480 Units on pNP-α-Arabf at 40oC
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|Content:||480 Units on pNP-α-Arabf at 40oC|
|Formulation:||In 3.2 M ammonium sulphate|
|Stability:||> 1 year under recommended storage conditions|
|Synonyms:||non-reducing end alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase; alpha-L-arabinofuranoside non-reducing end alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase|
|Concentration:||Supplied at ~ 300 U/mL|
|Expression:||From Aspergillus niger|
|Specificity:||Hydrolysis of α-1,2- and α-1,3-linked L-arabinofuranose residues from arabinoxylans and branched arabinans. Hydrolyses α-1,5-linked arabino-oligosaccharides at a much lower rate.|
|Specific Activity:|| ~ 32 U/mg (40oC, pH 5.5 on p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside); |
~ 12.6 U/mg (on sugar-beet arabinan);
~ 1.2 U/mg (on wheat arabinoxylan)
|Unit Definition:||One Unit of α-L-arabinofuranosidase activity is defined as the amount of enzyme required to release one µmole of p-nitrophenol (pNP) per minute from p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside (5 mM) in sodium acetate buffer (100 mM), pH 4.0 at 40oC.|
|Application examples:||Applications in carbohydrate and biofuels research.|
High purity α-L-Arabinofuranosidase (Aspergillus niger) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.
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McCleary, B. V., McKie, V. A., Draga, A., Rooney, E., Mangan, D. & Larkin, J. (2015). Carbohydrate Research, 407, 79-96.
A range of α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-xylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) were produced by hydrolysis of wheat flour arabinoxylan (WAX) and acid debranched arabinoxylan (ADWAX), in the presence and absence of an AXH-d3 α-L-arabinofuranosidase, by several GH10 and GH11 β-xylanases. The structures of the oligosaccharides were characterised by GC-MS and NMR and by hydrolysis by a range of α-L-arabinofuranosidases and β-xylosidase. The AXOS were purified and used to characterise the action patterns of the specific α-L-arabinofuranosidases. These enzymes, in combination with either Cellvibrio mixtus or Neocallimastix patriciarum β -xylanase, were used to produce elevated levels of specific AXOS on hydrolysis of WAX, such as 32-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylobiose (A3X), 23-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A2XX), 33-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A3XX), 22-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (XA2X), 32-α-L-Araf (1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (XA3X), 23-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA2XX), 33-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA3XX), 23 ,33-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A2+3XX), 23,33-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA2+3XX), 24,34-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylopentaose (XA2+3XXX) and 33,34-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylopentaose (XA3A3XX), many of which have not previously been produced in sufficient quantities to allow their use as substrates in further enzymic studies. For A2,3XX, yields of approximately 16% of the starting material (wheat arabinoxylan) have been achieved. Mixtures of the α-L-arabinofuranosidases, with specific action on AXOS, have been combined with β-xylosidase and β-xylanase to obtain an optimal mixture for hydrolysis of arabinoxylan to L-arabinose and D-xylose.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V. (1991). “Enzymes in Biomass Conversion”, (M. E. Himmel and G. F. Leatham, Eds.), ACS Symposium Series, 460, Chapter 34, pp. 437-449. American Chemical Society, Washington.
Hydrolysis of mannan-type polysaccharides by β-mannanase is dependent on substitution on and within the main-chain as well as the source of the β-mannanase employed. Characterisation of reaction products can be used to define the sub-site binding requirements of the enzymes as well as the fine-structures of the polysaccharides. Action of endo-arabinanase and endo-galactanase on arabinans and arabinogalactans is described. Specific assays for endo-arabinanase and arabinan (in fruit-juice concentrates) are reported.Hide Abstract
Novel and selective substrates for the assay of endo-arabinanase.
McCleary, B. V. (1989). "Gums and Stabilisers for the Food Industry, Vol 5”, (G. O. Phillips, D. J. Wedlock and P. A.Williams, Eds.), IRL Press, pp. 291-298.
