|Content:||100 assays / 200 assays|
|Storage Temperature:|| Short term stability: 2-8oC, |
Long term stability: See individual component labels
|Stability:||> 2 years under recommended storage conditions|
|Limit of Detection:||0.5 g/100 g|
|Total Assay Time:||~ 100 min|
|Application examples:||Food ingredients, food products and other materials.|
|Method recognition:||AACC Method 32-05.01, AACC Method 32-06.01, AACC Method 32-07.01, AACC Method 32-21.01, AOAC Method 985.29, AOAC Method 991.42, AOAC Method 991.43, AOAC Method 993.19, CODEX Method Type I and GB Standard 5009.88-2014|
The Total Dietary Fiber Assay Kit for the analysis of Total, Soluble and Insoluble Dietary Fiber according to AOAC and AACC approved methods.
Dietary fiber can generally be described as the carbohydrate content of food that is not digested in the human small intestine. It passes into the large intestine where it is partially or fully fermented. These characteristics of dietary fiber are associated with its numerous well documented health benefits.
Dietary Fiber is a mixture of complex organic substances, including hydrophilic compounds, such as soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and non-digestable oligosaccharides, as well as a range of non-swellable, more or less hydrophobic, compounds such as cutins, suberins and lignins. The procedures for the determination and analysis of total dietary fiber as outlined in our assay protocol are based on the methods of Lee et al.1 and Prosky et al.2,3 (AOAC 991.43, AOAC 985.29, AACC 32-07.01 and AACC 32-05.01). However, the enzymes in the Megazyme Total Dietary Fiber Kit can also be used in other dietary fiber analytical methods such as AACC Method 32-21.01 and AACC Method 32-06.01.
1. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (1985). Official Methods of Analysis, 14th ed., 1st suppl. Secs. 43, A14-43, A20, p.399.
2. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (1986). Changes in methods. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 69, 370.
3. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (1987). Changes in methods. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 70, 393.
See General Referee Reports: Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Vol. 81, No. 1, 1998.
Two separate methods are described in the associated assay protocol:
METHOD 1: DETERMINATION OF TOTAL, SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE DIETARY FIBER
Based on AOAC Method 991.43 “Total, Soluble, and Insoluble Dietary Fiber in Foods” (First Action 1991) and AACC Method 32-07.01 “Determination of Soluble, Insoluble, and Total Dietary Fiber in Foods and Food Products” (Final Approval 10-16-91).
METHOD 2: DETERMINATION OF TOTAL DIETARY FIBER
Based on AACC method 32-05.01 and AOAC Method 985.29.
Note that a letter of endorsement from the original method developer, Dr. Leon Prosky, is included in the Documents Tab.
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McCleary, B. V., Sloane, N. & Draga, A. (2015). Starch/Stärke, 67(9-10), 860–883.
The new definition of dietary fibre introduced by Codex Alimentarius in 2008 includes resistant starch and the option to include non-digestible oligosaccharides. Implementation of this definition required new methodology. An integrated total dietary fibre method was evaluated and accepted by AOAC International and AACC International (AOAC Methods 2009.01 and 2011.25; AACC Method 32–45.01 and 32–50.01, and recently adopted by Codex Alimentarius as a Type I Method. However, in application of the method to a diverse range of food samples and particularly food ingredients, some limitations have been identified. One of the ongoing criticisms of this method was that the time of incubation with pancreatic α-amylase/amyloglucosidase mixture was 16 h, whereas the time for food to transit through the human small intestine was likely to be approximately 4 h. In the current work, we use an incubation time of 4 h, and have evaluated incubation conditions that yield resistant starch and dietary values in line with ileostomy results within this time frame. Problems associated with production, hydrolysis and chromatography of various oligosaccharides have been addressed resulting in a more rapid procedure that is directly applicable to all foods and food ingredients currently available.Hide Abstract
Modification to AOAC Official Methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 to allow for minor overestimation of low molecular weight soluble dietary fiber in samples containing starch.
McCleary, B. V. (2014). Journal of AOAC International, 97(3), 896-901.
