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|Stability:||> 2 years under recommended storage conditions|
|Monosaccharides (%):||Arabinose: Xylose = 40: 60|
|Main Chain Glycosidic Linkage:||β-1,4|
|Substrate For (Enzyme):||endo-1,4-β-Xylanase|
High purity Arabinoxylan (Rye Flour) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.
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Novel thermostable GH5_34 arabinoxylanase with an atypical CBM6, displays activity on oat fibre xylan for prebiotic production.
Norlander, S., Jasilionis, A., Ara, Z. G. K., Grey, C., Adlercreutz, P. & Karlsson, E. N. (2022). Glycobiology, In Press.
Carbohydrate active enzymes are valuable tools in cereal processing to valorise underutilized side streams. By solubilizing hemicellulose and modifying the fibre structure, novel food products with increased nutritional value can be created. In this study, a novel GH5_34 subfamily arabinoxylanase from Herbinix hemicellulosilytica, HhXyn5A, was identified, produced and extensively characterized, for the intended exploitation in cereal processing to solubilize potential prebiotic fibres; arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS). The purified two-domain HhXyn5A (catalytic domain and CBM6) demonstrated high storage stability, showed a melting temperature Tm of 61 °C and optimum reaction conditions were determined to 55°C and pH 6.5 on wheat arabinoxylan (WAX). HhXyn5A demonstrated activity on various commercial cereal arabinoxylans and produced prebiotic AXOS, while the sole catalytic domain of HhXyn5A did not demonstrate detectable activity. HhXyn5A demonstrated no side activity on oat β-glucan. In contrast to the commercially available homologue CtXyn5A, HhXyn5A gave a more specific HPAEC–PAD oligosaccharide product profile when using WAX and alkali extracted oat bran fibres as substrate. Results from multiple sequence alignment of GH5_34 enzymes, homology modelling of HhXyn5A and docking simulations with ligands XXXA3, XXXA3XX, and X5, concluded that the active site of HhXyl5A catalytic domain is highly conserved and can accommodate both shorter and longer AXOS ligands. However, significant structural dissimilarities between HhXyn5A and CtXyn5A in the binding cleft of CBM6, due to lack of important ligand interacting residues, is suggested to cause the observed differences in substrate specificity and product formation.Hide Abstract
Duplication of horizontally acquired GH5_2 enzymes played a central role in the evolution of longhorned beetles.
Shin, N. R., Doucet, D. & Pauchet, Y. (2022). Molecular Biology and Evolution, 39(6), msac128.
The rise of functional diversity through gene duplication contributed to the adaption of organisms to various environments. Here we investigate the evolution of putative cellulases of the subfamily 2 of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5_2) in the Cerambycidae (longhorned beetles), a megadiverse assemblage of mostly xylophagous beetles. Cerambycidae originally acquired GH5_2 from a bacterial donor through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and extant species harbor multiple copies that arose from gene duplication. We ask how these digestive enzymes contributed to the ability of these beetles to feed on wood. We analyzed 113 GH5_2, including the functional characterization of 52 of them, derived from 25 species covering most subfamilies of Cerambycidae. Ancestral gene duplications led to five well-defined groups with distinct substrate specificity, allowing these beetles to break down, in addition to cellulose, polysaccharides that are abundant in plant cell walls (PCWs), namely, xyloglucan, xylan, and mannans. Resurrecting the ancestral enzyme originally acquired by HGT, we show it was a cellulase that was able to break down glucomannan and xylan. Finally, recent gene duplications further expanded the catalytic repertoire of cerambycid GH5_2, giving rise to enzymes that favor transglycosylation over hydrolysis. We suggest that HGT and gene duplication, which shaped the evolution of GH5_2, played a central role in the ability of cerambycid beetles to use a PCW-rich diet and may have contributed to their successful radiation.Hide Abstract
Partial acid-hydrolysis of TEMPO-oxidized arabinoxylans generates arabinoxylan-structure resembling oligosaccharides.
Pandeirada, C. O., Speranza, S., Bakx, E., Westphal, Y., Janssen, H. G. & Schols, H. A. (2021). Carbohydrate Polymers, 275, 118795.