Substrates and assay procedures for the measurement of endo-1,5-α-L-arabinanase in crude, technical pectinase preparations have been developed. The method of choice employs carboxymethy1-debranched beet araban as substrateT and rate of hydrolysis is measured using the Nelson-Somogyi reducing-sugar procedure with arabinose as the standard. The substrate is physically and chemically stable in solution, and the assay procedure is simple, reliable and specific. Other assay procedures for the measurement of endo-arabinanase which employ dyed debranched araban substrates, are also briefly described.Hide Abstract
Cloning of an α-L-Arabinofuranosidase and Characterization of Its Action on Mono-and Di-Substituted Xylopyranosyl Units.
Wong, D. W. & Batt, S. (2022). Advances in Enzyme Research, 10(4), 75-82.
An α-L-arabinofuranosidase (ARF) gene of 1503 bp was synthesized, subcloned into pET26b vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified in active form, and consisted of 500 amino acid residues, corresponding to 55 kD based on SDS-PAGE. The affinity-purified protein was characterized using arabinofuranosyl xylooligosaccharides (AXOS) as substrates. The pH effect was investigated showing an optimum at pH 5.5. XaARF catalyzed the cleavage of arabinose at C3 of the xylopyranosyl unit efficiently if the arabinofuranosyl substitution was at the terminal compared to internal xylose units. The enzyme was able to act on di-substituted xylopyranosyl units with the first cleavage at C3 followed by C2 linkages.Hide Abstract
A conserved enzyme of smut fungi facilitates cell-to-cell extension in the plant bundle sheath.
Ökmen, B., Jaeger, E., Schilling, L., Finke, N., Klemd, A., Lee, Y. J., Wemhoner, R., Pauly, M., Neumann, U. & Doehlemann, G. (2022). Nature Communications, 13(1), 1-13.
Smut fungi comprise one of the largest groups of fungal plant pathogens causing disease in all cereal crops. They directly penetrate host tissues and establish a biotrophic interaction. To do so, smut fungi secrete a wide range of effector proteins, which suppress plant immunity and modulate cellular functions as well as development of the host, thereby determining the pathogen's lifestyle and virulence potential. The conserved effector Erc1 (enzyme required for cell-to-cell extension) contributes to virulence of the corn smut Ustilago maydis in maize leaves but not on the tassel. Erc1 binds to host cell wall components and displays 1,3-β-glucanase activity, which is required to attenuate β-glucan-induced defense responses. Here we show that Erc1 has a cell type-specific virulence function, being necessary for fungal cell-to-cell extension in the plant bundle sheath and this function is fully conserved in the Erc1 orthologue of the barley pathogen Ustilago hordei.Hide Abstract
Arabinoxylans and cross-linked arabinoxylans: Fermentation and potential application as matrices for probiotic bacterial encapsulation.
Mendez-Encinas, M. A., Carvajal-Millan, E., Simon, S., White, A. K., Chau, H. K., Yadav, M. P., et al. (2022). Food Hydrocolloids for Health, 2, 100085.
Arabinoxylans (AX) and protease treated AX (AXP) were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with endoxylanase and arabinofuranosidase to obtain hydrolyzed AX (HAX) and AXP (HAXP), whose ability to promote Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium longum growth was investigated. Further, the effect of cross-linked AX on the growth of bifidobacteria was also explored. Bifidobacteria showed the highest growth on AX and AXP, while HAX and HAXP did not have a significant impact on bacterial growth. The laccase cross-linking of AX stimulated the growth of bifidobacteria, possibly due to its gel-like structure which favored the bacteria-substrate (AX) interaction. The laccase-induced cross-linked AX (AXG) and alginate (SA) were used to prepare encapsulating matrices. The ability of AXG-SA matrices to encapsulate and protect probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Streptococcus thermophilus and B. longum) viability under storage conditions was investigated. The AXG matrices presented the highest encapsulation efficiencies (55–77%) for all three strains, when AXG-SA and SA matrices were compared. Significantly higher levels (~7 logs) of L. rhamnosus GG were recovered from AXG and AXG-SA matrices after 28 days of storage under aerobic conditions at 4 °C compared to SA matrices (~4 logs). The results indicated that the incorporation of AX into the matrices played a significant role on the survival of encapsulated bacteria during storage, which could be attributed to the stability of the covalent cross-linked network formed during AX gelation that protected bacterial viability. Thus, the matrices based on AXG could be promising materials to encapsulate and protect probiotic bacteria for targeted-delivery to the colon.Hide Abstract
Glycoside Hydrolase family 30 harbors fungal subfamilies with distinct polysaccharide specificities.
