100 assays of each component
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|Content:||100 assays of each component|
|Storage Temperature:|| Short term stability: 2-8oC, |
Long term stability: See individual component labels
|Stability:||> 2 years under recommended storage conditions|
|Analyte:||Available Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber|
|Limit of Detection:||0.5 g/100 g|
|Reaction Time (min):||~ 78 min|
|Application examples:||Food ingredients, food products and other materials.|
The Available Carbohydrates/Dietary Fiber test kit is an integrated procedure for the measurement and analysis of available carbohydrates and dietary fiber in cereal products, fruit and vegetables and food products.
See more of our dietary fiber products.
- Very cost effective
- All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation
- High purity / standardised enzymes employed
- Only kit available
- Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing
- Simple format
Modification to AOAC Official Methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 to allow for minor overestimation of low molecular weight soluble dietary fiber in samples containing starch.
McCleary, B. V. (2014). Journal of AOAC International, 97(3), 896-901.
AOAC Official Methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 have been modified to allow removal of resistant maltodextrins produced on hydrolysis of various starches by the combination of pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase (AMG) used in these assay procedures. The major resistant maltodextrin, 63,65-di-α-D-glucosyl maltopentaose, is highly resistant to hydrolysis by microbial α-glucosidases, isoamylase, pullulanase, pancreatic, bacterial and fungal α-amylase and AMG. However, this oligosaccharide is hydrolyzed by the mucosal α-glucosidase complex of the pig small intestine (which is similar to the human small intestine), and thus must be removed in the analytical procedure. Hydrolysis of these oligosaccharides has been by incubation with a high concentration of a purified AMG at 60°C. This incubation results in no hydrolysis or loss of other resistant oligosaccharides such as FOS, GOS, XOS, resistant maltodextrins (e.g., Fibersol 2) or polydextrose. The effect of this additional incubation with AMG on the measured level of low molecular weight soluble dietary fiber (SDFS) and of total dietary fiber in a broad range of samples is reported. Results from this study demonstrate that the proposed modification can be used with confidence in the measurement of dietary fiber.Hide Abstract
Measurement of total dietary fiber using AOAC method 2009.01 (AACC International approved method 32-45.01): Evaluation and updates.
McCleary, B. V., Sloane, N., Draga, A. & Lazewska, I. (2013). Cereal Chemistry, 90(4), 396-414.
The Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling recently recommended 14 methods for measurement of dietary fiber, eight of these being type I methods. Of these type I methods, AACC International Approved Method 32-45.01 (AOAC method 2009.01) is the only procedure that measures all of the dietary fiber components as defined by Codex Alimentarius. Other methods such as the Prosky method (AACCI Approved Method 32-05.01) give similar analytical data for the high-molecular-weight dietary fiber contents of food and vegetable products low in resistant starch. In the current work, AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 has been modified to allow accurate measurement of samples high in particular fructooligosaccharides: for example, fructotriose, which, in the HPLC system used, chromatographs at the same point as disaccharides, meaning that it is currently not included in the measurement. Incubation of the resistant oligosaccharides fraction with sucrase/β-galactosidase removes disaccharides that interfere with the quantitation of this fraction. The dietary fiber value for resistant starch type 4 (RS4), varies significantly with different analytical methods, with much lower values being obtained with AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 than with 32-05.01. This difference results from the greater susceptibility of RS4 to hydrolysis by pancreatic α-amylase than by bacterial α-amylase, and also a greater susceptibility to hydrolysis at lower temperatures. On hydrolysis of samples high in starch in the assay format of AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 (AOAC method 2009.01), resistant maltodextrins are produced. The major component is a heptasaccharide that is highly resistant to hydrolysis by most of the starch-degrading enzymes studied. However, it is hydrolyzed by the maltase/amyloglucosidase/isomaltase enzyme complex present in the brush border lining of the small intestine. As a consequence, AOAC methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 (AACCI Approved Methods 32-45.01 and 32-50.01, respectively) must be updated to include an additional incubation with amyloglucosidase to remove these oligosaccharides.Hide Abstract
Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (codex definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: Collaborative Study.