AOAC Official Methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 have been modified to allow removal of resistant maltodextrins produced on hydrolysis of various starches by the combination of pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase (AMG) used in these assay procedures. The major resistant maltodextrin, 63,65-di-α-D-glucosyl maltopentaose, is highly resistant to hydrolysis by microbial α-glucosidases, isoamylase, pullulanase, pancreatic, bacterial and fungal α-amylase and AMG. However, this oligosaccharide is hydrolyzed by the mucosal α-glucosidase complex of the pig small intestine (which is similar to the human small intestine), and thus must be removed in the analytical procedure. Hydrolysis of these oligosaccharides has been by incubation with a high concentration of a purified AMG at 60°C. This incubation results in no hydrolysis or loss of other resistant oligosaccharides such as FOS, GOS, XOS, resistant maltodextrins (e.g., Fibersol 2) or polydextrose. The effect of this additional incubation with AMG on the measured level of low molecular weight soluble dietary fiber (SDFS) and of total dietary fiber in a broad range of samples is reported. Results from this study demonstrate that the proposed modification can be used with confidence in the measurement of dietary fiber.Hide Abstract
Measurement of total dietary fiber using AOAC method 2009.01 (AACC International approved method 32-45.01): Evaluation and updates.
McCleary, B. V., Sloane, N., Draga, A. & Lazewska, I. (2013). Cereal Chemistry, 90(4), 396-414.
The Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling recently recommended 14 methods for measurement of dietary fiber, eight of these being type I methods. Of these type I methods, AACC International Approved Method 32-45.01 (AOAC method 2009.01) is the only procedure that measures all of the dietary fiber components as defined by Codex Alimentarius. Other methods such as the Prosky method (AACCI Approved Method 32-05.01) give similar analytical data for the high-molecular-weight dietary fiber contents of food and vegetable products low in resistant starch. In the current work, AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 has been modified to allow accurate measurement of samples high in particular fructooligosaccharides: for example, fructotriose, which, in the HPLC system used, chromatographs at the same point as disaccharides, meaning that it is currently not included in the measurement. Incubation of the resistant oligosaccharides fraction with sucrase/β-galactosidase removes disaccharides that interfere with the quantitation of this fraction. The dietary fiber value for resistant starch type 4 (RS4), varies significantly with different analytical methods, with much lower values being obtained with AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 than with 32-05.01. This difference results from the greater susceptibility of RS4 to hydrolysis by pancreatic α-amylase than by bacterial α-amylase, and also a greater susceptibility to hydrolysis at lower temperatures. On hydrolysis of samples high in starch in the assay format of AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 (AOAC method 2009.01), resistant maltodextrins are produced. The major component is a heptasaccharide that is highly resistant to hydrolysis by most of the starch-degrading enzymes studied. However, it is hydrolyzed by the maltase/amyloglucosidase/isomaltase enzyme complex present in the brush border lining of the small intestine. As a consequence, AOAC methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 (AACCI Approved Methods 32-45.01 and 32-50.01, respectively) must be updated to include an additional incubation with amyloglucosidase to remove these oligosaccharides.Hide Abstract
Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (codex definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: Collaborative Study.
McCleary, B. V., DeVries, J. W., Rader, J. I., Cohen, G., Prosky, P., Mugford, D. C., Champ, M. & Okuma, K. (2012). Journal of AOAC International, 95(3), 824-844.
A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official MethodsSM 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (sR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within-laboratory variability sr for SDF ranged from 0.28 to 1.03, and the between-laboratory variability sR for SDF ranged from 0.85 to 1.66. The within-laboratory variability sr for TDF ranged from 0.47 to 1.41, and the between-laboratory variability sR for TDF ranged from 0.95 to 3.14. This is comparable to other official and approved dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.Hide Abstract
Determination of total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.
McCleary, B. V., DeVries, J. W., Rader, J. I., Cohen, G., Prosky, L., Mugford, D. C., Champ, M. & Okuma, K. (2010). Journal of AOAC International, 93(1), 221-233.
A method for the determination of total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official MethodsSM 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates high- and low-molecular-weight dietary fiber (HMWDF and LMWDF, respectively). In 2007, McCleary described a method of extended enzymatic digestion at 37°C to simulate human intestinal digestion followed by gravimetric isolation and quantitation of HMWDF and the use of LC to quantitate low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF). The method thus quantitates the complete range of dietary fiber components from resistant starch (by utilizing the digestion conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02) to digestion resistant oligosaccharides (by incorporating the deionization and LC procedures of AOAC Method 2001.03). The method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Eighteen laboratories participated with 16 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 11.57 to 47.83. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02 followed by the isolation and gravimetric procedures of AOAC Methods 985.29 and 991.43 results in quantitation of HMWDF. The filtrate from the quantitation of HMWDF is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the LMWSDF, i.e., all nondigestible oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization 3. TDF is calculated as the sum of HMWDF and LMWSDF. Repeatability standard deviations (Sr) ranged from 0.41 to 1.43, and reproducibility standard deviations (SR) ranged from 1.18 to 5.44. These results are comparable to other official dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V., Mills, C. & Draga, A. (2009). Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, 1(4), 213–224.
