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Lichenan (Icelandic Moss)

Lichenan Icelandic Moss P-LICHN
Product code: P-LICHN

4 g

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Content: 4 g
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Ambient
Physical Form: Powder
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
CAS Number: 1402-10-4
Synonyms: 1,3:1,4-β-D-Glucan
Source: Icelandic Moss
Purity: > 75%
Monosaccharides (%): Glucose: Arabinose: Mannose: Xylose: Galactose: Other sugars = 77.3: 2.7: 8.0: 1.0: 9.2: 1.8
Main Chain Glycosidic Linkage: β-1,4 and β-1,3
Substrate For (Enzyme): β-Glucanase/Lichenase

High purity Lichenan (Icelandic Moss) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.

Contaminant is not starch or phytoglycogen, it appears to be isolichenan.

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Production, purification, characterization and application of two novel endoglucanases from buffalo rumen metagenome.

Meng, Z., Yang, C., Leng, J., Zhu, W. & Cheng, Y. (2023). Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 14(1), 16.

Background: Lignocellulose biomass is the most abundant and renewable material in nature. The objectives of this study were to characterize two endoglucanases TrepCel3 and TrepCel4, and determine the effect of the combination of them (1.2 mg TrepCel3, 0.8 mg TrepCel4) on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics. In this study, three nature lignocellulosic substrates (rice straw, RS; wheat straw, WS; leymus chinensis, LC) were evaluated for their in vitro digestibility, gas, NH3-N and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, and microbial protein (MCP) synthesis by adding enzymatic combination. Methods: Two endoglucanases’ genes were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21 (DE3), and enzymatic characteristics were further characterized. The combination of TrepCel3 and TrepCel4 was incubated with lignocellulosic substrates to evaluate its hydrolysis ability. Results: The maximum enzymatic activity of TrepCel3 was determined at pH 5.0 and 40°C, while TrepCel4 was at pH 6.0 and 50°C. They were stable over the temperature range of 30 to 60°C, and active within the pH range of 4.0 to 9.0. The TrepCel3 and TrepCel4 had the highest activity in lichenan 436.9 ± 8.30 and 377.6 ± 6.80 U/mg, respectively. The combination of TrepCel3 and TrepCel4 exhibited the highest efficiency at the ratio of 60:40. Compared to maximum hydrolysis of TrepCel3 or TrepCel4 separately, this combination was shown to have a superior ability to maximize the saccharification yield from lignocellulosic substrates up to 188.4% for RS, 236.7% for wheat straw WS, 222.4% for LC and 131.1% for sugar beet pulp (SBP). Supplemental this combination enhanced the dry matter digestion (DMD), gas, NH3-N and VFA production, and MCP synthesis during in vitro rumen fermentation. Conclusions: The TrepCel3 and TrepCel4 exhibited the synergistic relationship (60:40) and significantly increased the saccharification yield of lignocellulosic substrates. The combination of them stimulated in vitro rumen fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates. This combination has the potential to be a feed additive to improve agricultural residues utilization in ruminants. If possible, in the future, experiments in vivo should be carried out to fully evaluate its effect.

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Insight into CAZymes of Alicyclobacillus mali FL18: Characterization of a New Multifunctional GH9 Enzyme.

Carbonaro, M., Aulitto, M., Gallo, G., Contursi, P., Limauro, D. & Fiorentino, G. (2023). International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24(1), 243.

In the bio-based era, cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes are biocatalysts used in many industrial processes, playing a key role in the conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulosic waste biomasses. In this context, many thermophilic microorganisms are considered as convenient sources of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). In this work, a functional genomic annotation of Alicyclobacillus mali FL18, a recently discovered thermo-acidophilic microorganism, showed a wide reservoir of putative CAZymes. Among them, a novel enzyme belonging to the family 9 of glycosyl hydrolases (GHs), named AmCel9, was identified; in-depth in silico analyses highlighted that AmCel9 shares general features with other GH9 members. The synthetic gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein was purified and characterized. The monomeric enzyme has an optimal catalytic activity at pH 6.0 and has comparable activity at temperatures ranging from 40°C to 70°C. It also has a broad substrate specificity, a typical behavior of multifunctional cellulases; the best activity is displayed on β-1,4 linked glucans. Very interestingly, AmCel9 also hydrolyses filter paper and microcrystalline cellulose. This work gives new insights into the properties of a new thermophilic multifunctional GH9 enzyme, that looks a promising biocatalyst for the deconstruction of lignocellulose.