McCleary, B. V., DeVries, J. W., Rader, J. I., Cohen, G., Prosky, P., Mugford, D. C., Champ, M. & Okuma, K. (2012). Journal of AOAC International, 95(3), 824-844.
A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official MethodsSM 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (sR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within-laboratory variability sr for SDF ranged from 0.28 to 1.03, and the between-laboratory variability sR for SDF ranged from 0.85 to 1.66. The within-laboratory variability sr for TDF ranged from 0.47 to 1.41, and the between-laboratory variability sR for TDF ranged from 0.95 to 3.14. This is comparable to other official and approved dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.Hide Abstract
Determination of total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.
McCleary, B. V., DeVries, J. W., Rader, J. I., Cohen, G., Prosky, L., Mugford, D. C., Champ, M. & Okuma, K. (2010). Journal of AOAC International, 93(1), 221-233.
A method for the determination of total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official MethodsSM 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates high- and low-molecular-weight dietary fiber (HMWDF and LMWDF, respectively). In 2007, McCleary described a method of extended enzymatic digestion at 37°C to simulate human intestinal digestion followed by gravimetric isolation and quantitation of HMWDF and the use of LC to quantitate low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF). The method thus quantitates the complete range of dietary fiber components from resistant starch (by utilizing the digestion conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02) to digestion resistant oligosaccharides (by incorporating the deionization and LC procedures of AOAC Method 2001.03). The method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Eighteen laboratories participated with 16 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 11.57 to 47.83. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02 followed by the isolation and gravimetric procedures of AOAC Methods 985.29 and 991.43 results in quantitation of HMWDF. The filtrate from the quantitation of HMWDF is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the LMWSDF, i.e., all nondigestible oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization 3. TDF is calculated as the sum of HMWDF and LMWSDF. Repeatability standard deviations (Sr) ranged from 0.41 to 1.43, and reproducibility standard deviations (SR) ranged from 1.18 to 5.44. These results are comparable to other official dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V., Mills, C. & Draga, A. (2009). Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, 1(4), 213–224.
An integrated total dietary fibre (TDF) method, consistent with the recently accepted CODEX definition of dietary fibre, has been developed. The CODEX Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU) has been deliberating for the past 8 years on a definition for dietary fibre that correctly reflects the current consensus thinking on what should be included in this definition. As this definition was evolving, it became evident to us that neither of the currently available methods for TDF (AOAC Official Methods 985.29 and 991.43), nor a combination of these and other methods, could meet these requirements. Consequently, we developed an integrated TDF procedure, based on the principals of AOAC Official Methods 2002.02, 991.43 and 2001.03, that is compliant with the new CODEX definition. This procedure quantitates high- and low-molecular weight dietary fibres as defined, giving an accurate estimate of resistant starch and non-digestible oligosaccharides also referred to as low-molecular weight soluble dietary fibre. In this paper, the method is discussed, modifications to the method to improve simplicity and reproducibility are described, and the results of the first rounds of interlaboratory evaluation are reported.Hide Abstract
Dietary fiber and available carbohydrates.
McCleary, B. V. & Rossiter, P. C. (2007). “Dietary Fiber: An International Perspective for Harmonization of Health Benefits and Energy Values”, (Dennis T. Gordon and Toshinao Goda, Eds.), AACC International, Inc., pp. 31-59.