An integrated total dietary fibre (TDF) method, consistent with the recently accepted CODEX definition of dietary fibre, has been developed. The CODEX Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU) has been deliberating for the past 8 years on a definition for dietary fibre that correctly reflects the current consensus thinking on what should be included in this definition. As this definition was evolving, it became evident to us that neither of the currently available methods for TDF (AOAC Official Methods 985.29 and 991.43), nor a combination of these and other methods, could meet these requirements. Consequently, we developed an integrated TDF procedure, based on the principals of AOAC Official Methods 2002.02, 991.43 and 2001.03, that is compliant with the new CODEX definition. This procedure quantitates high- and low-molecular weight dietary fibres as defined, giving an accurate estimate of resistant starch and non-digestible oligosaccharides also referred to as low-molecular weight soluble dietary fibre. In this paper, the method is discussed, modifications to the method to improve simplicity and reproducibility are described, and the results of the first rounds of interlaboratory evaluation are reported.Hide Abstract
An integrated procedure for the measurement of total dietary fibre (including resistant starch), non-digestible oligosaccharides and available carbohydrates.
McCleary, B. V. (2007). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 389(1), 291-308.
A method is described for the measurement of dietary fibre, including resistant starch (RS), non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) and available carbohydrates. Basically, the sample is incubated with pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase under conditions very similar to those described in AOAC Official Method 2002.02 (RS). Reaction is terminated and high molecular weight resistant polysaccharides are precipitated from solution with alcohol and recovered by filtration. Recovery of RS (for most RS sources) is in line with published data from ileostomy studies. The aqueous ethanol extract is concentrated, desalted and analysed for NDO by high-performance liquid chromatography by a method similar to that described by Okuma (AOAC Method 2001.03), except that for logistical reasons, D-sorbitol is used as the internal standard in place of glycerol. Available carbohydrates, defined as D-glucose, D-fructose, sucrose, the D-glucose component of lactose, maltodextrins and non-resistant starch, are measured as D-glucose plus D-fructose in the sample after hydrolysis of oligosaccharides with a mixture of sucrase/maltase plus β-galactosidase.Hide Abstract
Measurement of novel dietary fibres.
McCleary, B. V. & Rossiter, P. (2004). Journal of AOAC International, 87(3), 707-717.
With the recognition that resistant starch (RS) and nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) act physiologically as dietary fiber (DF), a need has developed for specific and reliable assay procedures for these components. The ability of AOAC DF methods to accurately measure RS is dependent on the nature of the RS being analyzed. In general, NDO are not measured at all by AOAC DF Methods 985.29 or 991.43, the one exception being the high molecular weight fraction of fructo-oligosaccharides. Values obtained for RS, in general, are not in good agreement with values obtained by in vitro procedures that more closely imitate the in vivo situation in the human digestive tract. Consequently, specific methods for the accurate measurement of RS and NDO have been developed and validated through interlaboratory studies. In this paper, modifications to AOAC fructan Method 999.03 to allow accurate measurement of enzymically produced fructo-oligosaccharides are described. Suggested modifications to AOAC DF methods to ensure complete removal of fructan and RS, and to simplify pH adjustment before amyloglucosidase addition, are also described.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V. (2003). Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62, 3-9.
The 'gold standard' method for the measurement of total dietary fibre is that of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000; method 985.29). This procedure has been modified to allow measurement of soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, and buffers employed have been improved. However, the recognition of the fact that non-digestible oligosaccharides and resistant starch also behave physiologically as dietary fibre has necessitated a re-examination of the definition of dietary fibre, and in turn, a re-evaluation of the dietary fibre methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. With this realisation, the American Association of Cereal Chemists appointed a scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. It organised various workshops and accepted comments from interested parties worldwide through an interactive website. More recently, the (US) Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Health, National Academy of Sciences, under the oversight of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, assembled a panel to develop a proposed definition(s) of dietary fibre. Various elements of these definitions were in agreement, but not all. What was clear from both reviews is that there is an immediate need to re-evaluate the methods that are used for dietary fibre measurement and to make appropriate changes where required, and to find new methods to fill gaps. In this presentation, the 'state of the art' in measurement of total dietary fibre and dietary fibre components will be described and discussed, together with suggestions for future research.Hide Abstract
Two issues in dietary fiber measurement.
