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Arabinoxylan (Wheat Flour; Medium Viscosity)

Arabinoxylan Wheat Flour Medium Viscosity P-WAXYM
Product code: P-WAXYM

3 g

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Content: 3 g
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Ambient
Physical Form: Powder
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
CAS Number: 9040-27-1
Source: Wheat
Molecular Weight: 323,000
Purity: > 95%
Viscosity: 20-30 cSt
Monosaccharides (%): Arabinose: Xylose = 38: 62
Main Chain Glycosidic Linkage: β-1,4
Substrate For (Enzyme): endo-1,4-β-Xylanase

High purity Arabinoxylan (Wheat Flour; Medium Viscosity) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.

Recommended substrate for viscometric and reducing-sugar assays of endo-β-D-xylanase activity.

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Megazyme publication
Novel substrates for the automated and manual assay of endo-1,4-β-xylanase.

Mangan, D., Cornaggia, C., Liadova, A., McCormack, N., Ivory, R., McKie, V. A., Ormerod, A. & McCleary, D. V. (2017). Carbohydrate Research, 445, 14-22.

endo-1,4-β-Xylanase (EC is employed across a broad range of industries including animal feed, brewing, baking, biofuels, detergents and pulp (paper). Despite its importance, a rapid, reliable, reproducible, automatable assay for this enzyme that is based on the use of a chemically defined substrate has not been described to date. Reported herein is a new enzyme coupled assay procedure, termed the XylX6 assay, that employs a novel substrate, namely 4,6-O-(3-ketobutylidene)-4-nitrophenyl-β-45-O-glucosyl-xylopentaoside. The development of the substrate and associated assay is discussed here and the relationship between the activity values obtained with the XylX6 assay versus traditional reducing sugar assays and its specificity and reproducibility were thoroughly investigated.

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Megazyme publication
Hydrolysis of wheat flour arabinoxylan, acid-debranched wheat flour arabinoxylan and arabino-xylo-oligosaccharides by β-xylanase, α-L-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase.

McCleary, B. V., McKie, V. A., Draga, A., Rooney, E., Mangan, D. & Larkin, J. (2015). Carbohydrate Research, 407, 79-96.

A range of α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-xylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) were produced by hydrolysis of wheat flour arabinoxylan (WAX) and acid debranched arabinoxylan (ADWAX), in the presence and absence of an AXH-d3 α-L-arabinofuranosidase, by several GH10 and GH11 β-xylanases. The structures of the oligosaccharides were characterised by GC-MS and NMR and by hydrolysis by a range of α-L-arabinofuranosidases and β-xylosidase. The AXOS were purified and used to characterise the action patterns of the specific α-L-arabinofuranosidases. These enzymes, in combination with either Cellvibrio mixtus or Neocallimastix patriciarum β -xylanase, were used to produce elevated levels of specific AXOS on hydrolysis of WAX, such as 32-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylobiose (A3X), 23-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A2XX), 33-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A3XX), 22-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (XA2X), 32-α-L-Araf (1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (XA3X), 23-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA2XX), 33-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA3XX), 23 ,33-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A2+3XX), 23,33-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA2+3XX), 24,34-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylopentaose (XA2+3XXX) and 33,34-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylopentaose (XA3A3XX), many of which have not previously been produced in sufficient quantities to allow their use as substrates in further enzymic studies. For A2,3XX, yields of approximately 16% of the starting material (wheat arabinoxylan) have been achieved. Mixtures of the α-L-arabinofuranosidases, with specific action on AXOS, have been combined with β-xylosidase and β-xylanase to obtain an optimal mixture for hydrolysis of arabinoxylan to L-arabinose and D-xylose.

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The secretome of Agaricus bisporus: temporal dynamics of plant polysaccharides and lignin degradation.

Duran, K., Magnin, J., America, A. H., Peng, M., Hilgers, R., de Vries, R. P., Baars, J. J. P., Berkel, W. J. H., Kuyper, T. W. & Kabel, M. A. (2023). iScience, 26(7): 107087.