Debate continues on the definition of dietary fiber (DF), methods for measurement of DF, and methods for measurement of the carbohydrates that are readily hydrolyzed and absorbed in the human small intestine. Henneberg and Stahmann developed the 'Wende' proximate system for analysis of foods in 1860, and a set of values obtained using this method were published by Atwater and Bryant in 1900. This method is still in use in the USA for the measurement of total carbohydrate. In this procedure, total carbohydrate is measured by difference after deducting the moisture, protein, fat and ash from the total weight. Carbohydrate calculated in this way contains not only sugar and starch, but also the 'unavailable carbohydrate' of DF. However, there are a number of problems with this approach, as the 'by difference' figure includes a number of non-carbohydrate components such as lignin, organic acids, tannins, waxes and some Maillard products. In addition to this error, it combines all of the analytical errors from the other analyses (FAO 1997). A need for information on the carbohydrate composition of foods for diabetics prompted McCance and Lawrence (1929) to attempt to measure carbohydrate composition to gain results that would be of biological significance. They divided the carbohydrates in foods into two broad groups, 'available' and 'unavailable'. The available carbohydrates, that is, sugar plus starch, were defined as those that are digested and absorbed by man and are glucogenic. The unavailable carbohydrates were defined as those that are not digested by the endogenous secretions of the human digestive tract. In the mid 1920s, McCance obtained a grant of £30 per year from the Medical Research Council to analyse raw and cooked fruits and vegetables for total "available carbohydrate"; values needed for calculating diabetic diets.Hide Abstract
An integrated procedure for the measurement of total dietary fibre (including resistant starch), non-digestible oligosaccharides and available carbohydrates.
McCleary, B. V. (2007). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 389(1), 291-308.
A method is described for the measurement of dietary fibre, including resistant starch (RS), non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) and available carbohydrates. Basically, the sample is incubated with pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase under conditions very similar to those described in AOAC Official Method 2002.02 (RS). Reaction is terminated and high molecular weight resistant polysaccharides are precipitated from solution with alcohol and recovered by filtration. Recovery of RS (for most RS sources) is in line with published data from ileostomy studies. The aqueous ethanol extract is concentrated, desalted and analysed for NDO by high-performance liquid chromatography by a method similar to that described by Okuma (AOAC Method 2001.03), except that for logistical reasons, D-sorbitol is used as the internal standard in place of glycerol. Available carbohydrates, defined as D-glucose, D-fructose, sucrose, the D-glucose component of lactose, maltodextrins and non-resistant starch, are measured as D-glucose plus D-fructose in the sample after hydrolysis of oligosaccharides with a mixture of sucrase/maltase plus β-galactosidase.Hide Abstract
Measurement of novel dietary fibres.
McCleary, B. V. & Rossiter, P. (2004). Journal of AOAC International, 87(3), 707-717.
With the recognition that resistant starch (RS) and nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) act physiologically as dietary fiber (DF), a need has developed for specific and reliable assay procedures for these components. The ability of AOAC DF methods to accurately measure RS is dependent on the nature of the RS being analyzed. In general, NDO are not measured at all by AOAC DF Methods 985.29 or 991.43, the one exception being the high molecular weight fraction of fructo-oligosaccharides. Values obtained for RS, in general, are not in good agreement with values obtained by in vitro procedures that more closely imitate the in vivo situation in the human digestive tract. Consequently, specific methods for the accurate measurement of RS and NDO have been developed and validated through interlaboratory studies. In this paper, modifications to AOAC fructan Method 999.03 to allow accurate measurement of enzymically produced fructo-oligosaccharides are described. Suggested modifications to AOAC DF methods to ensure complete removal of fructan and RS, and to simplify pH adjustment before amyloglucosidase addition, are also described.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V. (2003). Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62, 3-9.
The 'gold standard' method for the measurement of total dietary fibre is that of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000; method 985.29). This procedure has been modified to allow measurement of soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, and buffers employed have been improved. However, the recognition of the fact that non-digestible oligosaccharides and resistant starch also behave physiologically as dietary fibre has necessitated a re-examination of the definition of dietary fibre, and in turn, a re-evaluation of the dietary fibre methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. With this realisation, the American Association of Cereal Chemists appointed a scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. It organised various workshops and accepted comments from interested parties worldwide through an interactive website. More recently, the (US) Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Health, National Academy of Sciences, under the oversight of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, assembled a panel to develop a proposed definition(s) of dietary fibre. Various elements of these definitions were in agreement, but not all. What was clear from both reviews is that there is an immediate need to re-evaluate the methods that are used for dietary fibre measurement and to make appropriate changes where required, and to find new methods to fill gaps. In this presentation, the 'state of the art' in measurement of total dietary fibre and dietary fibre components will be described and discussed, together with suggestions for future research.Hide Abstract
Measurement of dietary fibre components: the importance of enzyme purity, activity and specificity.