Arabinoxylans (AXs) display biological activities that depend on their chemical structures. To structurally characterize and distinguish AXs using a non-enzymatic approach, various TEMPO-oxidized AXs were partially acid-hydrolysed to obtain diagnostic oligosaccharides (OS). Arabinurono-xylo-oligomer alditols (AUXOS-A) with degree of polymerization 2-5, comprising one and two arabinuronic acid (AraA) substituents were identified in the UHPLC-PGC-MS profiles of three TEMPO-oxidized AXs, namely wheat (ox-WAX), partially-debranched WAX (ox-pD-WAX), and rye (ox-RAX). Characterization of these AUXOS-A highlighted that single-substitution of the Xyl unit preferably occurs at position O-3 for these samples, and that ox-WAX has both more single substituted and more double-substituted xylose residues in its backbone than the other AXs. Characteristic UHPLC-PGC-MS OS profiles, differing in OS abundance and composition, were obtained for each AX. Thus, partial acid-hydrolysis of TEMPO-oxidized AXs with analysis of the released OS by UHPLC-PGC-MS is a promising novel non-enzymatic approach to distinguish AXs and obtain insights into their structures.Hide Abstract
Impact of condensed tannin interactions with grain proteins and non-starch polysaccharides on batter system properties.
Girard, A. L. & Awika, J. M. (2021). Food Chemistry, 359, 129969.
Proanthocyanidins (PA) cross-link wheat gluten proteins and dramatically enhance batter viscosity; PA could similarly affect related grains. This study aimed to determine PA effect on viscosity and pasting properties of barley, rye, and oat flours, and the relative contributions of PA interactions with proteins and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). PA significantly increased batter viscosity, stability, and RVA peak viscosity in rye and barley flours (2.8× and 1.2×, respectively). Interestingly, viscosity peaked distinctively ~75°C in PA-treated rye and barley flours, and their isolated protein-starch systems, indicating prolamins unravelled and complexed with PA during heating. Oat was largely unaffected by PA, likely because of its protein composition. Furthermore, water-soluble rye NSP and arabinoxylans, but not barley β-glucans, significantly increased starch pasting viscosity with PA; oxidative gelation was not a factor. Thus, rye flour viscosity dramatically increased through interactive effects of PA on rye proteins and NSP, which could expand its food applications.Hide Abstract
Highly Efficient Degradation of Xylan into Xylose by a Single Enzyme.
Basit, A., Miao, T., Liu, J., Wen, J., Song, L., Zheng, F., Lou, H. & Jiang, W. (2019). ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 7(13), 11360-11368.
Here, we report highly efficient degradation of xylan into xylose by a single multifunctional xylanolytic enzyme from the filamentous fungus Thermothelomyces thermophila (termed Ttxy43). Ttxy43 shows three different enzyme activities toward carbohydrates, β-xylosidase (80.8 U/mg), endoxylanase (105.42 U/mg), and α-l-arabinofuranosidase enzyme activities (15.81 U/mg). Analysis of the catalytic mode of action of Ttxy43 for birchwood-xylan (BWX) reveals that endoxylanase initially degrades xylan to unbranched xylooligosaccharides (XOSs) (xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose) as intermediates, which are then quickly hydrolyzed into single xylose by β-xylosidase. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that Ttxy43 residues Asp134 and Glu228 are essential catalytic sites, while Glu176, Asp38, and Asp85 play an accessory role. More importantly, Ttxy43 displays higher degradation efficiency in comparison with a commercial β-xylosidase and endoxylanase “cocktail”. These findings elucidate an efficient integrated degradation mechanism of xylan under industrial reaction conditions, which provides a novel strategy to design techniques for biomass energy production.Hide Abstract
Functional characterization and comparative analysis of two heterologous endoglucanases from diverging subfamilies of glycosyl hydrolase family 45.
Berto, G. L., Velasco, J., Ribeiro, C. T. C., Zanphorlin, L. M., Domingues, M. N., Murakami, M. T., Polikarpoy, I., Oliveira, L. C., Ferraz, A. & Segato, F. (2019). Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 120, 23-35.
