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D-Xylose Assay Kit

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00:05  Introduction
00:52  Principle
01:21    Reagent Preparation
02:03  Procedure
05:24  Calculations

D-Xylose Assay Kit K-XYLOSE Scheme
   
Product code: K-XYLOSE
€255.00

100 assays (manual) / 1000 assays (microplate) / 1300 assays (auto-analyser)

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Content: 100 assays (manual) / 1000 assays (microplate) / 1300 assays (auto-analyser)
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: D-Xylose
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer, Microplate, Auto-analyser
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 340
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 2 to 100 μg of D-xylose per assay
Limit of Detection: 0.7 mg/L
Reaction Time (min): ~ 6 min
Application examples: Analysis of D-xylose in fermentation broths and hydrolysates of plant material and polysaccharides.
Method recognition: Novel method

The D-Xylose test kit is a novel method for the specific, convenient and rapid measurement and analysis of D-xylose in plant extracts, culture media/supernatants and other materials.

Note for Content: The number of manual tests per kit can be doubled if all volumes are halved.  This can be readily accommodated using the MegaQuantTM  Wave Spectrophotometer (D-MQWAVE).

View our full range of monosaccharide assay kits.

Scheme-K-XYLOSE XYLOSE Megazyme

Advantages
  • Very cost effective 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation 
  • Only enzymatic kit available 
  • Rapid reaction (~ 6 min) 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included 
  • Suitable for manual, microplate and auto-analyser formats
Documents
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Validation Report
Publications
Megazyme publication

Measurement of available carbohydrates in cereal and cereal products, dairy products, vegetables, fruit and related food products and animal feeds: First Action 2020.07.

McCleary, B. V. & McLoughlin, C. (2021). Journal of AOAC International, qsab019.

Background: The level of available carbohydrates in our diet is directly linked to two major diseases; obesity and Type II diabetes. Despite this, to date there is no method available to allow direct and accurate measurement of available carbohydrates in human and animal foods. Objective: The aim of this research was to develop a method that would allow simple and accurate measurement of available carbohydrates, defined as non-resistant starch, maltodextrins, maltose, isomaltose, sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose and galactose. Method: Non-resistant (digestible) starch is hydrolysed to glucose and maltose by pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase at pH 6.0 with shaking or stirring at 37°C for 4 h. Sucrose, lactose, maltose and isomaltose are completely hydrolyzed by specific enzymes to their constituent monosaccharides, which are then measured using pure enzymes in a single reaction cuvette. Results: A method has been developed that allows the accurate measurement of available carbohydrates in all cereal, vegetable, fruit, food, and feed products, including dairy products. Conclusions: A single-laboratory validation was performed on a wide range of food and feed products. The inter-day repeatability (%RSDr) was <3.58% (w/w) across a range of samples containing 44.1 to 88.9% available carbohydrates. The LOD and LOQ obtained were 0.054% (w/w) and 0.179% (w/w), respectively. The method is all inclusive, specific, robust and simple to use. Highlights: A unique method has been developed for the direct measurement of available carbohydrates, entailing separate measurement of glucose, fructose and galactose; information of value in determining the glycemic index of foods.

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Highly efficient fed-batch modes for enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial lipogenesis from alkaline organosolv pretreated corn stover for biodiesel production.

Wang, X., Wang, Y., He, Q., Liu, Y., Zhao, M., Liu, Y., Zhou, W. & Gong, Z. (2022). Renewable Energy, 197, 1133-1143.

High-density culture for microbial lipid preparation from low-cost lignocellulosic feedstocks is crucial for commercial-scale biodiesel production. Herein, fed-batch saccharification of alkaline organosolv pretreatment (AOP) of corn stover at an extremely high solids content of 47% (w/v) released 299.5 g/L of lignocellulosic sugars including 18.3% of soluble oligosaccharides. Three types of liquid hydrolysates for seed culture, fermentation, and feeding during fed-batch culture were obtained from the hydrolysate slurry using a two-step washing strategy with 99.3% of sugars recovery. Cutaneotrichosporon oleaginosum showed excellent capacity for assimilating both monosaccharides and oligosaccharides for lipid production using the fed-batch culture mode. Lipid concentration, content, and yield gained 42.3 g/L, 64.6%, and 20.4 g/100 g, respectively. Turbid hydrolysate collected with high recovery of high-concentration sugars and simplified process could be directly served as feeding medium. In general, the overall hydrolysis yield and lipid yield using fed-batch mode accounted for 93.2% and 97.6% of those using batch mode, respectively, resulting in a lipid output of 102.8 g/kg raw corn stover. The fatty acid composition and the prediction of biodiesel properties of lipid samples indicated the suitability for high-quality fuel production. This study provided valuable information for designing highly efficient lignocelluloses-to-biodiesel routes.

