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Lichenan (Icelandic Moss)

Lichenan Icelandic Moss P-LICHN
Product code: P-LICHN

4 g

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Content: 4 g
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Ambient
Physical Form: Powder
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
CAS Number: 1402-10-4
Synonyms: 1,3:1,4-β-D-Glucan
Source: Icelandic Moss
Purity: > 75%
Monosaccharides (%): Glucose: Arabinose: Mannose: Xylose: Galactose: Other sugars = 77.3: 2.7: 8.0: 1.0: 9.2: 1.8
Main Chain Glycosidic Linkage: β-1,4 and β-1,3
Substrate For (Enzyme): β-Glucanase/Lichenase

High purity Lichenan (Icelandic Moss) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.

Contaminant is not starch or phytoglycogen, it appears to be isolichenan.

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A systematic analysis of marine lysogens and proviruses.

Yi, Y., Liu, S., Hao, Y., Sun, Q., Lei, X., Wang, Y., Wang, J., Zhang, M., Tang, S., Tang, Q., Zhang, Y., Liu, X., Wang, Y., Xiao, X. & Jian, H. (2023). Nature Communications, 14(1), 6013.

Viruses are ubiquitous in the oceans, exhibiting high abundance and diversity. Here, we systematically analyze existing genomic sequences of marine prokaryotes to compile a Marine Prokaryotic Genome Dataset (MPGD, consisting of over 12,000 bacterial and archaeal genomes) and a Marine Temperate Viral Genome Dataset (MTVGD). At least 40% of the MPGD genomes contain one or more proviral sequences, indicating that they are lysogens. The MTVGD includes over 12,900 viral contigs or putative proviruses, clustered into 10,897 viral genera. We show that lysogens and proviruses are abundant in marine ecosystems, particularly in the deep sea, and marine lysogens differ from non-lysogens in multiple genomic features and growth properties. We reveal several virus-host interaction networks of potential ecological relevance, and identify proviruses that appear to be able to infect (or to be transferred between) different bacterial classes and phyla. Auxiliary metabolic genes in the MTVGD are enriched in functions related to carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate the impact of a prophage on the transcriptome of a representative marine Shewanella bacterium. Our work contributes to a better understanding of the ecology of marine prokaryotes and their viruses.

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Heterologous expression and characterization of novel GH12 β-glucanase and AA10 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase from Streptomyces megaspores and their synergistic action in cellulose saccharification.

Qin, X., Yang, K., Zou, J., Wang, X., Tu, T., Wang, Y., Su, X., Yao, B., Huang, H. & Luo, H. (2023). Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts, 16(1), 89.

Background: The combination of cellulase and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) is known to boost enzymatic saccharification of cellulose. Although the synergy between cellulases (GH5, 6 or 7) and LPMOs (AA9) has been extensively studied, the interplay between other glycoside hydrolase and LPMO families remains poorly understood. Results: In this study, two cellulolytic enzyme-encoding genes SmBglu12A and SmLpmo10A from Streptomyces megaspores were identified and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant SmBglu12A is a non-typical endo-β-1,4-glucanase that preferentially hydrolyzed β-1,3-1,4-glucans and slightly hydrolyzed β-1,4-glucans and belongs to GH12 family. The recombinant SmLpmo10A belongs to a C1-oxidizing cellulose-active LPMO that catalyzed the oxidation of phosphoric acid swollen cellulose to produce celloaldonic acids. Moreover, individual SmBglu12A and SmLpmo10A were both active on barley β-1,3-1,4-glucan, lichenan, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, as well as Avicel. Furthermore, the combination of SmBglu12A and SmLpmo10A enhanced enzymatic saccharification of phosphoric acid swollen cellulose by improving the native and oxidized cello-oligosaccharides yields. Conclusions: These results proved for the first time that the AA10 LPMO was able to boost the catalytic efficiency of GH12 glycoside hydrolases on cellulosic substrates, providing another novel combination of glycoside hydrolase and LPMO for cellulose enzymatic saccharification.

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Utilization of dietary mixed-linkage β-glucans by the Firmicute Blautia producta.

Singh, R. P., Niharika, J., Thakur, R., Wagstaff, B. A., Kumar, G., Kurata, R., Patel, D., Levy, C. W., Miyazaki, T. & Field, R. A. (2023). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 299(6).

