endo-1,4-β-Xylanase (Neocallimastix patriciarum)

Reference code: E-XYLNP
SKU: 700004245

20,000 Units

Content: 20,000 Units
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: 2-8oC
Formulation: In 3.2 M ammonium sulphate
Physical Form: Suspension
Stability: > 1 year under recommended storage conditions
Enzyme Activity: endo-1,4-β-Xylanase
EC Number:
CAZy Family: GH11
CAS Number: 9025-57-4
Synonyms: endo-1,4-beta-xylanase; 4-beta-D-xylan xylanohydrolase
Source: Neocallimastix patriciarum
Molecular Weight: 25,800
Concentration: Supplied at ~ 10,000 U/mL
Expression: Recombinant from Neocallimastix patriciarum
Specificity: endo-hydrolysis of (1,4)-β-D-xylosidic linkages in xylans.
Specific Activity: ~ 800 U/mg (40oC, pH 6.0 on wheat arabinoxylan); 
~ 1050 U/mg (50oC, pH 6.0 on wheat arabinoxylan)
Unit Definition: One Unit of xylanase activity is defined as the amount of enzyme required to release one µmole of xylose reducing-sugar equivalents per minute from wheat arabinoxylan (5 mg/mL) in sodium phosphate buffer (100 mM), pH 6.0.
Temperature Optima: 50oC
pH Optima: 6
Application examples: Applications in carbohydrate and biofuels research and in the food and feeds and paper pulping industries.

High purity recombinant endo-1,4-β-Xylanase (Neocallimastix patriciarum) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.

See our complete list of Carbohydrate Active enZYmes.

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Data Sheet
Megazyme publication
Novel substrates for the automated and manual assay of endo-1,4-β-xylanase.

Mangan, D., Cornaggia, C., Liadova, A., McCormack, N., Ivory, R., McKie, V. A., Ormerod, A. & McCleary, D. V. (2017). Carbohydrate Research, 445, 14-22.

endo-1,4-β-Xylanase (EC is employed across a broad range of industries including animal feed, brewing, baking, biofuels, detergents and pulp (paper). Despite its importance, a rapid, reliable, reproducible, automatable assay for this enzyme that is based on the use of a chemically defined substrate has not been described to date. Reported herein is a new enzyme coupled assay procedure, termed the XylX6 assay, that employs a novel substrate, namely 4,6-O-(3-ketobutylidene)-4-nitrophenyl-β-45-O-glucosyl-xylopentaoside. The development of the substrate and associated assay is discussed here and the relationship between the activity values obtained with the XylX6 assay versus traditional reducing sugar assays and its specificity and reproducibility were thoroughly investigated.

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Megazyme publication
Hydrolysis of wheat flour arabinoxylan, acid-debranched wheat flour arabinoxylan and arabino-xylo-oligosaccharides by β-xylanase, α-L-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase.

McCleary, B. V., McKie, V. A., Draga, A., Rooney, E., Mangan, D. & Larkin, J. (2015). Carbohydrate Research, 407, 79-96.

A range of α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-xylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) were produced by hydrolysis of wheat flour arabinoxylan (WAX) and acid debranched arabinoxylan (ADWAX), in the presence and absence of an AXH-d3 α-L-arabinofuranosidase, by several GH10 and GH11 β-xylanases. The structures of the oligosaccharides were characterised by GC-MS and NMR and by hydrolysis by a range of α-L-arabinofuranosidases and β-xylosidase. The AXOS were purified and used to characterise the action patterns of the specific α-L-arabinofuranosidases. These enzymes, in combination with either Cellvibrio mixtus or Neocallimastix patriciarum β -xylanase, were used to produce elevated levels of specific AXOS on hydrolysis of WAX, such as 32-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylobiose (A3X), 23-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A2XX), 33-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A3XX), 22-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (XA2X), 32-α-L-Araf (1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (XA3X), 23-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA2XX), 33-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA3XX), 23 ,33-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A2+3XX), 23,33-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA2+3XX), 24,34-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylopentaose (XA2+3XXX) and 33,34-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylopentaose (XA3A3XX), many of which have not previously been produced in sufficient quantities to allow their use as substrates in further enzymic studies. For A2,3XX, yields of approximately 16% of the starting material (wheat arabinoxylan) have been achieved. Mixtures of the α-L-arabinofuranosidases, with specific action on AXOS, have been combined with β-xylosidase and β-xylanase to obtain an optimal mixture for hydrolysis of arabinoxylan to L-arabinose and D-xylose.