Lignocellulosic materials are abundant, renewable and are emerging as valuable substrates for many industrial applications such as the production of second-generation biofuels, green chemicals and pharmaceuticals. However, the recalcitrance and the complexity of cell wall polysaccharides require multiple enzymes for their complete conversion to oligo- and monosaccharides. The endoglucanases from GH45 family are a small and relatively poorly studied group of enzymes with potential industrial application. The present study reports cloning, heterologous expression and functional characterization of two GH45 endoglucanases from mesophilic fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum (GtGH45) and thermophilic fungi Myceliophthora thermophila (MtGH45), which belong to subfamilies GH45C and GH45A, respectively. Both enzymes have optimal pH 5.0 and melting temperatures (Tm) of 66.0°C and 80.9°C, respectively, as estimated from circular dichroism experiments. The recombinant proteins also exhibited different mode of action when incubated with oligosaccharides ranging from cellotriose to cellohexaose, generating mainly cellobiose and cellotriose (MtGH45) or glucose and cellobiose (GtGH45). The MtGH45 did not show activity against oligosaccharides smaller than cellopentaose while the enzyme GtGH45 was able to depolymerize cellotriose, however with lower efficiency when compared to larger oligosaccharides. Furthermore, both GHs45 were stable up to 70°C for 24 h and useful to enhance initial glucan hydrolysis rates during saccharification of sugarcane pith by a mixture of cellulolytic enzymes. Recombinant GHs45 from diverging subfamilies stand out for differences in substrate specificity appearing as new tools for preparation of enzyme cocktails used in cellulose hydrolysis.Hide Abstract
Ruprecht, C., Dallabernardina, P., Smith, P. J., Urbanowicz, B. R. & Pfrengle, F. (2018). ChemBioChem, In Press.
The plant cell wall is a cellular exoskeleton consisting predominantly of a complex polysaccharide network that defines the shape of cells. During growth, this network can be loosened through the action of Xyloglucan Endo-Transglycosylases (XETs), glycoside hydrolases that 'cut and paste' xyloglucan polysaccharides through a transglycosylation process. We have analyzed cohorts of XETs in different plant species to evaluate xyloglucan acceptor substrate specificities using a set of synthetic oligosaccharides obtained by automated glycan assembly. The ability of XETs to incorporate the oligosaccharides into polysaccharides printed as microarrays and into stem sections of Arabidopsis thaliana, beans, and peas was assessed. We found that single xylose substitutions are sufficient for transfer, and xylosylation of the terminal glucose residue is not required by XETs, independently of plant species. To obtain some information on the potential xylosylation pattern of the natural acceptor of XETs, i.e. the non-reducing end of xyloglucan, we further tested the activity of xyloglucan xylosyl transferase (XXT) 2 on the synthetic xyloglucan oligosaccharides. This data sheds light on inconsistencies between previous studies towards determining the acceptor substrate specificities of XETs and have important implications for further understanding plant cell wall polysaccharide synthesis and remodeling.Hide Abstract
Orita, T., Sakka, M., Kimura, T. & Sakka, K. (2017). Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 104, 37-43.
A novel gene (axh43B) from Ruminiclostridium josui encoding a cellulosomal enzyme consisting of a catalytic module of subfamily GH43_10, a family-6 carbohydrate-binding module, and a dockerin module, was expressed using Escherichia coli. RjAxh43 B released only arabinose from arabinoxylan and 23,33-di-α-L-arabinofuranosyl xylotriose, but not 32-α-L-arabinofuranosyl xylobiose or 23-α-L-arabinofuranosyl xylotriose, strongly suggesting that RjAxh43 B is an arabinoxylan α-L-1,3-arabinofuranohydrolase capable of cleaving α-1,3-linked arabinose residues of doubly arabinosylated xylan. When Axh43 B was mixed with the recombinant scaffolding protein RjCipA of R. josui at a molar ratio of 6:1, the activity of the RjAxh43B-RjCipA complex (6:1) toward insoluble wheat arabinoxylan was similar to that of RjAxh43 B alone, suggesting that RjAxh43 B does not show a proximity effect, which is defined as an activity enhancement effect caused by the presence of plural catalytic subunits adjoining each other. When RjAxh43A was mixed with xylanase RjXyn10C, they acted synergistically toward insoluble wheat arabinoxylan and rice straw powder in the absence of RjCipA. Furthermore, the RjAxh43B-RjXyn10C-RjCipA (3:3:3) complex had higher activity toward insoluble wheat arabinoxylan than a mixture of RjAxh43 B and RjXyn10C without RjCipA, suggesting that incorporation of a xylanase and an α-L-arabinofuranosidase into a cellulosome is beneficial for more efficiently degrading arabinoxylan.Hide Abstract
Arabinoxylanase from glycoside hydrolase family 5 is a selective enzyme for production of specific arabinoxylooligosaccharides.