McCleary, B. V. (2001), “Advanced Dietary Fibre Technology”, (B. V. McCleary and L. Prosky, Eds.), Blackwell Science, Oxford, U.K., pp. 89-105.
Interest in dietary fibre is undergoing a dramatic revival, thanks in part to the introduction of new carbohydrates as dietary fibre components. Much emphasis is being placed on determining how much fibre is present in a food. Linking a particular amount of fibre to a specific health benefit is now an important area of research. The term 'dietary fibre' first appeared in 1953, and referred to hemicelluloses, celluloses and lignin (Theandere/tf/.1995). Trowell (1974) recommended this term as a replacement for the no longer acceptable term 'crude fibre'. Burkitt (1995) has likened the interest in dietary fibre to the growth of a river from its first trickle to a mighty torrent He observes that dietary fibre 'was first viewed as merely the less digestible constituent of food which exerts a laxative action by irritating the gut', thus acquiring the designation 'roughage' - a term later replaced by 'crude fibre' and ultimately by 'dietary fibre'. Various definitions of dietary fibre have appeared over the years, partly due to the various concepts used in deriving the term (i.e. origin of material, resistance to digestion, fermentation in the colon, etc.), and partly to the difficulties associated with its measurement and labelling (Mongeau et al. 1999). The principal components of dietary fibre, as traditionally understood, are non-starch polysaccharides (which in plant fibre are principally hemicelluloses and celluloses), and the non-carbohydrate phenolic components, cutin, suberin and waxes, with which they are associated in nature. In 1976, the definition of dietary fibre was modified to include gums and some pectic substances, based on the resistance to digestion of these components in the upper intestinal tract. For the purposes of labelling, Englyst et al. (1987) proposed that dietary fibre be defined as 'non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diet that are not digested by the endogenous secretions of the human digestive tract'. Methods were concurrently developed to specifically measure NSP (Englyst et al. 1994).Hide Abstract
Two issues in dietary fiber measurement.
McCleary, B. V. (2001). Cereal Foods World, 46, 164-165.
Enzyme activity and purity of these topics, the easiest to deal with is the importance of enzyme purity and activity. As a scientist actively involved in polysaccharide research over the past 25 years, I have come to appreciate the importance of enzyme purity and specificity in polysaccharide modification and measurement (7). These factors translate directly to dietary fiber (DF) methodology, because the major components of DF are carbohydrate polymers and oligomers. The committee report published in the March issue of Cereal FOODS WORLD refers only to the methodology for measuring enzyme purity and activity (8) that led up the AOAC method 985.29 (2). In this work enzyme purity was gauged by the lack of hydrolysis (i.e., complete recovery) of a particular DF component (e.g. β-glucan, larch galactan or citrus pectin). Enzyme activity was measured by the ability to completely hydrolyze representative starch and protein (namely wheat starch and casein). These requirements and restrictions on enzyme purity and activity were adequate at the time the method was initially developed and served as a useful working guide. However, it was recognized that there was a need for more stringent quality definitions and assay procedures for enzymes used in DF measurements.Hide Abstract
Measuring dietary fibre.
McCleary, B. V. (1999). The World of Ingredients, 50-53.
Interest in dietary fibre is undergoing a dramatic revival thanks in part to the introduction of new carbohydrates as dietary fibre components. Much emphasis is being placed on determining how much fibre is present in a food. Linking a particular amount of fibre to a specific health benefit is now an important area of research. Total Dietary Fibre. The term “dietary fibre” first appeared in 1953 and referred to hemicelluloses, celluloses and lignin (1). In 1974, Trowell (2) recommended this term as a replacement for the no longer acceptable term “crude fibre” Burkitt (3) has likened the interest in dietary fibre to the growth of a river from its first trickle to a mighty torrent. He observes that dietary fibre “was viewed as merely the less digestible constituent of food which exerts a laxative action by irritating the gut “thus acquiring the designation “roughage” a term which was later replaced by “crude fibre” and ultimately by “dietary fibre” Various definitions of dietary fibre have appeared over the years, partly due the various concepts used in deriving the term (i.e. origin of material, resistance to digestion, fermentation in the colon etc.), and partly to the difficulties associated with its measurement and labelling (4). The principle components of dietary fibre, as traditionally understood, are non-starch polysaccharides, which in plant fibre are principally hemicelluloses and celluloses, and the non-carbohydrate phenolic components, cutin, suberin and waxes with which they are associated in Nature.Hide Abstract
Structure conformation, physicochemical and rheological properties of flaxseed gums extracted under alkaline and acidic conditions.