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Complete genome sequencing and identification of fiber-degrading potential in Bacillus amyloliquefaciencs strain TL106 from the Tibetan pig.

Shang, Z. D., Liu, S., Duan, Y., Bao, C., Wang, J., Dong, B. & Cao, Y. H. (2022). BMC Microbiol, 22(1),186.

Background: Cellulolytic microorganisms are considered a key player in the degradation of feed fiber. These microorganisms can be isolated from various resources, such as animal gut, plant surfaces, soil and oceans. A new strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, TL106, was isolated from faeces of a healthy Tibetan pigs. This strain can produce cellulase and shows strong antimicrobial activity in mice. Thus, in this study, to better understand the strain of B. amyloliquefaciens TL106 on degradation of cellulose, the genome of the strain TL106 was completely sequenced and analyzed. In addition, we also explored the cellulose degradation ability of strain TL106 in vitro. Results: TL106 was completely sequenced with the third generation high-throughput DNA sequencing. In vitro analysis with enzymatic hydrolysis identified the activity of cellulose degradation. TL106 consisted of one circular chromosome with 3,980,960 bp and one plasmid with 16,916 bp, the genome total length was 3.99 Mb and total of 4,130 genes were predicted. Several genes of cellulases and hemicellulase were blasted in Genbank, including β-glucosidase, endoglucanase, ß-glucanase and xylanase genes. Additionally, the activities of amylase (20.25 U/mL), cellulase (20.86 U/mL), xylanase (39.71 U/mL) and β-glucanase (36.13 U/mL) in the fermentation supernatant of strain TL106 were higher. In the study of degradation characteristics, we found that strain TL106 had a better degradation effect on crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, arabinoxylan and β-glucan of wheat and highland barley . Conclusions: The genome of B. amyloliquefaciens TL106 contained several genes of cellulases and hemicellulases, can produce carbohydrate-active enzymes, amylase, cellulase, xylanase and β-glucanase. The supernatant of fermented had activities of strain TL106. It could degrade the fiber fraction and non-starch polysaccharides (arabinoxylans and β-glucan) of wheat and highland barley. The present study demonstrated that the degradation activity of TL106 to crude fiber which can potentially be applied as a feed additive to potentiate the digestion of plant feed by monogastric animals.

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Chemical composition and bioactivity of oilseed cake extracts obtained by subcritical and modified subcritical water.

Švarc-Gajić, J., Rodrigues, F., Moreira, M. M., Delerue-Matos, C., Morais, S., Dorosh, O., Silva, A. M., Bassani, A., Dzedik, V. & Spigno, G. (2022). Bioresources and Bioprocessing, 9(1), 1-14.

Recovery of bioactive compounds from biowaste is gaining more and more interest in circular economy models. The oilseed cakes are usually insufficiently exploited by most technologies since they represent valuable matrices abundant in proteins, minerals, and phytochemicals, but their use is mostly limited to feed ingredients, fertilizers or biofuel production. This study was thus focused on the exploration of new valorization pathways of oilseed cakes by subcritical water, representing a safe and economic alternative in the creation of value chains. Pumpkin, hemp, and flax seed cakes were treated with subcritical water in nitrogen and carbon-dioxide atmospheres, as well as in nitrogen atmosphere with the addition of acid catalyst. The degradation of carbohydrate fraction was studied by quantifying sugars and sugar degradation products in the obtained extracts. The extracts obtained under different conditions were further compared chemically with respect to total phenols and flavonoids, as well as to the content of individual phenolic compounds. Furthermore, the effects of subcritical water treatment conditions on antioxidant, antiradical and cytotoxic properties of thus obtained extracts were defined and discussed.

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Arabidopsis GELP7 functions as a plasma membrane-localized acetyl xylan esterase, and its overexpression improves saccharification efficiency.

Rastogi, L., Chaudhari, A. A., Sharma, R. & Pawar, P. A. M. (2022). Plant Molecular Biology, 109, 781-797.