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Mixed-linkage (1, 3; 1, 4)-β-D-glucans as rehydration media for improved redispersion of dried cellulose nanofibrils.

Zha, L., Wang, S., Berglund, L. & Zhou, Q. (2022). Carbohydrate Polymers, 120276.

Improving the redispersion and recycling of dried cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) without compromising their nanoscopic dimensions and inherent mechanical properties are essential for their large-scale applications. Herein, mixed-linkage (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan (MLG) was studied as a rehydration medium for the redispersion and recycling of dried CNFs, benefiting from the intrinsic affinity of MLG to both cellulose and water molecules as inspired from plant cell wall. MLG from barley with a lower molar ratio of cellotriosyl to cellotetraosyl units was found homogeneously coated on CNFs, facilitating rehydration of the network of individualized CNFs. The addition of barley MLG did not impair the mechanical properties of the CNF/MLG composites as compared to neat CNFs nanopaper. With the addition of 10 wt% barley MLG, dry CNF/MLG composite film was successfully redispersed in water and recycled with well-maintained mechanical properties, while lichenan from Icelandic moss, cationic starch, and xyloglucan could not help the redispersion of dried CNFs.

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Characterization of a GH5 endoxylanase from Penicillium funiculosum and its synergism with GH16 endo-1, 3 (4)-glucanase in saccharification of sugarcane bagasse.

Ogunyewo, O. A., Okereke, O. E., Kumar, S. & Yazdani, S. S. (2022). Scientific Reports, 12(1), 1-17.

The production of second-generation fuels from lignocellulosic residues such as sugarcane bagasse (SCB) requires the synergistic interaction of key cellulose-degrading enzymes and accessory proteins for their complete deconstruction to useful monomeric sugars. Here, we recombinantly expressed and characterized unknown GH5 xylanase from P. funiculosum (PfXyn5) in Pichia pastoris, which was earlier found in our study to be highly implicated in SCB saccharification. The PfXyn5 has a molecular mass of ~ 55 kDa and showed broad activity against a range of substrates like xylan, xyloglucan, laminarin and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside, with the highest specific activity of 0.7 U/mg against xylan at pH 4.5 and 50°C. Analysis of the degradation products of xylan and SCB by PfXyn5 showed significant production of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) with a degree of polymerization (DP) ranging from two (DP2) to six (DP6), thus, suggesting that the PfXyn5 is an endo-acting enzyme. The enzyme synergistically improved the saccharification of SCB when combined with the crude cellulase cocktail of P. funiculosum with a degree of synergism up to 1.32. The PfXyn5 was further expressed individually and simultaneously with a notable GH16 endoglucanase (PfEgl16) in a catabolite-derepressed strain of P. funiculosum, PfMig188, and the saccharification efficiency of the secretomes from the resulting transformants were investigated on SCB. The secretome of PfMig188 overexpressing Xyn5 or Egl16 increased the saccharification of SCB by 9% or 7%, respectively, over the secretome of PfMig188, while the secretome of dual transformant increased SCB saccharification by ~ 15% at the same minimal protein concentration.

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Microarray-guided evaluation of the frequency, B-cell origins, and selectivity of human glycan-binding antibodies reveals new insights and novel antibodies.

Temme, J. S., Crainic, J. A., Walker, L. M., Yang, W., Tan, Z., Huang, X., & Gildersleeve, J. C. (2022). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 298(10).

The immune system produces a diverse collection of antiglycan antibodies that are critical for host defense. At present, however, we know very little about the binding properties, origins, and sequences of these antibodies because of a lack of access to a variety of defined individual antibodies. To address this challenge, we used a glycan microarray with over 800 different components to screen a panel of 516 human monoclonal antibodies that had been randomly cloned from different B-cell subsets originating from healthy human subjects. We obtained 26 antiglycan antibodies, most of which bound microbial carbohydrates. The majority of the antiglycan antibodies identified in the screen displayed selective binding for specific glycan motifs on our array and lacked polyreactivity. We found that antiglycan antibodies were about twice as likely than expected to originate from IgG+ memory B cells, whereas none were isolated from naïve, early emigrant, or immature B cells. Therefore, our results indicate that certain B-cell subsets in our panel are enriched in antiglycan antibodies, and IgG+ memory B cells may be a promising source of such antibodies. Furthermore, some of the newly identified antibodies bound glycans for which there are no reported monoclonal antibodies available, and these may be useful as research tools, diagnostics, or therapeutic agents. Overall, the results provide insight into the types and properties of antiglycan antibodies produced by the human immune system and a framework for the identification of novel antiglycan antibodies in the future.