Falck, P., Linares-Pastén, J. A., Karlsson, E. N. & Adlercreutz, P. (2017). Food Chemistry, 242, 579-584.
An arabinose specific xylanase from glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) was used to hydrolyse wheat and rye arabinoxylan, and the product profile showed that it produced arabinose substituted oligosaccharides (AXOS) having 2-10 xylose residues in the main chain but no unsubstituted xylooligosaccharides (XOS). Molecular modelling showed that the active site has an open structure and that the hydroxyl groups of all xylose residues in the active site are solvent exposed, indicating that arabinose substituents can be accommodated in the glycone as well as the aglycone subsites. The arabinoxylan hydrolysates obtained with the GH5 enzyme stimulated growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis but not of Lactobacillus brevis. This arabinoxylanase is thus a good tool for the production of selective prebiotics.Hide Abstract
Falck, P., Precha-Atsawanan, S., Grey, C., Immerzeel, P., Stalbrand, H., Adlercreutz, P., & Nordberg Karlsson, E. (2013). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61(30), 7333-7340.
To compare xylans from forestry with agricultural origins, hardwood xylan (birch) and cereal arabinoxylan (rye) were hydrolyzed using two variants of the xylanase RmXyn10A, full-length enzyme and catalytic module only, from Rhodothermus marinus. Cultivations of four selected bacterial species, using the xylooligosaccharide (XOS) containing hydrolysates as carbon source, showed selective growth of Lactobacillus brevis DSMZ 1264 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15703. Both strains were confirmed to utilize the XOS fraction (DP 2–5), whereas putative arabinoxylooligosaccharides from the rye arabinoxylan hydrolysate were utilized by only B. adolescentis. Escherichia coli did not grow, despite its capability to grow on the monosaccharides arabinose and xylose. It was also shown that Pediococcus parvulus strain 2.6 utilized neither xylose nor XOS for growth. In summary, RmXyn10A or its catalytic module proved suitable for high-temperature hydrolysis of hardwood xylan and cereal arabinoxylan, producing XOS that could qualify as prebiotics for use in functional food products.Hide Abstract
Luís, A. S., Venditto, I., Temple, M. J., Rogowski, A., Baslé, A., Xue, J., Knox, J. P., Prates, J. A. M., Ferreira, L. M. A., Fontes, C. M. G. A., Najmudin, S. & Gilbert, H. J. (2013). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288(7), 4799-4809.
Plant biomass is central to the carbon cycle and to environmentally sustainable industries exemplified by the biofuel sector. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes generally contain noncatalytic carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) that fulfil a targeting function, which enhances catalysis. CBMs that bind β-glucan chains often display broad specificity recognizing β1,4-glucans (cellulose), β1,3-β1,4-mixed linked glucans and xyloglucan, a β1,4-glucan decorated with α-1,6-xylose residues, by targeting structures common to the three polysaccharides. Thus, CBMs that recognize xyloglucan target the β1,4-glucan backbone and only accommodate the xylose decorations. Here we show that two closely related CBMs, CBM65A and CBM65B, derived from EcCel5A, a Eubacterium cellulosolvens endoglucanase, bind to a range of β-glucans but, uniquely, display significant preference for xyloglucan. The structures of the two CBMs reveal a β-sandwich fold. The ligand binding site comprises the β-sheet that forms the concave surface of the proteins. Binding to the backbone chains of β-glucans is mediated primarily by five aromatic residues that also make hydrophobic interactions with the xylose side chains of xyloglucan, conferring the distinctive specificity of the CBMs for the decorated polysaccharide. Significantly, and in contrast to other CBMs that recognize β-glucans, CBM65A utilizes different polar residues to bind cellulose and mixed linked glucans. Thus, Gln106 is central to cellulose recognition, but is not required for binding to mixed linked glucans. This report reveals the mechanism by which β-glucan-specific CBMs can distinguish between linear and mixed linked glucans, and show how these CBMs can exploit an extensive hydrophobic platform to target the side chains of decorated β-glucans.Hide Abstract
Sakka, M., Tachino, S., Katsuzaki, H., van Dyk, J. S., Pletschke, B. I., Kimura, T. & Sakka, K. (2012). Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 51(4), 193-199.
The genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis SVD1, that produces a cellulolytic and hemi-cellulolytic multienzyme complex, was partially determined, indicating that the glycoside hydrolase system of this strain is highly similar to that of B. licheniformis ATCC14580. All of the fifty-six genes encoding glycoside hydrolases identified in B. licheniformis ATCC14580 were conserved in strain SVD1. In addition, two new genes, xyn30A and axh43A, were identified in the B. licheniformis SVD1 genome. The xyn30A gene was highly similar to Bacillus subtilis subsp. Subtilis 168 xynC encoding for a glucuronoarabinoxylan endo-1,4-β-xylanase. Xyn30A, produced by a recombinant Escherichia coli, had high activity toward 4-O-methyl-D-glucurono-D-xylan but showed definite activity toward oat-spelt xylan and unsubstituted xylooligosaccharides. Recombinant Axh43A, consisting of a family-43 catalytic module of the glycoside hydrolases and a family-6 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), was an arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase (α-L-arabinofuranosidase) classified as AXH-m23 and capable of releasing arabinosyl residues, which are linked to the C-2 or C-3 position of singly substituted xylose residues in arabinoxylan or arabinoxylan oligomers. The isolated CBM polypeptide had an affinity for soluble and insoluble xylans and removal of the CBM from Axh43A abolished the catalytic activity of the enzyme, indicating that the CBM plays an essential role in hydrolysis of arabinoxylan.Hide Abstract
Ribeiro, T., Santos-Silva, T., Alves, V. D., Dias, F. M. V., Luís, A. S., Prates, J. A. M., Ferraira, L. M. A., Romao, M. J. & Fontes, C. M. G. A. (2010). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Proteins and Proteomics, 1804(10), 2054-2062.
Enzymes that degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides display a modular architecture comprising a catalytic domain bound to one or more non-catalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). CBMs display considerable variation in primary structure and are grouped into 59 sequence-based families organized in the Carbohydrate-Active enZYme (CAZy) database. Here we report the crystal structure of CtCBM42A together with the biochemical characterization of two other members of family 42 CBMs from Clostridium thermocellum. CtCBM42A, CtCBM42B and CtCBM42C bind specifically to the arabinose side-chains of arabinoxylans and arabinan, suggesting that various cellulosomal components are targeted to these regions of the plant cell wall. The structure of CtCBM42A displays a beta-trefoil fold, which comprises 3 sub-domains designated as α, β and γ. Each one of the three sub-domains presents a putative carbohydrate-binding pocket where an aspartate residue located in a central position dominates ligand recognition. Intriguingly, the γ sub-domain of CtCBM42A is pivotal for arabinoxylan binding, while the concerted action of β and γ sub-domains of CtCBM42B and CtCBM42C is apparently required for ligand sequestration. Thus, this work reveals that the binding mechanism of CBM42 members is in contrast with that of homologous CBM13s where recognition of complex polysaccharides results from the cooperative action of three protein sub-domains presenting similar affinities.Hide Abstract
Robertson, J. A., Faulds, C. B., Smith, A. C. & Waldron, K. W. (2008). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(5), 1720-1726.