McCleary, B. V. (2001). Cereal Foods World, 46, 164-165.
Enzyme activity and purity of these topics, the easiest to deal with is the importance of enzyme purity and activity. As a scientist actively involved in polysaccharide research over the past 25 years, I have come to appreciate the importance of enzyme purity and specificity in polysaccharide modification and measurement (7). These factors translate directly to dietary fiber (DF) methodology, because the major components of DF are carbohydrate polymers and oligomers. The committee report published in the March issue of Cereal FOODS WORLD refers only to the methodology for measuring enzyme purity and activity (8) that led up the AOAC method 985.29 (2). In this work enzyme purity was gauged by the lack of hydrolysis (i.e., complete recovery) of a particular DF component (e.g. β-glucan, larch galactan or citrus pectin). Enzyme activity was measured by the ability to completely hydrolyze representative starch and protein (namely wheat starch and casein). These requirements and restrictions on enzyme purity and activity were adequate at the time the method was initially developed and served as a useful working guide. However, it was recognized that there was a need for more stringent quality definitions and assay procedures for enzymes used in DF measurements.Hide Abstract
Measurement of dietary fibre components: the importance of enzyme purity, activity and specificity.
McCleary, B. V. (2001), “Advanced Dietary Fibre Technology”, (B. V. McCleary and L. Prosky, Eds.), Blackwell Science, Oxford, U.K., pp. 89-105.
Interest in dietary fibre is undergoing a dramatic revival, thanks in part to the introduction of new carbohydrates as dietary fibre components. Much emphasis is being placed on determining how much fibre is present in a food. Linking a particular amount of fibre to a specific health benefit is now an important area of research. The term 'dietary fibre' first appeared in 1953, and referred to hemicelluloses, celluloses and lignin (Theandere/tf/.1995). Trowell (1974) recommended this term as a replacement for the no longer acceptable term 'crude fibre'. Burkitt (1995) has likened the interest in dietary fibre to the growth of a river from its first trickle to a mighty torrent He observes that dietary fibre 'was first viewed as merely the less digestible constituent of food which exerts a laxative action by irritating the gut', thus acquiring the designation 'roughage' - a term later replaced by 'crude fibre' and ultimately by 'dietary fibre'. Various definitions of dietary fibre have appeared over the years, partly due to the various concepts used in deriving the term (i.e. origin of material, resistance to digestion, fermentation in the colon, etc.), and partly to the difficulties associated with its measurement and labelling (Mongeau et al. 1999). The principal components of dietary fibre, as traditionally understood, are non-starch polysaccharides (which in plant fibre are principally hemicelluloses and celluloses), and the non-carbohydrate phenolic components, cutin, suberin and waxes, with which they are associated in nature. In 1976, the definition of dietary fibre was modified to include gums and some pectic substances, based on the resistance to digestion of these components in the upper intestinal tract. For the purposes of labelling, Englyst et al. (1987) proposed that dietary fibre be defined as 'non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diet that are not digested by the endogenous secretions of the human digestive tract'. Methods were concurrently developed to specifically measure NSP (Englyst et al. 1994).Hide Abstract
Importance of enzyme purity and activity in the measurement of total dietary fibre and dietary fibre components.
McCleary, B. V. (2000). Journal of AOAC International, 83(4), 997-1005.