Li, X., Kouzounis, D., Kabel, M. A., de Vries, R. P. & Dilokpimol, A. (2022). New biotechnology, 67, 32-41.
Efficient bioconversion of agro-industrial side streams requires a wide range of enzyme activities. Glycoside Hydrolase family 30 (GH30) is a diverse family that contains various catalytic functions and has so far been divided into ten subfamilies (GH30_1-10). In this study, a GH30 phylogenetic tree using over 150 amino acid sequences was contructed. The members of GH30 cluster into four subfamilies and eleven candidates from these subfamilies were selected for biochemical characterization. Novel enzyme activities were identified in GH30. GH30_3 enzymes possess β-(1→6)-glucanase activity. GH30_5 targets β-(1→6)-galactan with mainly β-(1→6)-galactobiohydrolase catalytic behavior. β-(1→4)-Xylanolytic enzymes belong to GH30_7 targeting β-(1→4)-xylan with several activities (e.g. xylobiohydrolase, endoxylanase). Additionally, a new fungal subfamily in GH30 was proposed, i.e. GH30_11, which displays β-(1→6)-galactobiohydrolase. This study confirmed that GH30 fungal subfamilies harbor distinct polysaccharide specificity and have high potential for the production of short (non-digestible) di- and oligosaccharides.Hide Abstract
Insight into the role of α-arabinofuranosidase in biomass hydrolysis: cellulose digestibility and inhibition by xylooligomers.
Xin, D., Chen, X., Wen, P. & Zhang, J. (2019). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 12(1), 64.
Background: α-L-Arabinofuranosidase (ARA), a debranching enzyme that can remove arabinose substituents from arabinoxylan and arabinoxylooligomers (AXOS), promotes the hydrolysis of the arabinoxylan fraction of biomass; however, the impact of ARA on the overall digestibility of cellulose is controversial. In this study, we investigated the effects of the addition of ARA on cellulase hydrolytic action. Results: We found that approximately 15% of the xylan was converted into AXOS during the hydrolysis of aqueous ammonia-pretreated corn stover and that this AXOS fraction was approximately 12% substituted with arabinose. The addition of ARA removes a portion of the arabinose decoration, but the resulting less-substituted AXOS inhibited cellulase action much more effectively; showing an increase of 45.7%. Kinetic experiments revealed that AXOS with a lower degree of arabinose substitution showed stronger affinity for the active site of cellobiohydrolase, which could be the mechanism of increased inhibition. Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest that the ratio of ARA and other xylanases should be carefully selected to avoid the strong inhibition caused by the less-substituted AXOS during the hydrolysis of arabinoxylan-containing biomass. This study advances our understanding of the inhibitory mechanism of xylooligomers and provides critical new insights into the relationship of ARA addition and cellulose digestibility.Hide Abstract
Peyer's patch-immunomodulating glucans from sugar cane enhance protective immunity through stimulation of the hemopoietic system.
Sakai, Y., Sato, M., Funami, Y., Ishiyama, A., Hokari, R., Iwatsuki, M., Nagai, T., Otoguro, K., Yamada, H., Ōmura, S. & Kiyohara, H. (2019). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 124, 505-514.
The aim of the present study was chemical clarification of in vitro Peyer's patch-immunomodulating polysaccharides in sugar cane molasses, and evaluation of in vivo modulating activity on immune function of T lymphocytes in Peyer's patches and on microenvironment of hemopoietic system. Five kinds of glucans, comprising of dextranase-sensitive and activity-related d-glucosyl moieties, were purified as in vitro Peyer's patch-immunomodulating polysaccharides from the molasses. Oral administration of a glucan-enriched subfraction induced IL-2 and GM-CSF-producing T lymphocytes in Peyer's patches, resulting in enhancement of IL-6 production in a hemopoietic microenvironment to boost neutrophil numbers in the peripheral blood stream. Oral administration of purified glucan or glucan-enrich sub-fraction of sugar cane reduced the number of Plasmodium berghei- or P. yoelii-infected erythrocytes in a murine infection model, using polysaccharide alone or via co-administration with the antimalarial drug, artesunate. These results suggested that Peyer's patch-immunomodulating glucans enhanced protective immunity through axis of Peyer's patches-hemopoietic system.Hide Abstract
Structure relationship of non-covalent interactions between phenolic acids and arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides from rapeseed meal.