Analysis of wheat bran and spent grain shows that concentrations of ferulate and diferulates offer considerable scope to modify the cross-linking of feruloylated polysaccharides and hence the mechanical properties of these residues. In solution ferulic acid (FA) can be readily polymerized by horseradish peroxidase, but when esterified to a polysaccharide, the profile of diferulates becomes restricted. This situation also exists in muro and suggests structural constraints may limit the availability of FA for cross-linking. At relatively low polysaccharide concentration, (~3%), steric restrictions were apparent in gels prepared using isolated polysaccharides. Mechanical properties such as swelling also appear to be fixed at these relatively low polysaccharide concentrations. This limits the potential to modify mechanical properties in muro through oxidoreductase activity. To modify mechanical properties such treatments will need to focus on increasing the “flexibility” of the cell wall matrix and the accessibility of enzymes to the cell wall matrix.Hide Abstract
Zhao, Q., Yuan, S., Wang, X., Zhang, Y., Zhu, H. & Lu, C. (2008). Plant Physiology, 147(4), 1874-1885.
Mature plant cell walls lose their ability to expand and become unresponsive to expansin. This phenomenon is believed to be due to cross-linking of hemicellulose, pectin, or phenolic groups in the wall. By screening various hydrolytic enzymes, we found that pretreatment of nongrowing, heat-inactivated, basal cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls with pectin lyase (Pel1) from Aspergillus japonicus could restore reconstituted exogenous expansin-induced extension in mature cell walls in vitro. Recombinant pectate lyase A (PelA) and polygalacturonase (PG) from Aspergillus spp. exhibited similar capacity to Pel1. Pel1, PelA, and PG also enhanced the reconstituted expansin-induced extension of the apical (elongating) segments of cucumber hypocotyls. However, the effective concentrations of PelA and PG for enhancing the reconstituted expansin-induced extension were greater in the apical segments than in the basal segments, whereas Pel1 behaved in the opposite manner. These data are consistent with distribution of more methyl-esterified pectin in cell walls of the apical segments and less esterified pectin in the basal segments. Associated with the degree of esterification of pectin, more calcium was found in cell walls of basal segments compared to apical segments. Pretreatment of the calcium chelator EGTA could also restore mature cell walls' susceptibility to expansin by removing calcium from mature cell walls. Because recombinant pectinases do not hydrolyze other wall polysaccharides, and endoglucanase, xylanase, and protease cannot restore the mature wall's extensibility, we can conclude that the pectin network, especially calcium-pectate bridges, may be the primary factor that determines cucumber hypocotyl mature cell walls' unresponsiveness to expansin.Hide Abstract
Rantanen, H., Virkki, L., Tuomainen, P., Kabel, M., Schols, H. & Tenkanen, M. (2007). Carbohydrate Polymers, 68(2), 350-359.
Commercial xylanase preparation Shearzyme®, which contains the glycoside hydrolase family 10 endo-1,4-β-D-xylanase from Aspergillus aculeatus, was used to prepare short-chain arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) from rye arabinoxylan (AX). A major AXOS was formed as a hydrolysis product. Longer AXOS were also produced as minor products. The pure GH10 xylanase from A. aculeatus was used as a comparison to ensure that the formed AXOS were consequence of the endoxylanase‘s function instead of some side enzymes present in Shearzyme. The major AXOS was purified and the structure confirmed with various analysis methods (TLC, HPAEC-PAD, MALDI-TOF-MS, and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy with nano-probe) as α-L-Araf-(1→3)-β-D-Xylp-(1→4)-D-Xylp (arabinoxylobiose). This is the first report on 13C NMR data of pure arabinoxylobiose. The yield of arabinoxylobiose was 12% from the quantified hydrolysis products. In conclusion, GH10 endoxylanase from A. aculeatus is thus able to cut efficiently the xylosidic linkage next to the arabinofuranosyl-substituted xylose unit which is not typical for all the GH10 endoxylanases. Interestingly, pure A. aculeatus xylanase showed notably activity towards p-nitrophenyl-β-D xylopyranose. In previously studies longer AXOS have been produced with Shearzyme but the formation of short-chain AXOS by A. aculeatus GH10 xylanase has not been studied before.Hide Abstract