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Megazyme publication
A Comparison of Polysaccharide Substrates and Reducing Sugar Methods for the Measurement of endo-1,4-β-Xylanase.

McCleary, B. V. & McGeough, P. (2015). Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 177(5), 1152-1163.

The most commonly used method for the measurement of the level of endo-xylanase in commercial enzyme preparations is the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reducing sugar method with birchwood xylan as substrate. It is well known that with the DNS method, much higher enzyme activity values are obtained than with the Nelson-Somogyi (NS) reducing sugar method. In this paper, we have compared the DNS and NS reducing sugar assays using a range of xylan-type substrates and accurately compared the molar response factors for xylose and a range of xylo-oligosaccharides. Purified beechwood xylan or wheat arabinoxylan is shown to be a suitable replacement for birchwood xylan which is no longer commercially available, and it is clearly demonstrated that the DNS method grossly overestimates endo-xylanase activity. Unlike the DNS assay, the NS assay gave the equivalent colour response with equimolar amounts of xylose, xylobiose, xylotriose and xylotetraose demonstrating that it accurately measures the quantity of glycosidic bonds cleaved by the endo-xylanase. The authors strongly recommend cessation of the use of the DNS assay for measurement of endo-xylanase due to the fact that the values obtained are grossly overestimated due to secondary reactions in colour development.

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Xylan clustering on the pollen surface is required for exine patterning.

Xu, R., Liu, Z., Wang, X., Zhou, Y. & Zhang, B. (2024). Plant Physiology, 194(1), 153-167.

Xylan is a crosslinking polymer that plays an important role in the assembly of heterogeneous cell wall structures in plants. The pollen wall, a specialized cell wall matrix, exhibits diverse sculpted patterns that serve to protect male gametophytes and facilitate pollination during plant reproduction. However, whether xylan is precisely anchored into clusters and its influence on pollen wall patterning remain unclear. Here, we report xylan clustering on the mature pollen surface in different plant species that is indispensable for the formation of sculpted exine patterns in dicot and monocot plants. Chemical composition analyses revealed that xylan is generally present at low abundance in the mature pollen of flowering plants and shows plentiful variations in terms of substitutions and modifications. Consistent with the expression profiles of their encoding genes, genetic characterization revealed IRREGULAR XYLEM10-LIKE (IRX10L) and its homologous proteins in the GT47 family of glycosyltransferases as key players in the formation of these xylan micro-/nano-compartments on the pollen surface in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). A deficiency in xylan biosynthesis abolished exine patterning on pollen and compromised male fertility. Therefore, our study outlines a mechanism of exine patterning and provides a tool for manipulating male fertility in crop breeding.

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Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for second-generation ethanol production from xylo-oligosaccharides and acetate.

Procopio, D. P., Lee, J. W., Shin, J., Tramontina, R., Avila, P. F., Brenelli, L. B., Squina, F. M., Damasio, A., Rabelo, S. C., Goldbeck, R., Franco, T. T., Leak, D., Jin, Y-S, & Basso, T. O. (2023). BioRxiv, 2023-02.

Simultaneous intracellular depolymerization of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) and acetate fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers an advance towards more cost-effective second-generation (2G) ethanol production. As xylan is one of the most abundant polysaccharides present in lignocellulosic residues, the transport and breakdown of XOS in an intracellular environment might bring a competitive advantage for recombinant strains in competition with contaminating microbes, which are always present in fermentation tanks; furthermore, acetic acid is a ubiquitous toxic component in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, deriving from hemicellulose and lignin breakdown. In the present work, the previously engineered S. cerevisiae strain, SR8A6S3, expressing NADPH-linked xylose reductase (XR), NAD+-linked xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) (for xylose assimilation), as well as NADH-linked acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (AADH) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) (for an NADH-dependent acetate reduction pathway), was used as the host for expressing of two β-xylosidases, GH43-2 and GH43-7, and a xylodextrin transporter, CDT-2, from Neurospora crassa, yielding the engineered strain SR8A6S3-CDT2-GH432/7. Both β-xylosidases and the transporter were introduced by replacing two endogenous genes, GRE3 and SOR1, that encode aldose reductase and sorbitol (xylitol) dehydrogenase, respectively, which catalyse steps in xylitol production. Xylitol accumulation during xylose fermentation is a problem for 2G ethanol production since it reduces final ethanol yield. The engineered strain, SR8A6S3-CDT2-GH432/7, produced ethanol through simultaneous co-utilization of XOS, xylose, and acetate. The mutant strain produced 60% more ethanol and 12% less xylitol than the control strain when a hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used as a mono- and oligosaccharide source. Similarly, the ethanol yield was 84% higher for the engineered strain using hydrolysed xylan compared with the parental strain. The consumption of XOS, xylose, and acetate expands the capabilities of S. cerevisiae for utilization of all of the carbohydrate in lignocellulose, potentially increasing the efficiency of 2G biofuel production.