The β-glucans are structurally varied, naturally occurring components of the cell walls, and storage materials of a variety of plant and microbial species. In the human diet, mixed-linkage glucans [MLG - β-(1,3/4)-glucans] influence the gut microbiome and the host immune system. Although consumed daily, the molecular mechanism by which human gut Gram-positive bacteria utilize MLG largely remains unknown. In this study, we used Blautia producta ATCC 27340 as a model organism to develop an understanding of MLG utilization. B. producta encodes a gene locus comprising a multi-modular cell-anchored endo-glucanase (BpGH16MLG), an ABC transporter, and a glycoside phosphorylase (BpGH94MLG) for utilizing MLG, as evidenced by the upregulation of expression of the enzyme- and solute binding protein (SBP)-encoding genes in this cluster when the organism is grown on MLG. We determined that recombinant BpGH16MLG cleaved various types of β-glucan, generating oligosaccharides suitable for cellular uptake by B. producta. Cytoplasmic digestion of these oligosaccharides is then performed by recombinant BpGH94MLG and β-glucosidases (BpGH3-AR8MLG and BpGH3-X62MLG). Using targeted deletion, we demonstrated BpSBPMLG is essential for B. producta growth on barley β-glucan. Furthermore, we revealed that beneficial bacteria, such as Roseburia faecis JCM 17581T, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum JCM 1200T, Bifidobacterium adolescentis JCM 1275T, and Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 1254, can also utilize oligosaccharides resulting from the action of BpGH16MLG. Disentangling the β-glucan utilizing the capability of B. producta provides a rational basis on which to consider the probiotic potential of this class of organism.

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Zobellia alginoliquefaciens sp. nov., a new flavobacteria isolated from the epibiota of the brown alga Ericaria zosteroides (C. Agardh) Molinari & Guiry 2020.

Barbeyron, T., Le Duff, N., Duchaud, E. & Thomas, F. (2023). BioRxiv, 2023-03.

Strain LLG6346-3.1T, isolated from the thallus of the brown alga Ericaria zosteroides collected in Mediterranean Sea near Bastia in Corsica, France, was characterized using a polyphasic method. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-flagellated, motile by gliding, rod-shaped and grew optimally at 30-33°C, at pH 8-8.5 and with 4-5 % NaCl. Strain LLG6346-3.1T used the seaweed polysaccharide alginic acid as sole carbon source which was vigorously liquefied. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the bacterium is affiliated to the genus Zobellia (family Flavobacteriaceae, class Flavobacteriia). Strain LLG6346-3.1T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 98.5 and 98.3 % to the type strains of Zobellia russellii and Zobellia roscoffensis respectively, and of 97.4-98.2 % to other species of the genus Zobellia. The DNA G+C content of strain LLG6346-3.1T was determined to be 38.28 mol%. Digital DNA-DNA hybridization predictions by the ANI and GGDC methods between strain LLG6346-3.1T and other members of the genus Zobellia showed values of 76-88 %, and below 37 %, respectively. The phenotypic, phylogenetic and genomic analyses show that strain LLG6346-3.1T is distinct from species of the genus Zobellia with validly published names and that it represents a novel species of the genus Zobellia, for which the name Zobellia alginoliquefaciens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LLG6346-3.1T (RCC 7657T = LLG 32918T).

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Production, purification, characterization and application of two novel endoglucanases from buffalo rumen metagenome.

Meng, Z., Yang, C., Leng, J., Zhu, W. & Cheng, Y. (2023). Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 14(1), 16.

Background: Lignocellulose biomass is the most abundant and renewable material in nature. The objectives of this study were to characterize two endoglucanases TrepCel3 and TrepCel4, and determine the effect of the combination of them (1.2 mg TrepCel3, 0.8 mg TrepCel4) on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics. In this study, three nature lignocellulosic substrates (rice straw, RS; wheat straw, WS; leymus chinensis, LC) were evaluated for their in vitro digestibility, gas, NH3-N and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, and microbial protein (MCP) synthesis by adding enzymatic combination. Methods: Two endoglucanases’ genes were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21 (DE3), and enzymatic characteristics were further characterized. The combination of TrepCel3 and TrepCel4 was incubated with lignocellulosic substrates to evaluate its hydrolysis ability. Results: The maximum enzymatic activity of TrepCel3 was determined at pH 5.0 and 40°C, while TrepCel4 was at pH 6.0 and 50°C. They were stable over the temperature range of 30 to 60°C, and active within the pH range of 4.0 to 9.0. The TrepCel3 and TrepCel4 had the highest activity in lichenan 436.9 ± 8.30 and 377.6 ± 6.80 U/mg, respectively. The combination of TrepCel3 and TrepCel4 exhibited the highest efficiency at the ratio of 60:40. Compared to maximum hydrolysis of TrepCel3 or TrepCel4 separately, this combination was shown to have a superior ability to maximize the saccharification yield from lignocellulosic substrates up to 188.4% for RS, 236.7% for wheat straw WS, 222.4% for LC and 131.1% for sugar beet pulp (SBP). Supplemental this combination enhanced the dry matter digestion (DMD), gas, NH3-N and VFA production, and MCP synthesis during in vitro rumen fermentation. Conclusions: The TrepCel3 and TrepCel4 exhibited the synergistic relationship (60:40) and significantly increased the saccharification yield of lignocellulosic substrates. The combination of them stimulated in vitro rumen fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates. This combination has the potential to be a feed additive to improve agricultural residues utilization in ruminants. If possible, in the future, experiments in vivo should be carried out to fully evaluate its effect.