Zhu, J., Zhang, D., Tang, H., & Zhao, G. (2018). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 120, 2597-2603.
Covalent and non-covalent interactions between polyphenols and polysaccharides produced vital consequences on the sensory and nutritive qualities of the many foods. In the present study, the structure dependence of the non–covalent interactions between phenolic acids (PAs) and an arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharide from rapeseed meal (ARPP) was explored. Native RAPP and its hydrolysates as well as twenty-seven structurally diversified PAs were applied. The interaction was determined as the micrograms of PAs adsorbed by per milligram of polysaccharides (Qe, μg/mg). On one hand, the molecular weight (Mw) of ARPP displayed a significant effect on the Qe of ferulic acid and a highest value (412.28 μg/mg) was obtained for the ARPP hydrolysate having a Mw of 76 kDa. On the other hand, the substituent profile of PAs greatly affected their Qe values onto ARPP, although the results are monomer and substituent specific. Specifically, in terms of Qe, hydroxylation favored the interaction by 35.78% to 271.22%, while methylation and esterification weakened the absorption by 44.78% to 230.71% and 16.48% to 78.68%, respectively. The case of esterification is more complicated that the attachment of -OCH3 at 3-position (-26.14% to -77.04%) is adverse but that at 5-position is highly favorable (156.96% to 190.70%) for the interactions.Hide Abstract
Yu, L., Yakubov, G. E., Zeng, W., Xing, X, Stenson, J., Bulone, V. &Stokes, J. R. (2017). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 165(1), 132-141.
Mucilages are hydrocolloid solutions produced by plants for a variety of functions, including the creation of a water-holding barrier around seeds. Here we report our discovery of the formation of three distinct mucilage layers around Plantago ovata seeds upon their hydration. Each layer is dominated by different arabinoxylans (AXs). These AXs are unusual because they are highly branched and contain β-1,3-linked xylose in their side chains. We show that these AXs have similar monosaccharide and linkage composition, but vary in their polymer conformation. They also exhibit distinct rheological properties in aqueous solution, despite analytical techniques including NMR showing little difference between them. Using enzymatic hydrolysis and chaotropic solvents, we reveal that hydrogen bonding and side chain distribution are key factors underpinning the distinct rheological properties of these complex AXs.Hide Abstract
Leathers, T. D., Price, N. P., Vaughn, S. F. & Nunnally, M. S. (2017). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, In Press.
A new Type II arabinogalactan was recently described as an abundant gum exudate from stems of wild frost grape (Vitus riparia Michx.). The purpose of the current study is to more thoroughly characterize the physical properties of this frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), and develop methods to modify the molecular weight of FGP for potential new applications. Specifically, native FGP was modified by heat treatment, digestion with the enzyme L-arabinosidase, and ultrasonication. Results showed that native FGP was progressively and irreversibly denatured by heat treatment, while the polymer remained largely resistant to enzymatic digestion. However, ultrasonication reduced the molecular weight of FGP from 1.6 × 107 Da to about 3.0 × 105 Da. Reduced-molecular-weight FGP exhibited modified solution viscosity properties, which could be useful in food and prebiotic applications.Hide Abstract
Peng, Q., Liu, H., Lei, H. & Wang, X. (2016). Food Chemistry, 194, 595-600.
An immunologically active arabinogalactan (LRGP3) was selectively degraded by acetolysis, mild acid hydrolysis and enzymatic digestion. After exo-α-L-arabinofuranosidase digestion, 56% of the arabinosyl chains were released. The resistant product (LRGP3-AF) had markedly increased complement fixating activities. The acid hydrolysis product (LRGP3-T) contained (1 → 3)-linked (17.6%), (1 → 6)-linked (23.1%), (1 → 3,6)-linked (30.1%) and terminal (29.2%) galactosyl residues, and its complement fixating activity was lower than that of LRGP3-AF. The side chains (Oligo-S) consisted of arabinose, galactose, and rhamnose in the molar ratios 16.8:1.4:1.0. The complement fixating activity of Oligo-S was weak, but Oligo-S had potent macrophage stimulation activity. Degradation of arabinosyl residues in LRGP3 decreased the macrophage stimulation activity, but the galactan backbone still expressed partial activity. The results demonstrated that the galactan backbone of the polymer might be essential for the expression of complement fixating activity and the arabinosyl side chains could be more responsible for the macrophage activation activity. There may be several structurally different active sites involved in the immunological activity of LRGP3.Hide Abstract
Palaniyandi, S. A., Damodharan, K., Lee, K. W., Yang, S. H. & Suh, J. W. (2015). Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 20(3), 608-613.