Hellebois, T., Fortuin, J., Xu, X., Shaplov, A. S., Gaiani, C., & Soukoulis, C. (2021). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 192. 1217-1230.
The present work aimed at investigating an extraction protocol based on consecutive steps of isoelectric point (pH ~ 4.25) mediated gum swelling and deproteinisation as an alternative method to produce flaxseed gum extracts of enhanced techno-functional characteristics. The osidic and proximate composition, structure conformation, flow behaviour, dynamic rheological and thermal properties of gums isolated from brown and golden flaxseeds were assessed. Gum extraction under near-to-isoelectric point conditions did not impair the extraction yield, residual protein and ash content, whilst it resulted in minor changes in the sugar composition of the flaxseed gum extracts. The deconvolution of the GPC/SEC chromatographs revealed the presence of four major polysaccharidic populations corresponding to arabinoxylans, rhamnogalacturonan-I and two AX-RG-I composite fractions. The latter appeared to minimise the intra- and interchain polymer non-covalent interactions (hydrogen bonding) leading to a better solvation affinity in water and lyotropic solvents. Golden flaxseed gums exerted higher molecular weight (Mw = 1.34–1.15 × 106 Da) and intrinsic viscosities (6.63-5.13 dL g−1) as well as better thickening and viscoelastic performance than the brown flaxseed gum exemplars. Golden flaxseed gums exhibited a better thermal stability compared to the brown flaxseed counterparts and therefore, they are suitable for product applications involving severe heat treatments.Hide Abstract
In vitro bioaccessibility of minerals in fortified infant foods and correlation between mineral absorption facilitators and inhibitors.
Filbido, G. S., Narita, I. M. P., de Oliveira Pinheiro, A. P., da Cruz e Silva, D., Ferreira, B. A., Nascimento, E., Villa, R. D. & de Oliveira, A. P. (2021). Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 15(6), 5648-5656.
The aim of this work was evaluate the in vitro bioaccessibility of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) in lactea cereal flour, infant cereal, milk powder, and chocolate powder and assessed the correlation between mineral absorption facilitators and inhibitors. The total mineral concentration and in vitro bioaccessibility were quantified by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In vitro bioaccessibility assays were performed using three sequential steps to simulate salivary, gastric and intestinal digestion. The mineral absorption facilitators and inhibitors determined were total dietary fiber, phytic acid, ascorbic acid, and calcium contents. The total mineral content analysis showed that Fe was present in the highest concentration, whereas Zn had the highest bioaccessible content in the evaluated samples. Correlation data showed that phytates, Ca, and Fe can inhibit mineral absorption, whereas ascorbic acid may enhance absorption. Thus, the proper choice of the fortifying agent and study of the food matrix are key to increasing micronutrient bioaccessibility.Hide Abstract
Effect of drying and grinding or micro-grinding process on physical and rheological properties of whole cladode (Opuntia ficus-indica) flour.
Chaloulos, P., Bazanis, A. E., Georgiadou, M., Protonotariou, S. & Mandala, I. (2021). LWT, 151, 112171.
Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes are a source of dietary fiber, vitamins and antioxidants that could be utilized by the food industry for both their nutritional and technological properties. In the present study, cladodes were dried at 45°C for 24 h, followed by a 18 h vacuum drying at 45°C or 60°C. The dried cladodes were then ground in a grain mill, resulting in two coarse cladode flours (C45 and C60, respectively). A portion of the two flours was further ground with jet mill, yielding two fine flours, J45 and J60, respectively. Color, bulk density, water and oil holding capacities, solubility and dietary fiber content were determined. In addition, rheological properties and sedimentation kinetic of aqueous cladode flour suspensions were evaluated. An increase of insoluble fiber was observed with micro-grinding. All samples exhibited shear thinning behavior, while jet milling led to substantial decrease in apparent viscosity values. Coarse fractions sedimented quickly, achieving almost maximum sedimentation within 10 min, while the micro ground samples sedimented half as fast. In conclusion, particle size significantly alters the technological properties of cladode flour, broadening the range of applications cladodes could be used for.Hide Abstract
Rapeseed protein as a novel ingredient of gluten-free bread.