Acetyl substitution on the xylan chain is critical for stable interaction with cellulose and other cell wall polymers in the secondary cell wall. Xylan acetylation pattern is governed by Golgi and extracellular localized acetyl xylan esterase (AXE). We investigated the role of Arabidopsis clade Id from the GDSL esterase/lipase or GELP family in polysaccharide deacetylation. The investigation of the AtGELP7 T-DNA mutant line showed a decrease in stem esterase activity and an increase in stem acetyl content. We further generated overexpressor AtGELP7 transgenic lines, and these lines showed an increase in AXE activity and a decrease in xylan acetylation compared to wild-type plants. Therefore, we have named this enzyme as AtAXE1. The subcellular localization and immunoblot studies showed that the AtAXE1 enzyme is secreted out, associated with the plasma membrane and involved in xylan de-esterification post-synthesis. The cellulose digestibility was improved in AtAXE1 overexpressor lines without pre-treatment, after alkali and xylanases pre-treatment. Furthermore, we have also established that the AtGELP7 gene is upregulated in the overexpressor line of AtMYB46, a secondary cell wall specific transcription factor. This transcriptional regulation can drive AtGELP7 or AtAXE1 to perform de-esterification of xylan in a tissue-specific manner. Overall, these data suggest that AtGELP7 overexpression in Arabidopsis reduces xylan acetylation and improves digestibility properties of polysaccharides of stem lignocellulosic biomass.

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High-pressure autohydrolysis process of wheat straw for cellulose recovery and subsequent use in PBAT composites preparation.

Fiorentini, C., Bassani, A., Garrido, G. D., Merino, D., Perotto, G., Athanassiou, A., Prantie, J., Halonen, N. & Spigno, G. (2022). Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 39, 102282.

The effect of autohydrolysis (AH) temperature (165°C, 195°C, 225°C) on the structure, purity, and recovery yield of the cellulose residue isolated after additional alkaline and bleaching steps from wheat straw, was investigated. The processes were quantified for mass yields in the different steps and for antioxidants and sugars release during AH. AH at 195°C allowed for the highest cellulose residue yield (83.5%) with purity (~70%) and structure similar to the other residues. FTIR and XRD analyses showed straw cellulose (SC) with a type II polymorphism and crystallinity index increasing with AH temperature. SC obtained at the end of the entire fractionation process (SC-195°C) starting from AH residue-195°C was tested as a reinforcing agent in different percentage (0, 2 and 5% by weight) in poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) films. The Young's modulus of the films increased by ~17% with 5 wt% cellulose, while tensile strength and elongation at break decreased.

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Ability of yeast metabolic activity to reduce sugars and stabilize betalains in red beet juice.

Dygas, D., Nowak, S., Olszewska, J., Szymańska, M., Mroczyńska-Florczak, M., Berłowska, J., Dziugan, P. & Kręgiel, D. (2021). Fermentation, 7(3), 105.

To lower the risk of obesity, diabetes, and other related diseases, the WHO recommends that consumers reduce their consumption of sugars. Here, we propose a microbiological method to reduce the sugar content in red beet juice, while incurring only slight losses in the betalain content and maintaining the correct proportion of the other beet juice components. Several yeast strains with different metabolic activities were investigated for their ability to reduce the sugar content in red beet juice, which resulted in a decrease in the extract level corresponding to sugar content from 49.7% to 58.2%. This strategy was found to have the additional advantage of increasing the chemical and microbial stability of the red beet juice. Only slight losses of betalain pigments were noted, to final concentrations of 5.11% w/v and 2.56% w/v for the red and yellow fractions, respectively.

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Citrulline supplementation attenuates the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in female mice through mechanisms involving intestinal arginase.

