : GHS05, GHS08
Signal Word : Danger
Hazard Statements : H318, H334
Precautionary Statements : P261, P280, P284, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P310
Safety Data Sheet
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