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Novel endo-(1, 4)-β-glucanase Bgh12A and xyloglucanase Xgh12B from Aspergillus cervinus belong to GH12 subgroup I and II, respectively.

Rykov, S. V., Kornberger, P., Herlet, J., Tsurin, N. V., Zorov, I. N., Zverlov, V. V., Liebl, W., Schwarz, W. H., Yarotsky, S. V. & Berezina, O. V. (2019). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 103(18), 7553-7566.

In spite of intensive exploitation of aspergilli for the industrial production of carbohydrases, little is known about hydrolytic enzymes of fungi from the section Cervini. Novel glycoside hydrolases Bgh12A and Xgh12B from Aspergillus cervinus represent examples of divergent activities within one enzyme family and belong to the GH12 phylogenetic subgroup I (endo-(1,4)-β-glucanases) and II (endo-xyloglucanases), respectively. The bgh12A and xgh12B genes were identified in the unsequenced genome of A. cervinus using primers designed for conservative regions of the corresponding subgroups and a genome walking approach. The recombinant enzymes were heterologously produced in Pichia pastoris, purified, and characterized. Bgh12A was an endo-(1,4)-β-glucanase (EC hydrolyzing the unbranched soluble β-(1,4)-glucans and mixed linkage β-(1,3;1,4)-D-glucans. Bgh12A exhibited maximum activity on barley β-glucan (BBG), which amounted to 614 ± 30 U/mg of protein. The final products of BBG and lichenan hydrolysis were glucose, cellobiose, cellotriose, 4-O-β-laminaribiosyl-glucose, and a range of higher mixed-linkage gluco-oligosaccharides. In contrast, the activity of endo-xyloglucanase Xgh12B (EC was restricted to xyloglucan, with 542 ± 39 U/mg protein. The enzyme cleaved the (1,4)-β-glycosidic bonds of the xyloglucan backbone at the unsubstituted glucose residues finally generating cellotetraose-based hepta-, octa, and nona-oligosaccharides. Bgh12A and Xgh12B had maximal activity at 55°C, pH 5.0. At these conditions, the half-time of Xgh12B inactivation was 158 min, whereas the half-life of Bgh12A was 5 min. Recombinant P. pastoris strains produced up to 106 U/L of the target enzymes with at least 75% of recombinant protein in the total extracellular proteins. The Bgh12A and Xgh12B sequences show 43% identity. Strict differences in substrate specificity of Bgh12A and Xgh12B were in congruence with the presence of subgroup-specific structural loops and substrate-binding aromatic residues in the catalytic cleft of the enzymes. Individual composition of aromatic residues in the catalytic cleft defined variability in substrate selectivity within GH12 subgroups I and II.

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Mixed-linkage (1, 3; 1, 4)-β-D-glucans as rehydration media for improved redispersion of dried cellulose nanofibrils.

Zha, L., Wang, S., Berglund, L. & Zhou, Q. (2022). Carbohydrate Polymers, 120276.

Improving the redispersion and recycling of dried cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) without compromising their nanoscopic dimensions and inherent mechanical properties are essential for their large-scale applications. Herein, mixed-linkage (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan (MLG) was studied as a rehydration medium for the redispersion and recycling of dried CNFs, benefiting from the intrinsic affinity of MLG to both cellulose and water molecules as inspired from plant cell wall. MLG from barley with a lower molar ratio of cellotriosyl to cellotetraosyl units was found homogeneously coated on CNFs, facilitating rehydration of the network of individualized CNFs. The addition of barley MLG did not impair the mechanical properties of the CNF/MLG composites as compared to neat CNFs nanopaper. With the addition of 10 wt% barley MLG, dry CNF/MLG composite film was successfully redispersed in water and recycled with well-maintained mechanical properties, while lichenan from Icelandic moss, cationic starch, and xyloglucan could not help the redispersion of dried CNFs.

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Characterization of a GH5 endoxylanase from Penicillium funiculosum and its synergism with GH16 endo-1, 3 (4)-glucanase in saccharification of sugarcane bagasse.

Ogunyewo, O. A., Okereke, O. E., Kumar, S. & Yazdani, S. S. (2022). Scientific Reports, 12(1), 1-17.