A study was made of the effect of the activity and purity of enzymes in the assay of total dietary fiber (AOAC Method 985.29) and specific dietary fiber components: resistant starch, fructan, and β-glucan. In the measurement of total dietary fiber content of resistant starch samples, the concentration of α-amylase is critical; however, variations in the level of amyloglucosidase have little effect. Contamination of amyloglucosidase preparations with cellulase can result in significant underestimation of dietary fiber values for samples containing β-glucan. Pure β-glucan and cellulase purified from Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase preparations were used to determine acceptable critical levels of contamination. Sucrose, which interferes with the measurement of inulin and fructooligosaccharides in plant materials and food products, must be removed by hydrolysis of the sucrose to glucose and fructose with a specific enzyme (sucrase) followed by borohydride reduction of the free sugars. Unlike invertase, sucrase has no action on low degree of polymerization (DP) fructooligosaccharides, such as kestose or kestotetraose. Fructan is hydrolyzed to fructose and glucose by the combined action of highly purified exo- and endo-inulinases, and these sugars are measured by the p-hydroxybenzoic acid hydrazide reducing sugar method. Specific measurement of β-glucan in cereal flour and food extracts requires the use of highly purified endo-1,3:1,4 β-glucanase and A. niger β-glucosidase. β-glucosidase from almonds does not completely hydrolyze mixed linkage β-glucooligosaccharides from barley or oat β-glucan. Contamination of these enzymes with starch, maltosaccharide, or sucrose-hydrolyzing enzymes results in production of free glucose from a source other than β-glucan, and thus an overestimation of β-glucan content. The glucose oxidase and peroxidase used in the glucose determination reagent must be essentially devoid of catalase and α- and β-glucosidase.Hide Abstract
Measuring dietary fibre.
McCleary, B. V. (1999). The World of Ingredients, 50-53.
Interest in dietary fibre is undergoing a dramatic revival thanks in part to the introduction of new carbohydrates as dietary fibre components. Much emphasis is being placed on determining how much fibre is present in a food. Linking a particular amount of fibre to a specific health benefit is now an important area of research. Total Dietary Fibre. The term “dietary fibre” first appeared in 1953 and referred to hemicelluloses, celluloses and lignin (1). In 1974, Trowell (2) recommended this term as a replacement for the no longer acceptable term “crude fibre” Burkitt (3) has likened the interest in dietary fibre to the growth of a river from its first trickle to a mighty torrent. He observes that dietary fibre “was viewed as merely the less digestible constituent of food which exerts a laxative action by irritating the gut “thus acquiring the designation “roughage” a term which was later replaced by “crude fibre” and ultimately by “dietary fibre” Various definitions of dietary fibre have appeared over the years, partly due the various concepts used in deriving the term (i.e. origin of material, resistance to digestion, fermentation in the colon etc.), and partly to the difficulties associated with its measurement and labelling (4). The principle components of dietary fibre, as traditionally understood, are non-starch polysaccharides, which in plant fibre are principally hemicelluloses and celluloses, and the non-carbohydrate phenolic components, cutin, suberin and waxes with which they are associated in Nature.Hide Abstract
Enzyme purity and activity in fibre determinations.
McCleary, B. V. (1999). Cereal Foods World, 44(8), 590-596.
Dietary fiber is mainly composed of plant cell wall polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectic substances, but it also includes lignin and other minor components (1). Basically, it covers the polysaccharides that are not hydrolyzed by the endogenous secretions of the human digestive tract (2,3). This definition has served as the target for those developing analytical procedures for the measurement of dietary fiber for quality control and regulatory considerations (4). Most procedures for the measurement of total dietary fiber (TDF), or specific polysaccharide components, either involve some enzyme treatment steps or are mainly enzyme-based. In the development of TDF procedures such as the Prosky method (AOAC International 985.29, AACC 32—05) (5), the Uppsala method (AACC32-25) (6), and the Englyst method (7), the aim was to remove starch and protein through enzyme treatment, and to measure the residue as dietary fiber (after allowing for residual, undigested protein and ash). Dietary fiber was measured either gravimetrically or by chemical or instrumental procedures. Many of the enzyme treatment steps in each of the methods, particularly the prosky (5) and the Uppsala (6) methods are very similar. As a new range of carbohydrates is being introduced as potential dietary fiber components, the original assay procedures will need to be reexamined, and in some cases slightly modified, to ensure accurate and quantitative measurement of these components and of TDF. These “new” dietary fiber components include resistant nondigestible oligosaccharides; native and chemically modified polysaccharides of plant and algal origin (galactomannan, chemically modified celluloses, and agars and carrageenans); and resistant starch. To measure these components accurately, the purity, activity, and specificity of the enzymes employed will become much more important. A particular example of this is the mesurement of fructan. This carbohydrate consists of a fraction with a high degree of polymerization (DP) that is precipitated in the standard Prosky method (5,8) and a low DP fraction consequently is not measured (9). Resistant starch poses a particular problem. This component is only partially resistant to degradation by α-amylase, so the level of enzyme used and the incubation conditions (time and temperature) are critical.Hide Abstract
Characterization of Moringa oleifera leaf and seed protein extract functionality in emulsion model system.