Rajcic, D., Baumann, A., Hernández-Arriaga, A., Brandt, A., Nier, A., Jin, C. J., Sanchez, V., Jumg, F., Camarinha-Silva, A. & Bergheim, I. (2021). Redox Biology, 41, 101879.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is by now the most prevalent liver disease worldwide. The non-proteogenic amino acid l-citrulline (L-Cit) has been shown to protect mice from the development of NAFLD. Here, we aimed to further assess if L-Cit also attenuates the progression of a pre-existing diet-induced NAFLD and to determine molecular mechanisms involved. Female C57BL/6J mice were either fed a liquid fat-, fructose- and cholesterol-rich diet (FFC) or control diet (C) for 8 weeks to induce early stages of NASH followed by 5 more weeks with either FFC-feeding +/- 2.5 g L-Cit/kg bw or C-feeding. In addition, female C57BL/6J mice were either pair-fed a FFC +/- 2.5 g L-Cit/kg bw +/- 0.01 g/kg bw i.p. N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (NOHA) or C diet for 8 weeks. The protective effects of supplementing L-Cit on the progression of a pre-existing NAFLD were associated with an attenuation of 1) the increased translocation of bacterial endotoxin and 2) the loss of tight junction proteins as well as 3) arginase activity in small intestinal tissue, while no marked changes in intestinal microbiota composition were prevalent in small intestine. Treatment of mice with the arginase inhibitor NOHA abolished the protective effects of L-Cit on diet-induced NAFLD. Our results suggest that the protective effects of L-Cit on the development and progression of NAFLD are related to alterations of intestinal arginase activity and intestinal permeability.

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Identifying transcription factors that reduce wood recalcitrance and improve enzymatic degradation of xylem cell wall in Populus.

Hori, C., Takata, N., Lam, P. Y., Tobimatsu, Y., Nagano, S., Mortimer, J. C. & Cullen, D. (2020). Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1-13.

Developing an efficient deconstruction step of woody biomass for biorefinery has been drawing considerable attention since its xylem cell walls display highly recalcitrance nature. Here, we explored transcriptional factors (TFs) that reduce wood recalcitrance and improve saccharification efficiency in Populus species. First, 33 TF genes up-regulated during poplar wood formation were selected as potential regulators of xylem cell wall structure. The transgenic hybrid aspens (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) overexpressing each selected TF gene were screened for in vitro enzymatic saccharification. Of these, four transgenic seedlings overexpressing previously uncharacterized TF genes increased total glucan hydrolysis on average compared to control. The best performing lines overexpressing Pt × tERF123 and Pt × tZHD14 were further grown to form mature xylem in the greenhouse. Notably, the xylem cell walls exhibited significantly increased total xylan hydrolysis as well as initial hydrolysis rates of glucan. The increased saccharification of Pt × tERF123-overexpressing lines could reflect the improved balance of cell wall components, i.e., high cellulose and low xylan and lignin content, which could be caused by upregulation of cellulose synthase genes upon the expression of Pt × tERF123. Overall, we successfully identified Pt × tERF123 and Pt × tZHD14 as effective targets for reducing cell wall recalcitrance and improving the enzymatic degradation of woody plant biomass.

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Causes of vitamin K deficiency in patients on haemodialysis.

Wikstrøm, S., Aagaard Lentz, K., Hansen, D., Melholt Rasmussen, L., Jakobsen, J., Post Hansen, H. & Andersen, J. R. (2020). Nutrients, 12(9), 2513.

Background: A low vitamin K status is common in patients on haemodialysis, and this is considered one of the reasons for the accelerated atherosclerosis in these patients. The vitamin is essential in activation of the protein Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), and the inactive form, dp-ucMGP, is used to measure vitamin K status. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible underlying causes of low vitamin K status, which could potentially be low intake, washout during dialysis or inhibited absorption capacity. Moreover, the aim was to investigate whether the biomarker dp-ucMGP is affected in these patients. Method: Vitamin K intake was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and absorption capacity by means of D-xylose testing. dp-ucMGP was measured in plasma before and after dialysis, and phylloquinine (vitamin K1) and dp-ucMGP were measured in the dialysate. Changes in dp-ucMGP were measured after 14 days of protein supplementation. Results: All patients had plasma dp-ucMGP above 750 pmol/L, and a low intake of vitamin K. The absorption capacity was normal. The difference in dp-ucMGP before and after dialysis was −1022 pmol/L (p < 0.001). Vitamin K1 was not present in the dialysate but dp-ucMGP was at a high concentration. The change in dp-ucMGP before and after protein supplementation was −165 pmol/L (p = 0.06). Conclusion: All patients had vitamin K deficiency. The reason for the low vitamin K status is not due to removal of vitamin K during dialysis or decreased absorption but is plausibly due to a low intake of vitamin K in food. dp-ucMGP is washed out during dialysis, but not affected by protein intake to a clinically relevant degree.

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Identification of enzymatic genes with the potential to reduce biomass recalcitrance through lignin manipulation in Arabidopsis.

Sakamoto, S., Kamimura, N., Tokue, Y., Nakata, M. T., Yamamoto, M., Hu, S., Masai, E., Mitsuda, N. & Kajita, S. (2020). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 13(97), 1-16.