Ginsenoside Rd, a minor ginseng saponin, has several pharmacological activities. Traditionally, saponins are extracted using organic solvents or hot water extraction. However, both of these methods have disadvantages such as formation of artefacts and compound decomposition. Additionally, the use of organic solvents for extraction is hazardous to the environment. Therefore, we aimed to produce ginsenoside Rd without using organic solvents or hot extraction. We developed a simultaneous extraction and transformation process for higher yields of ginsenoside Rd using a combination of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and enzymes. Several commercial glycosidases in various combinations were studied for the enrichment of ginsenoside Rd from major ginsenosides by enzymatic transformation and HHP. We found that treatment with a combination of cellulase (2 U/mL), cellobiase (4 U/mL) and HHP of 100 Mpa at pH 4.8 and 45°C for 24 h resulted in a ginsenoside Rd content of 3.47 ± 0.35 mg/g of fresh ginseng. This yield is 2.1-fold higher than that of the corresponding enzyme treatment at atmospheric pressure (AP, 0.1 Mpa) at pH 4.8, 45°C and for 24 h. This simultaneous extraction and transformation process can be used for the preparation of Rd enriched ginseng beverage without using hazardous organic solvents.Hide Abstract
Huang, C., He, J., Li, X., Min, D. & Yong, Q. (2015). Bioresource Technology, 192, 471-477.
Kraft pulping was performed on bamboo residues and its impact on the chemical compositions and the enzymatic digestibility of the samples were investigated. To improve the digestibility of sample by degrading the xylan and lignin–carbohydrates complexes (LCCs), xylanase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) were supplemented with cellulase. The results showed more carbohydrates were remained in the samples pulped with low effective alkali (EA) charge, compared to conventional kraft pulping. When 120 IU/g xylanase and 15 IU/g AF were supplemented with 20 FPU/g cellulase, the xylan degradation yield of the sample pulped with 12% EA charge increased from 68.20% to 88.35%, resulting in an increased enzymatic saccharification efficiency from 58.98% to 83.23%. The amount of LCCs in this sample decreased from 8.63/100C9<s/sub> to 2.99/100C9<s/sub> after saccharification with these enzymes. The results indicated that degrading the remained xylan and LCCs in the pulp could improve its enzymatic digestibility.Hide Abstract
Domozych, D. S., Sørensen, I., Popper, Z. A., Ochs, J., Andreas, A., Fangel, J. U., Pielach, A., Sacks, C., Brechka, H., Ruisi-Besares, P., Willats, W. G. & Rose, J. K. C. (2014). Plant Physiology, 165(1), 105-18.
The pectin polymer homogalacturonan (HG) is a major component of land plant cell walls and is especially abundant in the middle lamella. Current models suggest that HG is deposited into the wall as a highly methylesterified polymer, demethylesterified by pectin methylesterase enzymes and cross-linked by calcium ions to form a gel. However, this idea is based largely on indirect evidence and in vitro studies. We took advantage of the wall architecture of the unicellular alga Penium margaritaceum, which forms an elaborate calcium cross-linked HG-rich lattice on its cell surface, to test this model and other aspects of pectin dynamics. Studies of live cells and microscopic imaging of wall domains confirmed that the degree of methylesterification and sufficient levels of calcium are critical for lattice formation in vivo. Pectinase treatments of live cells and immunological studies suggested the presence of another class of pectin polymer, rhamnogalacturonan I, and indicated its co-localization and structural association with HG. Carbohydrate microarray analysis of the walls of P. margaritaceum, Physcomitrella patens and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) further suggested conservation of pectin organization and interpolymer associations in the walls of green plants. The individual constituent HG polymers also have a similar size and branched structure to those of embryophytes. The HG-rich lattice of Penium, a member of the Charophyte green algae, the immediate ancestors of land plants, was shown to be important for cell adhesion. The calcium-HG gel at the cell surface may therefore represent an early evolutionary innovation that paved the way for an adhesive middle lamella in multicellular land plants.Hide Abstract
Chimphango, A. F. A., Rose, S. H., Van Zyl, W. H. & Görgens, J. F. (2012). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 95(1), 101-112.