Patil, D., Vaknin, Y., Rytwo, G., Lakemond, C. & Benjamin, O. (2022). Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 75, 102903.
This study provides a comparative overview of Moringa oleifera leaf and seed protein extract (LPE and SPE, respectively) functionality in emulsions. Raw seed cake (RS) had more protein (45.8%) than raw leaf (RL) (27.4%). RL comprised higher polyphenol and flavonoid content than RS, Granny Smith apples, and Goji berries. Protein functionality data revealed that LPE had excellent solubility, and emulsifying properties than SPE at pH 7.0. In contrast, SPE had relatively strong surface hydrophobicity. At pH 7.0, leaf extract emulsions (LEE) possessed relatively small particle size distribution, strong negative charge, excellent stability, and minimum sedimentation velocity. On contrary, at pH 3.5, particle size, and velocity increased, contributing to monodisperse sedimentation. Seed extract emulsions (SEE) had an overall large particle size and demonstrated fast and extensive creaming and sedimentation at both pH conditions. Our findings indicate that M. oleifera leaf protein extracts have considerable potential for use in emulsion-based foods.Hide Abstract
Functionality-driven food product formulation–An illustration on selecting sustainable ingredients building viscosity.
Lie-Piang, A., Möller, A. C., Köllmann, N., Garre, A., Boom, R. & van der Padt, A. (2022). Food Research International, 152, 110889.
Currently, food industries typically favour formulation of food products using highly refined techno-functional ingredients of high purity. However, there is a growing interest in less pure techno-functional ingredients with a lower degree of refining as they deliver the same functional properties with reduced environmental impact. We propose that instead of selecting formulations based on purity, they should be selected based on their techno-functional properties. This article illustrates that the shift in perspective may increase the sustainability of food production. The functionality-driven product formulation is explored through a case study in which yellow pea ingredients are selected to increase the viscosity of a salad dressing. The relation between the ingredients (in terms of composition; protein, starch fibre, and a residual fraction) and the final viscosity was quantified and validated using multiple linear regression. The model described the observations well: the final viscosity is mostly dominated by the starch content; protein content has only a marginal impact; and dietary fibre contributes to viscosity with an antagonistic effect with starch. Based on the multiple linear regression model and further formulation optimisation, we identified various combinations of ingredients (with either a high or low degree of refining) that would result in the target final viscosity. An evaluation of the global warming potential of all blends showed that the desired viscosity could be achieved using only isolates, as well as by using only mildly refined fractions. The latter is associated with a global warming potential that is 80% lower than the one based on isolates. This case study demonstrates the proof of concept for this approach, showing it can aid in identifying alternative product formulations with similar techno-functional properties but with a higher sustainability.Hide Abstract
Utilisation of dried shiitake, black ear and silver ear mushrooms into sorghum biscuits manipulates the predictive glycaemic response in relation to variations in biscuit physical characteristics.
Tu, J., Brennan, M. A., Hui, X., Wang, R., Peressini, D., Bai, W., Cheng, P. & Brennan, C. S. (2021). International Journal of Food Science & Technology, In Press.
The nutritional quality of gluten-free products is important to the health of individuals with coeliac disease. Mushrooms are good sources of vitamins, dietary fibres and proteins, and are a low-calorie option that can be used in gluten-free diets to improve their nutritional value. The effects of incorporating dried mushrooms on the hydration and pasting properties of sorghum flour, as well as the physicochemical characteristics and in vitro glycaemic response of sorghum biscuits were studied. Sorghum flour enriched with mushroom powders exhibited higher water absorption capacity and swelling power compared with the control (P < 0.05). The addition of shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushroom significantly decreased the pasting viscosities, while the addition of black ear (Auricularia auricula) and silver ear (Tremella fuciformis) mushroom increased viscosity values (P < 0.05). Biscuit diameter, thickness and weight loss were reduced with increasing mushroom powder addition, and the colour parameters of biscuits were affected significantly. Enrichment with shiitake and black ear mushroom increased the hardness of biscuits (P < 0.05). Inclusion of mushroom powders significantly reduced the predicted glycaemic response of sorghum biscuits (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis was conducted to illustrate that hydration dynamics (such as water absorption capacity and swelling power) were negatively correlated with glycaemic response (P < 0.001).Hide Abstract
Functional, thermal, and pasting properties of cooked carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) flours.