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Hemicellulosic biomass conversion by Moroccan hot spring Bacillus paralicheniformis CCMM B940 evidenced by glycoside hydrolase activities and whole genome sequencing.

Maski, S., Ngom, S. I., Rached, B., Chouati, T., Benabdelkhalek, M., El Fahime, E., Amar, M. & Béra-Maillet, C. (2021). 3 Biotech, 11(8), 1-13.

Thermophilic bacteria, especially from the genus Bacillus, constitute a huge potential source of novel enzymes that could be relevant for biotechnological applications. In this work, we described the cellulose and hemicellulose-related enzymatic activities of the hot spring Bacillus aerius CCMM B940 from the Moroccan Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms (CCMM), and revealed its potential for hemicellulosic biomass utilization. Indeed, B940 was able to degrade complex polysaccharides such as xylan and lichenan and exhibited activity towards carboxymethylcellulose. The strain was also able to grow on agriculture waste such as orange and apple peels as the sole carbon source. Whole-genome sequencing allowed the reclassification of CCMM B940 previously known as B. aerius into Bacillus paralicheniformis since the former species name has been rejected. The draft genome reported here is composed of 38 contigs resulting in a genome of 4,315,004 bp and an average G + C content of 45.87%, and is an important resource for illuminating the molecular mechanisms of carbohydrate metabolism. The annotated genomic sequences evidenced more than 52 genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and pectate lyases belonging to 27 different families of CAZymes that are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall carbohydrates. Genomic predictions in addition to in vitro experiments have revealed broad hydrolytic capabilities of the strain, thus reinforcing its relevance for biotechnology applications.

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Prospection of Fungal Lignocellulolytic Enzymes Produced from Jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril) and Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Seeds: Scaling for Bioreactor and Saccharification Profile of Sugarcane Bagasse.

Contato, A. G., de Oliveira, T. B., Aranha, G. M., de Freitas, E. N., Vici, A. C., Nogueira, K. M. V., de Lucas, R. C., de Almeida Scarcella, A. S., Buckeridge, M. S., Silva, R. N. & Polizeli, M. D. L. T. D. M. (2021). Microorganisms, 9(3), 533.

The lignocellulosic biomass comprises three main components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Degradation and conversion of these three components are attractive to biotechnology. This study aimed to prospect fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes with potential industrial applications, produced through a temporal analysis using Hymenaea courbaril and Tamarindus indica seeds as carbon sources. α-L-arabinofuranosidase, acetyl xylan esterase, endo-1,5-α-L-arabinanase, β-D-galactosidase, β-D-glucosidase, β-glucanase, β-D-xylosidase, cellobiohydrolase, endoglucanase, lichenase, mannanase, polygalacturonase, endo-1,4-β-xylanase, and xyloglucanase activities were determined. The enzymes were produced for eight filamentous fungi: Aspergillus fumigatus, Trametes hirsuta, Lasiodiplodia sp., two strains of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Neocosmospora perseae, Fusarium sp. and Thermothelomyces thermophilus. The best producers concerning enzymatic activity were T. thermophilus and T. longibrachiatum. The optimal conditions for enzyme production were the media supplemented with tamarind seeds, under agitation, for 72 h. This analysis was essential to demonstrate that cultivation conditions, static and under agitation, exert strong influences on the production of several enzymes produced by different fungi. The kind of sugarcane, pretreatment used, microorganisms, and carbon sources proved limiting sugar profile factors.

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The Cold-active endo-β-1, 3 (4)-Glucanase from a marine psychrophilic yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica PI12: Heterologous expression, biochemical characterisation, and molecular modeling.

Mohammadi, S., Hashim, N. H. F., Mahadi, N. M. & Murad, A. M. A. (2021). International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 12, 279-300.