The production of second-generation fuels from lignocellulosic residues such as sugarcane bagasse (SCB) requires the synergistic interaction of key cellulose-degrading enzymes and accessory proteins for their complete deconstruction to useful monomeric sugars. Here, we recombinantly expressed and characterized unknown GH5 xylanase from P. funiculosum (PfXyn5) in Pichia pastoris, which was earlier found in our study to be highly implicated in SCB saccharification. The PfXyn5 has a molecular mass of ~ 55 kDa and showed broad activity against a range of substrates like xylan, xyloglucan, laminarin and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside, with the highest specific activity of 0.7 U/mg against xylan at pH 4.5 and 50°C. Analysis of the degradation products of xylan and SCB by PfXyn5 showed significant production of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) with a degree of polymerization (DP) ranging from two (DP2) to six (DP6), thus, suggesting that the PfXyn5 is an endo-acting enzyme. The enzyme synergistically improved the saccharification of SCB when combined with the crude cellulase cocktail of P. funiculosum with a degree of synergism up to 1.32. The PfXyn5 was further expressed individually and simultaneously with a notable GH16 endoglucanase (PfEgl16) in a catabolite-derepressed strain of P. funiculosum, PfMig188, and the saccharification efficiency of the secretomes from the resulting transformants were investigated on SCB. The secretome of PfMig188 overexpressing Xyn5 or Egl16 increased the saccharification of SCB by 9% or 7%, respectively, over the secretome of PfMig188, while the secretome of dual transformant increased SCB saccharification by ~ 15% at the same minimal protein concentration.

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Microarray-guided evaluation of the frequency, B-cell origins, and selectivity of human glycan-binding antibodies reveals new insights and novel antibodies.

Temme, J. S., Crainic, J. A., Walker, L. M., Yang, W., Tan, Z., Huang, X., & Gildersleeve, J. C. (2022). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 298(10).

The immune system produces a diverse collection of antiglycan antibodies that are critical for host defense. At present, however, we know very little about the binding properties, origins, and sequences of these antibodies because of a lack of access to a variety of defined individual antibodies. To address this challenge, we used a glycan microarray with over 800 different components to screen a panel of 516 human monoclonal antibodies that had been randomly cloned from different B-cell subsets originating from healthy human subjects. We obtained 26 antiglycan antibodies, most of which bound microbial carbohydrates. The majority of the antiglycan antibodies identified in the screen displayed selective binding for specific glycan motifs on our array and lacked polyreactivity. We found that antiglycan antibodies were about twice as likely than expected to originate from IgG+ memory B cells, whereas none were isolated from naïve, early emigrant, or immature B cells. Therefore, our results indicate that certain B-cell subsets in our panel are enriched in antiglycan antibodies, and IgG+ memory B cells may be a promising source of such antibodies. Furthermore, some of the newly identified antibodies bound glycans for which there are no reported monoclonal antibodies available, and these may be useful as research tools, diagnostics, or therapeutic agents. Overall, the results provide insight into the types and properties of antiglycan antibodies produced by the human immune system and a framework for the identification of novel antiglycan antibodies in the future.

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Hemicellulosic biomass conversion by Moroccan hot spring Bacillus paralicheniformis CCMM B940 evidenced by glycoside hydrolase activities and whole genome sequencing.

Maski, S., Ngom, S. I., Rached, B., Chouati, T., Benabdelkhalek, M., El Fahime, E., Amar, M. & Béra-Maillet, C. (2021). 3 Biotech, 11(8), 1-13.

Thermophilic bacteria, especially from the genus Bacillus, constitute a huge potential source of novel enzymes that could be relevant for biotechnological applications. In this work, we described the cellulose and hemicellulose-related enzymatic activities of the hot spring Bacillus aerius CCMM B940 from the Moroccan Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms (CCMM), and revealed its potential for hemicellulosic biomass utilization. Indeed, B940 was able to degrade complex polysaccharides such as xylan and lichenan and exhibited activity towards carboxymethylcellulose. The strain was also able to grow on agriculture waste such as orange and apple peels as the sole carbon source. Whole-genome sequencing allowed the reclassification of CCMM B940 previously known as B. aerius into Bacillus paralicheniformis since the former species name has been rejected. The draft genome reported here is composed of 38 contigs resulting in a genome of 4,315,004 bp and an average G + C content of 45.87%, and is an important resource for illuminating the molecular mechanisms of carbohydrate metabolism. The annotated genomic sequences evidenced more than 52 genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and pectate lyases belonging to 27 different families of CAZymes that are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall carbohydrates. Genomic predictions in addition to in vitro experiments have revealed broad hydrolytic capabilities of the strain, thus reinforcing its relevance for biotechnology applications.

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