Despite substantial lignocellulose conversion during mycelial growth, previous transcriptome and proteome studies have not yet revealed how secretomes from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus develop and whether they modify lignin models in vitro. To clarify these aspects, A. bisporus secretomes collected throughout a 15-day industrial substrate production and from axenic lab-cultures were subjected to proteomics, and tested on polysaccharides and lignin models. Secretomes (day 6-15) comprised A. bisporus endo-acting and substituent-removing glycoside hydrolases, whereas β-xylosidase and glucosidase activities gradually decreased. Laccases appeared from day 6 onwards. From day 10 onwards, many oxidoreductases were found, with numerous multicopper oxidases (MCO), aryl alcohol oxidases (AAO), glyoxal oxidases (GLOX), a manganese peroxidase (MnP), and unspecific peroxygenases (UPO). Secretomes modified dimeric lignin models, thereby catalyzing syringylglycerol-β-guaiacyl ether (SBG) cleavage, guaiacylglycerol-β-guaiacyl ether (GBG) polymerization, and non-phenolic veratrylglycerol-β-guaiacyl ether (VBG) oxidation. We explored A. bisporus secretomes and insights obtained can help to better understand biomass valorization.

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Development of a Multi-Enzymatic Approach for the Modification of Biopolymers with Ferulic Acid.

Giannakopoulou, A., Tsapara, G., Troganis, A. N., Koralli, P., Chochos, C. L., Polydera, A. C., Katapodis, P., Barkoula, N. & Stamatis, H. (2022). Biomolecules, 12(7), 992.

A series of polymers, including chitosan (CS), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and a chitosan–gelatin (CS–GEL) hybrid polymer, were functionalized with ferulic acid (FA) derived from the enzymatic treatment of arabinoxylan through the synergistic action of two enzymes, namely, xylanase and feruloyl esterase. Subsequently, the ferulic acid served as the substrate for laccase from Agaricus bisporus (AbL) in order to enzymatically functionalize the above-mentioned polymers. The successful grafting of the oxidized ferulic acid products onto the different polymers was confirmed through ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Additionally, an enhancement of the antioxidant properties of the functionalized polymers was observed according to the DDPH and ABTS protocols. Finally, the modified polymers exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against bacterial populations of Escherichia coli BL21DE3 strain, suggesting their potential application in pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical and food industries.

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Novel bi-modular GH19 chitinase with broad pH stability from a fibrolytic intestinal symbiont of Eisenia fetida, Cellulosimicrobium funkei HY-13.

Bai, L., Kim, J., Son, K. H., Chung, C. W., Shin, D. H., Ku, B. H., Kim, D. Y. & Park, H. Y. (2021). Biomolecules, 11(11), 1735.

Endo-type chitinase is the principal enzyme involved in the breakdown of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-based oligomeric and polymeric materials through hydrolysis. The gene (966-bp) encoding a novel endo-type chitinase (ChiJ), which is comprised of an N-terminal chitin-binding domain type 3 and a C-terminal catalytic glycoside hydrolase family 19 domain, was identified from a fibrolytic intestinal symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, Cellulosimicrobium funkei HY-13. The highest endochitinase activity of the recombinant enzyme (rChiJ: 30.0 kDa) toward colloidal shrimp shell chitin was found at pH 5.5 and 55 °C and was considerably stable in a wide pH range (3.5–11.0). The enzyme exhibited the highest biocatalytic activity (338.8 U/mg) toward ethylene glycol chitin, preferentially degrading chitin polymers in the following order: ethylene glycol chitin > colloidal shrimp shell chitin > colloidal crab shell chitin. The enzymatic hydrolysis of N-acetyl-β-d-chitooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization from two to six and colloidal shrimp shell chitin yielded primarily N,N-diacetyl-β-d-chitobiose together with a small amount of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. The high chitin-degrading ability of inverting rChiJ with broad pH stability suggests that it can be exploited as a suitable biocatalyst for the preparation of N,N-diacetyl-β-d-chitobiose, which has been shown to alleviate metabolic dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes.

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Partial acid-hydrolysis of TEMPO-oxidized arabinoxylans generates arabinoxylan-structure resembling oligosaccharides.