Glaciozyma antarctica is a psychrophilic yeast that was isolated from the surface of Antarctic sea ice. A key adaptation of psychrophilic microorganisms is to synthesize cold-active enzymes for survival at low temperatures. A full-length cDNA encoding β-glucanase (GaEgl) from G. antarctica PI12 was amplified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cDNA encoded a 394-residue polypeptide with a putative signal peptide of 22 residues. Subsequently, the novel GaEgl was expressed in E. coli and purified with nickel affinity chromatography as an approximately 44 kDa protein. The biochemical characterisation of purified recombinant GaEgl (rGaEgl) revealed typical cold-active enzyme characteristics, such as maximal activity at 20°C and pH 7.0. However, the enzyme was still active at 5-15°C and alkaline pH values of 8-10. The activity of recombinant GaEgl was enhanced in the presence of Co2+ and Mn2+ metal ions. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme using lichenan as the substrate were 8.87 mg mL-1 and 37.45 U mg-1, respectively. The enzymatic hydrolysis analysis of laminarin using HPLC showed that the main hydrolysis products were monosaccharides, disaccharides and trisaccharides. An analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was carried out and compared with homologous mesophilic endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase. The results of the comparative structural study revealed that the psychrophilic GaEgl contains longer loops, fewer hydrogen bonds and salt bridges, and a higher total solvent-accessible surface area which enhanced the protein flexibility for high catalytic efficiency at low temperatures.

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Linear and branched β-Glucans degrading enzymes from versatile Bacteroides uniformis JCM 13288T and their roles in cooperation with gut bacteria.

Singh, R. P., Rajarammohan, S., Thakur, R. & Hassan, M. (2020). Gut Microbes, 12(1), 1826761.

β-glucans are the dietary nutrients present in oats, barley, algae, and mushrooms. The macromolecules are well known for their immune-modulatory activity; however, how the human gut bacteria digest them is vaguely understood. In this study, Bacteroides uniformis JCM 13288T was found to grow on laminarin, pustulan, and porphyran. We sequenced the genome of the strain, which was about 5.05 megabase pairs and contained 4868 protein-coding genes. On the basis of growth patterns of the bacterium, two putative polysaccharide utilization loci for β-glucans were identified from the genome, and associated four putative genes were cloned, expressed, purified, and characterized. Three glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that were endo-acting enzymes (BuGH16, BuGH30, and BuGH158), and one which was an exo-acting (BuGH3) enzyme. The BuGH3, BuGH16, and BuGH158 can cleave linear exo/endo-β-1-3 linkages while BuGH30 can digest endo-β- 1-6 linkages. BuGH30 and BuGH158 were further explored for their roles in digesting β- glucans and generation of oligosaccharides, respectively. The BuGH30 predominately found to cleave long chain β-1-6 linked glucans, and obtained final product was gentiobiose. The BuGH158 used for producing oligosaccharides varying from degree of polymerization 2 to 7 from soluble curdlan. We demonstrated that these oligosaccharides can be utilized by gut bacteria, which either did not grow or poorly grew on laminarin. Thus, B. uniformis JCM 13288T is not only capable of utilizing β-glucans but also shares these glycans with human gut bacteria for potentially maintaining the gut microbial homeostasis.

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Degradative GH5 β-1, 3-1, 4-glucanase PpBglu5A for glucan in Paenibacillus polymyxa KF-1.

Yuan, Y., Zhang, X., Zhang, H., Wang, W., Zhao, X., Gao, J. & Zhou, Y. (2020). Process Biochemistry, 98, 183-192.

A novel β-1,3-1,4-glucanase in the glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) has been identified in the secretome of Paenibacillus polymyxa KF-1. The recombinant GH5 enzyme PpBglu5A shows broad substrate specificity, with strong lichenase activity, medium β-1,3-glucanase activity, and minimal cellulase activity. Barley β-glucan, lichenan, curdlan, and carboxymethyl cellulose are hydrolyzed to varying degrees by PpBglu5A, with the highest catalytic activity being observed with barley β-glucan. Hydrolysates from barley β-glucan or lichenan are primarily glucan oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization from 2 to 4. PpBglu5A also hydrolyzes oat bran into oligosaccharides mainly consisted of di-, tri-, and tetra- oligosaccharides that are useful in the preparation of gluco-oligosaccharides. In addition to hydrolytic activity, transglycosylation was also observed with PpBglu5A and cellotriose as substrate. An in vitro assay indicated that the recombinant PpBglu5A has antifungal activity and can inhibit the growth of Canidia albicans. These results suggest that PpBglu5A exhibits unique properties and may be useful as an antifungal agent.