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PACER: a novel 3D plant cell wall model for the analysis of non-catalytic and enzymatic responses.

Monschein, M., Jurak, E., Paasela, T., Koitto, T., Lambauer, V., Pavicic, M., Enjalbert, T., Dumon, C. & Master, E. R. (2022). Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts, 15(1), 1-11.

Background: Substrate accessibility remains a key limitation to the efficient enzymatic deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. Limited substrate accessibility is often addressed by increasing enzyme loading, which increases process and product costs. Alternatively, considerable efforts are underway world-wide to identify amorphogenesis-inducing proteins and protein domains that increase the accessibility of carbohydrate-active enzymes to targeted lignocellulose components. Results: We established a three-dimensional assay, PACER (plant cell wall model for the analysis of non-catalytic and enzymatic responses), that enables analysis of enzyme migration through defined lignocellulose composites. A cellulose/azo-xylan composite was made to demonstrate the PACER concept and then used to test the migration and activity of multiple xylanolytic enzymes. In addition to non-catalytic domains of xylanases, the potential of loosenin-like proteins to boost xylanase migration through cellulose/azo-xylan composites was observed. Conclusions: The PACER assay is inexpensive and parallelizable, suitable for screening proteins for ability to increase enzyme accessibility to lignocellulose substrates. Using the PACER assay, we visualized the impact of xylan-binding modules and loosenin-like proteins on xylanase mobility and access to targeted substrates. Given the flexibility to use different composite materials, the PACER assay presents a versatile platform to study impacts of lignocellulose components on enzyme access to targeted substrates.

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Lignocellulose degradation for the bioeconomy: the potential of enzyme synergies between xylanases, ferulic acid esterase and laccase for the production of arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides.

Schmitz, E., Leontakianakou, S., Norlander, S., Karlsson, E. N. & Adlercreutz, P. (2021). Bioresource Technology, 343, 126114.

The success of establishing bioeconomies replacing current economies based on fossil resources largely depends on our ability to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. This study explores the potential of employing various enzymes acting synergistically on previously pretreated agricultural side streams (corn bran, oat hull, soluble and insoluble oat bran). Degrees of synergy (oligosaccharide yield obtained with the enzyme combination divided by the sum of yields obtained with individual enzymes) of up to 88 were obtained. Combinations of a ferulic acid esterase and xylanases resulted in synergy on all substrates, while a laccase and xylanases only acted synergistically on the more recalcitrant substrates. Synergy between different xylanases (glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 5 and 11) was observed particularly on oat hulls, producing a yield of 57%. The synergistic ability of the enzymes was found to be partly due to the increased enzyme stability when in combination with the substrates.

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An integrated approach to obtain xylo-oligosaccharides from sugarcane straw: from lab to pilot scale.

Brenelli, L. B., Figueiredo, F. L., Damasio, A., Franco, T. T. & Rabelo, S. C. (2020). Bioresource Technology, 313, 123637.

Sugarcane straw (SS) is a widely available agricultural processing feedstock with the potential to produce 2nd generation bioethanol and bioproducts, in addition to the more conventional use for heat and/or electrical power generation. In this study, we investigated the operational parameters to maximize the production of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) using mild deacetylation, followed by hydrothermal pretreatment. From the laboratory to the pilot-scale, the optimized two-stage pretreatment promoted 81.5% and 70.5% hemicellulose solubilization and led to XOS yields up to 9.8% and 9.1% (w/w of initial straw), respectively. Moreover, different fungal xylanases were also tested to hydrolyze XOS into xylobiose (X2) and xylotriose (X3). GH10 from Aspergillus nidulans performed better than GH11 xylanases and the ratio of the desired products (X2 + X3) increased to 72% due to minimal monomeric sugar formation. Furthermore, a cellulose-rich fraction was obtained, which can be used in other high value-added applications, such as for the production of cello-oligomers.