Background: During the chemical and biochemical decomposition of lignocellulosic biomasses, lignin is highly recalcitrant. Genetic transformation of plants to qualitatively and/or quantitatively modify lignin may reduce these recalcitrant properties. Efficient discovery of genes to achieve lignin manipulation is thus required. Results:To screen for new genes to reduce lignin recalcitrance, we heterologously expressed 50 enzymatic genes under the control of a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) gene promoter, derived from a hybrid aspen, which is preferentially active in tissues with lignified cell walls in Arabidopsis plants. These genes encode enzymes that act on metabolites in shikimate, general phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, or monolignol biosynthetic pathways. Among these genes, 30, 18, and 2 originated from plants, bacteria, and fungi, respectively. In our first screening step, 296 independent transgenic plants (T1 generation) harboring single or multiple transgenes were generated from pools of seven Agrobacterium strains used for conventional floral-dip transformation. Wiesner and Mäule staining patterns in the stems of the resultant plants revealed seven and nine plants with apparent abnormalities in the two respective staining analyses. According to genomic PCR and subsequent direct sequencing, each of these 16 plants possessed a gene encoding either coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase (calB), feruloyl-CoA 6′-hydroxylase (F6H1), hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA hydratase/lyase (couA), or ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), with one transgenic plant carrying both calB and F6H1. The effects of these genes on lignin manipulation were confirmed in individually re-created T1 transgenic Arabidopsis plants. While no difference in lignin content was detected in the transgenic lines compared with the wild type, lignin monomeric composition was changed in the transgenic lines. The observed compositional change in the transgenic plants carrying calB, couA, and F5H led to improved sugar release from cell walls after alkaline pretreatment. Conclusions:Simple colorimetric characterization of stem lignin is useful for simultaneous screening of many genes with the potential to reduce lignin recalcitrance. In addition to F5H, the positive control, we identified three enzyme-coding genes that can function as genetic tools for lignin manipulation. Two of these genes (calB and couA) accelerate sugar release from transgenic lignocelluloses.

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Determining different impact factors on the xylonic acid production using Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2343.

Hahn, T., Torkler, S., van Der Bolt, R., Gammel, N., Hesse, M., Möller, A., Preylowski, B., Hubracht, v., patzsch, k. & Zibek, S. (2020). Process Biochemistry, 94, 172-179.

Xylonic acid is a promising compound for the substitution of gluconic acid. Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2343 has proven to be a highly potent biocatalyst for the conversion of xylose to xylonic acid. In the present study, different nitrogen sources for the growth of G. oxydans and subsequent xylonic acid production were investigated for the first time with minimal medium. Application of 0.32 g/L glutamate supplemented with 0.15 g/L ammonium sulfate as a cheap nitrogen source enabled a xylonic acid productivity of 2.92 g/(Lh) which is similar to findings involving a complex medium (3.20 g/(Lh)). The study further investigated the impact of the xylose source on the growth and production of G. oxydans. Dose-response curves confirmed that G. oxydans is mainly insensitive towards the main inhibitory compounds, acetate and hydroxymethylfurfural, up to a concentration of 5 g/L and 2.5 g/L, respectively. However, batch investigations indicated that substitution of 25 % of the pure xylose with hemicellulosic xylose resulted in a xylonic acid yield of 90 % compared to the control approach without hemicellulosic xylose. The feeding of hemicellulosic xylose in a pulsed fed-batch mode even enabled the use of 50 g/L demonstrating that the proper selection of a feeding strategy for the hemicellulosic xylose greatly improves the production of xylonic acid.

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Isolation, characterization, and application of thermotolerant Streptomyces sp. K5 for efficient conversion of cellobiose to chitinase using pulse-feeding strategy.

2021-01-272021-01-27Mutturi, S., Ike, M., Yamagishi, K. & Tokuyasu, K. (2020). Process Biochemistry, 94, 58-65.