A recombinant strain of the protease-deficient, non-acidifying pH mutant Aspergillus niger D15 (A. niger D15 [abfB]) strain was developed to secrete α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AbfB) free of endo-1,4-β-xylanases for selective hydrolysis of xylan into hydrogels. The A. niger D15 [abfB] strain expressed the α-L-arabinofuranosidase abfB gene under the transcriptional control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter (gpd P ) and glucoamylase terminator (glaA T ) in fermentation cultures containing 10 % glucose. The yield, activity, purity, kinetics and ability of the recombinant AbfB to selectively hydrolyse xylans into hydrogels were assessed. The recombinant AbfB secreted in 125-mL shake flasks and 10-L bioreactor fermentation cultures had specific activities against ρ-nitrophenyl-α-arabinofuranoside of up to 4.4 and 2.7 U g-1 (dry weight), respectively. In addition, the recombinant AbfB was present as a single protein species on silver-stained 10 % sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The recombinant AbfB had optimal activity at 40–55°C and pH 3.0 to pH 5.0 and was stable at temperature and pH of up to 60°C and pH 6.0, respectively. About 20 % of the available arabinose in the xylan was released by the recombinant AbfB from the hydrolysis of low viscosity wheat and oat spelt arabinoxylans and about 9 and 5 % from bagasse and bamboo arabinoglucuronoxylans, respectively, that led to the formation of the hydrogels. Therefore, the constructed A. niger D15 [abfB] strain presented a microbial system for the production of recombinant AbfB with the required purity for the modification of xylans into hydrogels.Hide Abstract
Gurzawska, K., Svava, R., Syberg, S., Yihua, Y., Haugshøj, K. B., Damager, I., Ulvskov, P., Christensen, L. H., Gotfredsen, K. & Jørgensen, N. R. (2012). Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 100(3), 654-664.
Long-term stability of titanium implants are dependent on a variety of factors. Nanocoating with organic molecules is one of the methods used to improve osseointegration. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro effect of nanocoating with pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) on surface properties and osteoblasts response. Three different RG-Is from apple and lupin pectins were modified and coated on amino-functionalized tissue culture polystyrene plates (aminated TCPS). Surface properties were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effects of nanocoating on proliferation, matrix formation and mineralization, and expression of genes (real-time PCR) related to osteoblast differentiation and activity were tested using human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. It was shown that RG-I coatings affected the surface properties. All three RG-I induced bone matrix formation and mineralization, which was also supported by the finding that gene expression levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and collagen type-1 were increased in cells cultured on the RG-I coated surface, indicating a more differentiated osteoblastic phenotype. This makes RG-I coating a promising and novel candidate for nanocoatings of implants.Hide Abstract
Koutaniemi, S., Guillon, F., Tranquet, O., Bouchet, B., Tuomainen, P., Virkki, L., Petersen, H. L., Willats, W. G. T., Saulnier, L. & Tenkanen, M. (2012). Planta, 236(2), 739-751.
Immunolabeling can be used to locate plant cell wall carbohydrates or other components to specific cell types or to specific regions of the wall. Some antibodies against xylans exist; however, many partly react with the xylan backbone and thus provide limited information on the type of substituents present in various xylans. We have produced a monoclonal antibody which specifically recognizes glucopyranosyl uronic acid (GlcA), or its 4-O-methyl ether (meGlcA), substituents in xylan and has no cross-reactivity with linear or arabinofuranosyl-substituted xylans. The UX1 antibody binds most strongly to (me)GlcA substitutions at the non-reducing ends of xylan chains, but has a low cross-reactivity with internal substitutions as well, at least on oligosaccharides. The antibody labeled plant cell walls from both mono- and dicotyledons, but in most tissues an alkaline pretreatment was needed for antibody binding. The treatment removed acetyl groups from xylan, indicating that the vicinity of glucuronic acid substituents is also acetylated. The novel labeling patterns observed in the xylem of tree species suggested that differences within the cell wall exist both in acetylation degree and in glucuronic acid content.Hide Abstract