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Characterization of two extracellular β-glucosidases produced from the cellulolytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YDJ216 and their potential applications for the hydrolysis of flavone glycosides.

Oh, J. M., Lee, J. P., Baek, S. C., Kim, S. G., Do Jo, Y., Kim, J. & Kim, H. (2018). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, In Press.

A cellulolytic fungus YDJ216 was isolated from a compost and identified as an Aspergillus sp. strain. Two extracellular β-glucosidases, BGL1 and BGL2, were purified using ultrafiltration, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and High-Q chromatography. Molecular masses of BGL1 and BGL2 were estimated to be 97 and 45 kDa, respectively, by SDS-PAGE. The two enzymes eluted as one peak at 87 kDa by Sephacryl S-200 chromatography, and located at similar positions in a zymogram after intact gel electrophoresis, suggesting BGL1 and BGL2 might be monomeric and dimeric, respectively. The two enzymes showed similar enzymatic properties; they were optimally active at pH 4.0-4.5 and 60°C, and had similar half-lives at 70°C. Two enzymes also preferred p-nitrophenyl glucose (pNPG) with the same Km and hardly hydrolyzed cellobiose, suggesting BGL1 and BGL2 are aryl β-glucosidases. However, Vmax for pNPG of BGL1 (953.2 U/mg) was 14.3 times higher than that of BGL2 (66.5 U/mg). When tilianin (a flavone glycoside of acacetin) was reacted with both enzymes, inhibitory activity for monoamine oxidase, relating to oxidation of neurotransmitter amines, was increased closely to the degree obtained by acacetin. These results suggest that BGL1 and BGL2 could be used to hydrolyze flavone glycosides to improve their inhibitory activities.

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Double blind microarray-based polysaccharide profiling enables parallel identification of uncharacterized polysaccharides and carbohydrate-binding proteins with unknown specificities.

Salmeán, A. A., Guillouzo, A., Duffieux, D., Jam, M., Matard-Mann, M., Larocque, R., Pedersen, H. L., Michel, G., Czjzek, M., Willats, W. G. T. & Hervé, C. (2018). Scientific Reports, 8(1), 2500.

Marine algae are one of the largest sources of carbon on the planet. The microbial degradation of algal polysaccharides to their constitutive sugars is a cornerstone in the global carbon cycle in oceans. Marine polysaccharides are highly complex and heterogeneous, and poorly understood. This is also true for marine microbial proteins that specifically degrade these substrates and when characterized, they are frequently ascribed to new protein families. Marine (meta)genomic datasets contain large numbers of genes with functions putatively assigned to carbohydrate processing, but for which empirical biochemical activity is lacking. There is a paucity of knowledge on both sides of this protein/carbohydrate relationship. Addressing this ‘double blind’ problem requires high throughput strategies that allow large scale screening of protein activities, and polysaccharide occurrence. Glycan microarrays, in particular the Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP) method, are powerful in screening large collections of glycans and we described the integration of this technology to a medium throughput protein expression system focused on marine genes. This methodology (Double Blind CoMPP or DB-CoMPP) enables us to characterize novel polysaccharide-binding proteins and to relate their ligands to algal clades. This data further indicate the potential of the DB-CoMPP technique to accommodate samples of all biological sources.

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Performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility, and excreta microbiota shedding in laying hens fed corn-soybean-meal-wheat-based diets supplemented with xylanase.

Lei, X. J., Lee, K. Y., & Kim, I. H. (2018). Poultry science, 97(6), 2071-2077.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary levels of xylanase on production performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility, and excreta microbiota shedding of laying hens in a 12-week trial. Two-hundred-forty Hy-Line brown laying hens (44 wk old) were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design into one of 4 dietary treatments with 10 replicates of 6 birds each. The 4 dietary treatments were corn-soybean-meal-wheat-based diets supplemented with 0, 225, 450, or 900 U/kg xylanase. Daily feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and damaged egg rate showed no significant response to increasing xylanase supplementation during any phase (P > 0.05). No significant responses were observed for apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, or gross energy (P > 0.05). A significant linear increase to increasing xylanase supplementation was seen for lactic acid bacteria numbers, although coliforms and Salmonella counts were not affected. Increasing the dietary xylanase resulted in a significant linear increase in eggshell thickness in wk 3, 6, 9, and 12 (P < 0.05). In addition, a significant linear increase occurred for Haugh unit and albumen height in wk 12 (P < 0.05). In summary, the inclusion of xylanase in corn-soybean-meal-wheat-based diets increased eggshell thickness, Haugh unit, albumen height, and excreta lactic acid bacteria count but had no effect on production performance or nutrient digestibility.