In this study, the selection of target sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysate and the implementation of a bioprocess strategy led to efficient production of a catalyst for chitinous bioresource conversion. Streptomyces sp. K5, a chitinase producer in the presence of glucose, was isolated at 50 °C on an agar plate with glucose and colloidal chitin. The K5 was found to produce chitinase with a maximum activity of 70 U/L in a medium containing glucose and xylose as well as colloidal chitin as an inducer. The assimilation of glucose and xylose, however, was extremely slow, with significant residual being present even after 168 h of incubation. Assimilation tests of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose confirmed that K5 produces chitinase without chitinous inducer and assimilates cellobiose much more rapidly than either glucose or xylose. At the same time, the complete exhaustion of each sugar initiated chitinase inactivation. A pulse- feeding strategy was adopted for the cellobiose, taking its rapid assimilation, β-glucosidase activity, and chitinase inactivation into account, and a maximum chitinase activity of 235 U/L was achieved under pulse- feeding conditions that included four pulses.

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Application of an orcinol-ferric chloride colorimetric assay in barley and wheat accessions for water-extractable and total arabinoxylan.

Hu, G., Ellberg, S., Burton, C., Evans, C., Satterfield, K. & Bockelman, H. (2020). Journal of Cereal Science, 93, 102962.

Arabinoxylan is an important hemicellulose potentially affecting wheat baking qualities, barley malt quality, and may impart prebiotic benefits. Water-extractable (WEAX) and total arabinoxylan (TOAX) were characterized in 204 wheat and barley accessions, respectively, using an orcinol-ferric chloride assay. WEAX measurement accuracy was optimum when glucose concentration was greater than 12–13 times pentose concentration. The modified method removed enough excess glucose spectral absorbance to make the corrected and uncorrected lines different, but still significantly correlated (p = 0.009, R = 0.94). Mean WEAX (expressed as percentage WEAX of TOAX) for the wheat accessions was 15.90%, ranging from 8.82% to 24.87%, and for barley accessions WEAX the mean was 7.10%, and ranged from 2.98% to 13.86%. Conclusions are 1) the assay is useful for a breeding program because of its semi-high throughput design for the simultaneous analysis of 16 (WEAX) to 40 (TOAX) barley lines or 24 (WEAX) to 40 (TOAX) wheat lines, 2) the trichromatic measurement reduces the impact of glucose, and 3) the broad range of WEAX measured showed that barley and wheat accessions vary in their extractable and unextractable components.

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Tailored and synergistic enzyme-assisted extraction of carotenoid-containing chromoplasts from tomatoes.

Lombardelli, C., Liburdi, K., Benucci, I. & Esti, M. (2020). Food and Bioproducts Processing, 121, 43-53.

Despite significant efforts recently made to improve the recovery yield of food pigments from natural sources, the development of green and sustainable biotechnological approaches is currently under investigation. Within the context of circular economy, food wastes represent a cheap source for the recovery of valuable compounds including food ingredients. In this study, a conservative approach consisting in a tailored enzyme-assisted extraction protocol for the recovery of carotenoid-containing chromoplasts from unsold tomatoes in which lycopene is stable and protected against oxidation, has now been developed. A tailored enzymatic mix based on polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, cellulase and xylanase, has been designed taking into account the polysaccharide composition of the tomato cell wall. The optimal process conditions for enhancing the recovery of carotenoids from tomatoes i.e.; temperature, pH, enzymatic mix of total dosage and processing time, have been investigated. The suitable temperature and pH identified by the RSM analysis, were found to be: 45-55°C at pH 5-5.5. The treatment carried out using the total dosage of 25 U/g for 180 min was the most convenient for maximizing the recovery yield [about 4.30 ± 0.08 (mgLyc/Kgtomato)/U as carotenoid-containing chromoplasts and about 5.43 ± 0.04 (mgLyc/Kgtomato)/U as total carotenoids].

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Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of alkaline organosolv-pretreated corn stover facilitating high concentrations and yields of fermentable sugars for microbial lipid production.

Gong, Z., Wang, X., Yuan, W., Wang, Y., Zhou, W., Wang, G. & Liu, Y. (2020). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 13(1), 13.