Korus, J., Chmielewska, A., Witczak, M., Ziobro, R. & Juszczak, L. (2021). European Food Research and Technology, 1-11.
The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of rapeseed protein isolate on physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes and storage of gluten-free bread prepared on the basis of corn and potato starch mixture with the addition of pectin and guar gum. Starches used in bread formulation were replaced with rapeseed protein isolate in the amounts 6-15%. The bread was characterized in terms of physical properties, including volume, crumb structure and color, which was accompanied with sensory assessment. Texture and thermal properties were determined during 3 days of storage. It was observed that the presence of rapeseed protein, especially at higher levels, caused an increase in bread volume and density of pores and a decrease in crumb porosity, as compared to the control. Partial replacement of starch with rapeseed protein caused a significant increase of b* parameter, reflecting rising yellowness, which positively influenced bread acceptance. Rapeseed protein limited bread staling during storage in comparison to control sample. The results demonstrate that rapeseed protein could become a valuable component of gluten-free bread, as it provides valuable amino acids, but also beneficially influences quality characteristics.Hide Abstract
Nutritional and technological properties of a quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) spray-dried powdered extract.
Romano, N., Ureta, M. M., Guerrero-Sánchez, M. & Gómez-Zavaglia, A. (2020). Food Research International, 129, 108884.
The relevance of an appropriate nutrition requires innovation in the design of food ingredients. The goal of this work was to obtain a powdered extract of quinoa by using spray-drying. To this aim, quinoa flour was suspended in water to obtain a soluble fraction mainly composed of proteins, starch, fiber, lipids, antioxidants and minerals. The spray-drying conditions of this quinoa soluble fraction were set-up in terms of inlet temperatures (150, 160, 170 and 180°C) and feed flow (4.5, 7.5, 10.5 mL/min). The obtained powders were characterized by determining the proximate composition, antioxidant activity, microstructure, fatty acids' profile, and starch and proteins' structures. A correlation among the drying parameters and the chemical and functional attributes of the powders was addressed using principal component analysis. From a technological viewpoint the use of moderate feed flows (7.5 mL/min) and high inlet temperatures (180°C) was the best combination to obtain high powder yields (85% d.b.), low aw (0.047 ± 0.005) and high solids content (0.956 ± 0.005). The drying temperature positively affected the structure of starch, improving swelling and favoring moderate agglomeration which increases the encapsulation properties of quinoa. These results support the use of spray-drying as a suitable method to obtain powdered extracts of quinoa without affecting the nutritional value, thus supporting their use as functional ingredients in the formulation of ready-to-eat foods.Hide Abstract
Potential of chickpea and psyllium in gluten-free breadmaking: Assessing bread’s quality, sensory acceptability, and glycemic and satiety indexes.
Santos, F. G., Aguiar, E. V., Rosell, C. M. & Capriles, V. D. (2020). Food Hydrocolloids, 113, 106487.
Currently, it is still a challenge to obtain gluten free breads (GFB) that meet sensory and health requirements of consumers. Thus, this study investigated the effects of chickpea flour (CF) and psyllium (PSY) on GFB quality, sensory acceptability, glycemic and satiety indexes. The control bread was prepared with rice flour (RF) and cassava starch (75:25). Replacing RF with CF improved bread quality by yielding a better loaf volume and crumb texture, enhancing the appearance, texture, and overall acceptability scores, with no change on flavor and aroma scores. Likewise, a double increase in protein, dietary fiber and resistant starch contents was obtained, reducing the glycemic index, and increasing satiety. PSY addition (5.5% flour weight basis) slightly changed the physical properties of bread and did not impair acceptability compared to control. However, the combination of CF and PSY positively influenced all parameters assessed and thus is a promising alternative for GFB with improved nutrient content and reduced glycemic response together with sensory appeal.Hide Abstract
Structure conformational and rheological characterisation of alfalfa seed (Medicago sativa L.) galactomannan.