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Kinetics and regioselectivity of three GH62 α-L-arabinofuranosidases from plant pathogenic fungi.

Sarch, C., Suzuki, H., Master, E. R. & Wang, W. (2019). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects, 1863(6), 1070-1078.

Backgound: Xylan is the second most abundant plant cell wall polysaccharide after cellulose with α-L-arabinofuranose (L-Araf) as one of the major side substituents. Capacity to degrade xylan is characteristic of many plant pathogens; and corresponding enzymes that debranch arabinoxylan provide tools to tailor xylan functionality or permit its full hydrolysis. Method: Three GH62_2 family α-arabinofuranosidases (Abfs) from plant pathogenic fungi, NhaAbf62A from Nectria haematococca, SreAbf62A from Sporisorium reilianum and GzeAbf62A from Gibberella zeae, were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli. Their biochemical properties and substrate specificities were characterized in detail. Particularly with 1H NMR, the regioselectivity and debranching preference of the three Abfs were directly compared. Results: The activities of selected Abfs towards arabinoxylan were all optimal at pH 6.5. Their preferred substrates were wheat arabinoxylan, followed by soluble oat spelt xylan. The Abfs displayed selectivity towards either α-(1 → 2) or α-(1 → 3)-L-Araf mono-substituents in arabinoxylan. Specifically, SreAbf62A and GzeAbf62A removed m-α-(1 → 3)-L-Araf and m-α-(1 → 2)-L-Araf substituents with a similar rates, whereas NhaAbf62A released m-α-(1→ 3)-L-Araf 1.9 times faster than m-α-(1 → 2)-L-Araf. Major conclusions: Building upon the known selectivity of GH62 family α-arabinofuranosidases towards L-Araf mono-substituents in xylans, the current study uncovers enzyme-dependent preferences towards m-α-(1 → 3)-L-Araf and m-α-(1 → 2)-L-Araf substitutions. Comparative sequence-structure analyses of Abfs identified an arginine residue in the xylose binding +2R subsite that was correlated to the observed enzyme-dependent L-Araf debranching preferences. General significance: This study expands the limited pool of characterized GH62 Abfs particularly those from plant pathogenic fungi, and provides biochemical details and methodology to evaluate regioselectivity within this glycoside hydrolase family.

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Endo-xylanases as tools for production of substituted xylooligosaccharides with prebiotic properties.

Karlsson, E. N., Schmitz, E., Linares-Pastén, J. A. & Adlercreutz, P. (2018). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 102(21), 9081-9088.

Xylan has a main chain consisting of β-1,4-linked xylose residues with diverse substituents. Endoxylanases cleave the xylan chain at cleavage sites determined by the substitution pattern and thus give different oligosaccharide product patterns. Most known endoxylanases belong to glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 10 and 11. These enzymes work well on unsubstituted xylan but accept substituents in certain subsites. The GH11 enzymes are more restricted by substituents, but on the other hand, they are normally more active than the GH10 enzymes on insoluble substrates, because of their smaller size. GH5 endoxylanases accept arabinose substituents in several subsites and require it in the -1 subsite. This specificity makes the GH5 endoxylanases very useful for degradation of highly arabinose-substituted xylans and for the selective production of arabinoxylooligosaccharides, without formation of unsubstituted xylooligosaccharides. The GH30 endoxylanases have a related type of specificity in that they require a uronic acid substituent in the -2 subsite, which makes them very useful for the production of uronic acid substituted oligosaccharides. The ability of dietary xylooligosaccharides to function as prebiotics in humans is governed by their substitution patterns. Endoxylanases are thus excellent tools to tailor prebiotic oligosaccharides to stimulate various types of intestinal bacteria and to cause fermentation in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Continuously increasing knowledge on the function of the gut microbiota and discoveries of novel endoxylanases increase the possibilities to achieve health-promoting effects.

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