Background: Lignocellulosic biomass has been commonly regarded as a potential feedstock for the production of biofuels and biochemicals. High sugar yields and the complete bioconversion of all the lignocellulosic sugars into valuable products are attractive for the utilization of lignocelluloses. It is essential to pretreat and hydrolyze lignocelluloses at high solids loadings during industrial processes, which is more economical and environmentally friendly as capital cost, energy consumption, and water usage can be reduced. However, oligosaccharides are inevitably released during the high solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis and they are more recalcitrant than monosaccharides for microorganisms. Results: A fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover pretreated by the sodium hydroxide-methanol solution (SMs) at high solids loading was demonstrated to reach the high concentrations and yields of fermentable sugars. Glucose, xylose, cello-oligosaccharides, and xylo-oligosaccharides achieved 146.7 g/L, 58.7 g/L, 15.6 g/L, and 24.7 g/L, respectively, when the fed-batch hydrolysis was started at 12% (w/v) solids loading, and 7% fresh substrate and a standardized blend of cellulase, β-glucosidase, and hemicellulase were fed consecutively at 3, 6, 24, and 48 h to achieve a final solids loading of 40% (w/v). The total conversion of glucan and xylan reached 89.5% and 88.5%, respectively, when the oligosaccharides were taken into account. Then, a fed-batch culture on the hydrolysates was investigated for lipid production by Cutaneotrichosporon oleaginosum. Biomass, lipid content, and lipid yield were 50.7 g/L, 61.7%, and 0.18 g/g, respectively. The overall consumptions of cello-oligosaccharides and xylo-oligosaccharides reached 74.1% and 68.2%, respectively. Conclusions: High sugars concentrations and yields were achieved when the enzyme blend was supplemented simultaneously with the substrate at each time point of feeding during the fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis. Oligosaccharides were co-utilized with monosaccharides during the fed-batch culture of C. oleaginosum. These results provide a promising strategy to hydrolyze alkaline organosolv-pretreated corn stover into fermentable sugars with high concentrations and yields for microbial lipid production.

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Vegetable wastes derived polysaccharides as natural eco-friendly plasticizers of sodium alginate.

Di Donato, P., Taurisano, V., Poli, A., d’Ayala, G. G., Nicolaus, B., Malinconinco, M. & Santagata, G. (2020). Carbohydrate polymers, 229, 115427.

In this paper, lemon and fennel wastes were recovered and used as secondary-raw polysaccharide sources. These polysaccharides were exploited as natural plasticizers of sodium alginate (A) based films, in order to improve sodium alginate performances, limited by its fragility, extending its potential application in a cost effective and eco-friendly way. Different green processes, such as maceration (MAC), ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE), were carried out for obtaining high yield of lemon and fennel polysaccharides (LP and FP). Actually, HPAE-PAD and TLC analyses evidenced the presence of xyslose, galactose, glucose and rhamnose monomers and galacturonic acid, typical of polysaccharides like pectin and xyloglucan chains. These findings were confirmed by NMR and FTIR spectroscopic analyses. Moreovers, gel filtration chromatography assessed the high molecular weight of recovered polysaccharides, particularly of FP waste fraction. The extracted polysaccharides were used as eco-friendly and cost-effective plasticizers of sodium alginate films (AFP and ALP). DSC analysis evidenced a significant decreasing of glass transition temperature of the polymer, tensile tests showed an enlightened rising of elongation at break and TGA analysis showed a faster degradation kinetics of AFP and ALP films, as expected in a plasticized system.

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Comparison of Japanese and Indian intestinal microbiota shows diet-dependent interaction between bacteria and fungi.

Pareek, S., Kurakawa, T., Das, B., Motooka, D., Nakaya, S., Rongsen-Chandola, T. et al. (2019). NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes, 5(1), 1-13.

The bacterial species living in the gut mediate many aspects of biological processes such as nutrition and activation of adaptive immunity. In addition, commensal fungi residing in the intestine also influence host health. Although the interaction of bacterium and fungus has been shown, its precise mechanism during colonization of the human intestine remains largely unknown. Here, we show interaction between bacterial and fungal species for utilization of dietary components driving their efficient growth in the intestine. Next generation sequencing of fecal samples from Japanese and Indian adults revealed differential patterns of bacterial and fungal composition. In particular, Indians, who consume more plant polysaccharides than Japanese, harbored increased numbers of Prevotella and CandidaCandida spp. showed strong growth responses to the plant polysaccharide arabinoxylan in vitro. Furthermore, the culture supernatants of Candida spp. grown with arabinoxylan promoted rapid proliferation of Prevotella copri. Arabinose was identified as a potential growth-inducing factor in the Candida culture supernatants. Candida spp. exhibited a growth response to xylose, but not to arabinose, whereas P. copri proliferated in response to both xylose and arabinose. Candida spp., but not P. copri, colonized the intestine of germ-free mice. However, P. copri successfully colonized mouse intestine already harboring Candida. These findings demonstrate a proof of concept that fungal members of gut microbiota can facilitate a colonization of the intestine by their bacterial counterparts, potentially mediated by a dietary metabolite.

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