Pandeirada, C. O., Speranza, S., Bakx, E., Westphal, Y., Janssen, H. G. & Schols, H. A. (2021). Carbohydrate Polymers, 275, 118795.

Arabinoxylans (AXs) display biological activities that depend on their chemical structures. To structurally characterize and distinguish AXs using a non-enzymatic approach, various TEMPO-oxidized AXs were partially acid-hydrolysed to obtain diagnostic oligosaccharides (OS). Arabinurono-xylo-oligomer alditols (AUXOS-A) with degree of polymerization 2-5, comprising one and two arabinuronic acid (AraA) substituents were identified in the UHPLC-PGC-MS profiles of three TEMPO-oxidized AXs, namely wheat (ox-WAX), partially-debranched WAX (ox-pD-WAX), and rye (ox-RAX). Characterization of these AUXOS-A highlighted that single-substitution of the Xyl unit preferably occurs at position O-3 for these samples, and that ox-WAX has both more single substituted and more double-substituted xylose residues in its backbone than the other AXs. Characteristic UHPLC-PGC-MS OS profiles, differing in OS abundance and composition, were obtained for each AX. Thus, partial acid-hydrolysis of TEMPO-oxidized AXs with analysis of the released OS by UHPLC-PGC-MS is a promising novel non-enzymatic approach to distinguish AXs and obtain insights into their structures.

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Development of a prebiotic blend to influence in vitro fermentation effects, with a focus on propionate, in the gut.

Collins, S. M., Gibson, G. R., Kennedy, O. B., Walton, G., Rowland, I., & Commane, D. M. (2021). FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 97(8), fiab101.

Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) derived from the human gut microbiota, and in particular propionate, may beneficially influence metabolic processes such as appetite regulation. Development of prebiotics that induce high propionate levels during fermentation is desirable. A total of 11 candidate prebiotics were screened to investigate their fermentation characteristics, with a focus on propionate production in mixed anaerobic batch culture of faecal bacteria. Further to this, a continuous 3-stage colonic fermentation model (simulating the human colon) was used to evaluate changes in microbial ecology, lactate and SCFA production of three 50:50 blends, comprising both slow and rapidly fermented prebiotics. In mixed batch culture: xylo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose and α-gluco-oligosaccharide were associated with the greatest increase in propionate. Polydextrose, α-gluco-oligosaccharide, β-1,4 glucan and oat fibre induced the greatest reductions in the acetate to propionate ratio. The most bifidogenic prebiotics were the oligosaccharides. Fermentation of a 50:50 blend of inulin and arabinoxylan, through the continuous 3-stage colonic fermentation model, induced a substantial and sustained release of propionate. The sustained release of propionate through the colon, if replicable in vivo, could potentially influence blood glucose, blood lipids and appetite regulation, however, dietary intervention studies are needed. Bifidogenic effects were also observed for the inulin and arabinoxylan blend and an increase synthesis of butyrate and lactate, thus indicating wider prebiotic potential.

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Extraction of sugarcane bagasse arabinoxylan, integrated with enzymatic production of xylo-oligosaccharides and separation of cellulose.

Khaleghipour, L., Linares-Pastén, J. A., Rashedi, H., Siadat, S. O. R., Jasilionis, A., Al-Hamimi, S., Sardari, R. R. R. & Karlsson, E. N. (2021). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 14(1), 1-19.