Hellebois, T., Soukoulis, C., Xu, X., Hausman, J. F., Shaplov, A., Taoukis, P. S. & Gaiani, C. (2020). Carbohydrate Polymers, 117394.
In the present work a galactomannan extract of low protein residue (< 1.3% wt dry basis) was isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed endosperm meal. The alfalfa gum (AAG) comprised primarily mannose and galactose at a ratio of 1.18:1, had a molecular weight of 2 × 106 Da and a radius of gyration of 48.7 nm. The average intrinsic viscosity of the dilute AAG dispersions calculated using the modified Mark-Houwink, Huggins and Kraemer equations was 9.33 dLg−1 at 25°C. The critical overlap concentration was estimated at 0.306 % whereas the concentration dependence of specific viscosity for the dilute and semi-dilute regimes was ∝ C2.3 and C4.2, respectively. The compliance to the Cox-Merz rule was satisfied at 1% of AAG, whereas a departure from superimposition was observed at higher concentrations. Viscoelasticity measurements demonstrated that AAG dispersions exhibit a predominant viscous character at 1% wt, whereas a weak gel-like behaviour was reached at AAG concentrations ≥3 %.Hide Abstract
Autoclaving and extrusion improve the functional properties and chemical composition of black bean carbohydrate extracts.
Escobedo, A., Loarca‐Piña, G., Gaytan‐Martínez, M., Orozco‐Avila, I. & Mojica, L. (2020). Journal of Food Science, 85(9), 2783-2791.
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are rich in starch with a high content of amylose, which is associated with the production of retrograded and pregelatinized starch through thermal treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition, morphology, thermal, functional, and physicochemical properties of carbohydrate extracts (CE) obtained from autoclaved (100 and 121°C) and extruded (90, 105, and 120°C) black beans. After evaluation of the functional properties, the CE from autoclaved beans at 100°C for 30 min and 121°C for 15 min 2×, and extruded beans at 120°C and 10 rpm, were selected to continue the remaining analysis. Autoclaving treatments at 100°C for 30 min and 121°C for 15 min 2× showed a reduction of resistant starch by 14.4% and 26.6%, respectively, compared to dehulled raw bean CE. Meanwhile, extrusion showed a reduction in resistant starch of 54.2%. Autoclaving and extrusion treatments also decreased the dietary fiber content. Extrusion reduced almost entirely the content of α‐galactooligosaccharides, in comparison to dehulled raw bean CE. The results showed differences in color and granule morphology. The onset, peak, and conclusion temperatures, transition temperature range, and enthalpy of autoclaved and extruded bean CE were lower than dehulled raw bean CE. The CE from autoclaved and extruded beans contain retrograded and pregelatinized starch, which could be incorporated in food products as a thickening agent for puddings, sauces, creams, or dairy products.Hide Abstract
Physicochemical properties and proximate composition of tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) fruits from New Zealand.
Diep, T. T., Pook, C. & Yoo, M. J. Y. (2020). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 92, 103563.
This study reports physical parameters, proximate compositions, reducing sugar and amino acid contents in Amber, Laird’s Large and Mulligan tamarillos that were produced in New Zealand. Across all three cultivars, about 3 % of dietary fibre was present. Higher amounts of neutral side chains were observed in pectin from Laird’s Large compared to other cultivars and in pectin from pulps compared to peels. Among 22 detected amino acids, 2 essential amino acids and 5 non-essential amino acids were reported herein for the first time. The total amino acids content in peel and pulp of tamarillos ranged from 1192 to 1753 and 3455-6077 mg 100 g−1 dry weight, respectively. L-glutamic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid and L-aspartic acid dominated amino acid profile of tamarillo except for Amber peel. L-histidine and L-lysine dominated the essential amino acid profile of all tamarillo samples. Principal component analysis revealed a clear separation among soluble sugar and amino acid profiles of different cultivars and tissues of tamarillo.Hide Abstract