Bento, J. A. C., Morais, D. K., de Berse, R. S., Bassinello, P. Z., Caliari, M. & Júnior, M. S. S. (2022). Applied Food Research, 2(1), 100027.
This study verified if cooking presoaked beans in the steam of autoclave improves the pasting properties, texture profile, water-solubility (WSI), emulsifying capacities of aged carioca bean’ flours. The carioca beans flour presented high content of protein (20.7-22.3 g·100g−1), resistant starch (RS) (8.3-31.1 g·100g−1), and dietary fiber (TDF) (18.9-23.7 g·100g−1), and the cultivar Notavel presented the highest content of total dietary fiber and resistant starch for both cooked and raw flour. The pretreatment promoted an increase in TDF (8.8%, cultivar Dama) and a decrease in RS (19.5%, 33.4%, and 47.0% for cultivars Imperador, Gol, and Bola Cheia, respectively). Regarding the pasting properties, the heating process promoted a reduction in the values of peak viscosity, final viscosity, breakdown, and setback for all carioca bean cultivars. The other parameters, i.e., gel hardness, WSI, emulsifying capacity, and stability also presented a significant decrease in the cooked flours. So, the pretreatment promoted a total or/partially starch pre-gelatinization and the denaturation of the proteins of the flours which might increase their acceptability for food development.Hide Abstract
Chemical characterization of Sicilian dried nopal [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.].
Di Bella, G., Vecchio, G. L., Albergamo, A., Nava, V., Bartolomeo, G., Macrì, A., Baccjetta, L., Lo Turco, V. & Potortì, A. G. (2022). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 106, 104307.
Sicilian dried nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) was for the first time chemically characterized in relation to the cultivar (i.e., Sanguigna, Surfarina and Muscaredda) and the pruning season (i.e., January-February and June-July 2019). To this purpose, a variety of analytical techniques were employed for elucidating its proximate composition, fatty acid composition, sugars, element fingerprint, and single polyphenols. Sicilian nopal was rich in dietary fiber (44.11-49.55 %), inorganic elements -such as Ca (4780.31-5041.47 mg/100 g) and K (4899.25-6612.95 mg/100 g)- phenolic acids (4.10-5.3 g/Kg) and flavonoids (3.80–4.85 g/Kg), including the characteristic kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside. It was also a good source of carbohydrates, with predominant monosaccharides such as glucose (9.30-12.00 g/100 g) and galacturonic acid (6.16-7.90 g/100 g) and demonstrated to be low in fat (0.76-2.46 %). In particular, its fatty acid composition was characterized by the predominance of short and long chain fatty acids, such as caprylic acid (3.48-7.65 %), linoleic (20.81-24.27 %) and linolenic acids (11.02-16.83 %). Additionally, obtained results pointed out that macro- and micronutrients were affected by both cultivar and pruning season, however, the influence of the pruning season being more pronounced. Such variability should be taken into account when evaluating the employment of Sicilian nopal in food and nutraceutical areas.Hide Abstract
Influence of Phenolic-Food Matrix Interactions on In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Selected Phenolic Compounds and Nutrients Digestibility in Fortified White Bean Paste.
Sęczyk, Ł., Gawlik-Dziki, U. & Świeca, M. (2021). Antioxidants, 10(11), 1825.
This model study aimed to evaluate the effect of phenolic–food matrix interactions on the in vitro bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of selected phenolic compounds (gallic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, apigenin, and catechin) as well as protein and starch digestibility in fortified white bean paste. The magnitude of food matrix effects on phenolics bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity was estimated based on “predicted values” and “combination indexes”. Furthermore, the protein–phenolics interactions were investigated using electrophoretic and chromatographic techniques. The results demonstrated phenolic–food matrix interactions, in most cases, negatively affected the in vitro bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds as well as nutrient digestibility. The lowest in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds in fortified paste was found for quercetin (45.4%). The most negative impact on the total starch digestibility and relative digestibility of proteins was observed for catechin-digestibility lower by 14.8%, and 21.3% (compared with control), respectively. The observed phenolic-food matrix interactions were strictly dependent on the applied phenolic compound, which indicates the complex nature of interactions and individual affinity of phenolic compounds to food matrix components. In conclusion, phenolic–food matrix interactions are an important factor affecting the nutraceutical and nutritional potential of fortified products.Hide Abstract