Sugarcane processing roughly generates 54 million tonnes sugarcane bagasse (SCB)/year, making SCB an important material for upgrading to value-added molecules. In this study, an integrated scheme was developed for separating xylan, lignin and cellulose, followed by production of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) from SCB. Xylan extraction conditions were screened in: (1) single extractions in NaOH (0.25, 0.5, or 1 M), 121°C (1 bar), 30 and 60 min; (2) 3 × repeated extraction cycles in NaOH (1 or 2 M), 121°C (1 bar), 30 and 60 min or (3) pressurized liquid extractions (PLE), 100 bar, at low alkalinity (0-0.1 M NaOH) in the time and temperature range 10-30 min and 50-150°C. Higher concentration of alkali (2 M NaOH) increased the xylan yield and resulted in higher apparent molecular weight of the xylan polymer (212 kDa using 1 and 2 M NaOH, vs 47 kDa using 0.5 M NaOH), but decreased the substituent sugar content. Repeated extraction at 2 M NaOH, 121°C, 60 min solubilized both xylan (85.6% of the SCB xylan), and lignin (84.1% of the lignin), and left cellulose of high purity (95.8%) in the residuals. Solubilized xylan was separated from lignin by precipitation, and a polymer with β-1,4-linked xylose backbone substituted by arabinose and glucuronic acids was confirmed by FT-IR and monosaccharide analysis. XOS yield in subsequent hydrolysis by endo-xylanases (from glycoside hydrolase family 10 or 11) was dependent on extraction conditions, and was highest using xylan extracted by 0.5 M NaOH, (42.3%, using Xyn10A from Bacillus halodurans), with xylobiose and xylotriose as main products. The present study shows successful separation of SCB xylan, lignin, and cellulose. High concentration of alkali, resulted in xylan with lower degree of substitution (especially reduced arabinosylation), while high pressure (using PLE), released more lignin than xylan. Enzymatic hydrolysis was more efficient using xylan extracted at lower alkaline strength and less efficient using xylan obtained by PLE and 2 M NaOH, which may be a consequence of polymer aggregation, via remaining lignin interactions.

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Wheat cell walls and constituent polysaccharides induce similar microbiota profiles upon in vitro fermentation despite different short chain fatty acid end-product levels.

Lu, S., Mikkelsen, D., Yao, H., Williams, B. A., Flanagan, B. M. & Gidley, M. J. (2021). Food & Function, In Press.

Plant cell walls as well as their component polysaccharides in foods can be utilized to alter and maintain a beneficial human gut microbiota, but it is not known whether the architecture of the cell wall influences the gut microbiota population. In this study, wheat flour cell walls (WCW) were isolated and compared with their major constituents - arabinoxylan (AX), mixed linkage (1,3)(1,4)-β-glucan (MLG) and cellulose - both separately and as a physical mixture of polysaccharides (Mix) equivalent in composition to WCW. These samples underwent in vitro fermentation with a faecal inoculum from pigs fed a diet free of cereals and soluble-fibre to avoid prior adaptation to substrates. During fermentation, samples were collected for DNA extraction and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that the microbial communities promoted during fermentation by AX, MLG, Mix and WCW were similar at the genus level, but differed from the microbiota observed for the cellulose substrate. Differences in proportions of propionate and butyrate end-products were associated with differences in the relative levels of genera. These findings show that, in this experiment, the microbes that flourished were able to utilize diverse WCW polysaccharides alone, in mixtures or in intact cell walls in a similar way, but that different fermentation end-products were associated with AX (propionate) or MLG (butyrate) polysaccharides.

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TEMPO/NaClO2/NaOCl oxidation of arabinoxylans.

Pandeirada, C. O., Merkx, D. W., Janssen, H. G., Westphal, Y. & Schols, H. A. (2021). Carbohydrate Polymers, 259, 117781.

TEMPO-oxidation of neutral polysaccharides has been used to obtain polyuronides displaying improved functional properties. Although arabinoxylans (AX) from different sources may yield polyuronides with diverse properties due to their variable arabinose (Araf) substitution patterns, information of the TEMPO-oxidation of AX on its structure remains scarce. We oxidized AX using various TEMPO:NaClO2:NaOCl ratios. A TEMPO:NaClO2:NaOCl ratio of 1.0:2.6:0.4 per mol of Ara gave an oxidized-AX with high molecular weight, minimal effect on xylose appearance, and comprising charged side chains. Although NMR analyses unveiled arabinuronic acid (AraAf) as the only oxidation product in the oxidized-AX, accurate AraA quantification is still challenging. Linkage analysis showed that > 75 % of the β-(1→4)-xylan backbone remained single-substituted at position O-3 of Xyl similarly to native AX. TEMPO-oxidation of AX can be considered a promising approach to obtain arabinuronoxylans with a substitution pattern resembling its parental AX.

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