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Characterization of truncated endo-β-1, 4-glucanases from a compost metagenomic library and their saccharification potentials.

Lee, J. P., Lee, H. W., Na, H. B., Lee, J. H., Hong, Y. J., Jeon, J. M., Kwon, F., Kim, S. K. & Kim, H. (2018). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 115, 554-562.

A gene encoding an endo-β-1,4-glucanase (Cel6H-f481) was cloned from a compost metagenomic library. The gene, cel6H-f481, was composed of 1446 bp to encode a fused protein of 481 amino acid residues (50,429 Da), i.e., 445 residues (Cel6H-445) from the metagenome, and 36 residues from the pUC19 vector at N-terminus. Cel6H-445 belonged to glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 6 and showed 71% identity with Actinotalea fermentans endoglucanase with low coverage. Several active bands of truncated forms were observed by activity staining of the crude extract. Major truncated enzymes of 35 (Cel6H-p35) and 23 kDa (Cel6H-p23) were separated by HiTrap Q chromatography. The two enzymes had the same optimum temperature (50°C) and pH (5.5), but Cel6H-p35 was more thermostable than Cel6H-p23 and other GH6 endoglucanases reported. Both enzymes efficiently hydrolyzed carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) and barley β-glucan, but hardly hydrolyzed other substrates tested. The Vmax of Cel6H-p35 for CMC was 1.4 times greater than that of Cel6H-p23. The addition of the crude enzymes to a commercial enzyme set increased the saccharification of pretreated rice straw powder by up to 30.9%. These results suggest the N-terminal region of Cel6H-p35 contributes to thermostability and specific activity, and that the enzymes might be a useful additive for saccharification.

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A novel method for simultaneous purification and immobilization of a xylanase-lichenase chimera via SpyTag/SpyCatcher spontaneous reaction.

Lin, Y., Jin, W., Wang, J., Cai, Z., Wua, S. & Zhang, G. (2018). Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 155, 29-36.

We generated a bifunctional enzyme chimera containing the xylanase and lichenase coupled with SpyTag between them. Meanwhile, we generated another chimera containing SpyCatcher and elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs). As ELPs could bond to the xylanase-lichenase chimera through SpyTag/SpyCatcher spontaneous reaction in mild condition, which would lead to the formation of a 3-arm star multifunctional chimera. We purified the xylanase-lichenase by the non-chromatographic purification tag of ELPs. Interestingly, 57.5% of the xylanase and 47.2% of the lichenase in chimera self-assembled into insoluble active particles during the process of purification, which could serve as immobilized bifunctional enzymes. Notably, the immobilized chimera xylanase-lichenase showed a remarkable stability even after 10 reaction cycles, which retained around 56% (lichenase) and 44% (xylanase) of their initial activities, respectively. Moreover, the enhanced thermostability of the immobilized enzymes was also achieved. After incubating at 60°C for 60 min, the residual activity of the immobilized lichenase was 35%, while the free one was only 24%. Unexpectedly, the free xylanase almost lost its activity when incubated at 55°C for 60 min, whereas the immobilized xylanase retained 10% of its activity. However, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the free xylanase was 1.7-fold higher than the immobilized one, while the free lichenase was 1.1-fold higher than the immobilized one. This is among the first known reports that two enzymes are purified and immobilized in one-step. This novel strategy is easy to scale up and may meet the demands of biofuel industry. It would have great potentials in other biotechnological fields, such as the multifunctional biomaterials systems.

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Improvement of enzyme activity of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Paenibacillus sp. X4 by error-prone PCR and structural insights of mutated residues.

Baek, S. C., Ho, T. H., Lee, H. W., Jung, W. K., Gang, H. S., Kang, L. W. & Kim, H. (2017). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 101(10), 4073-4083.

β-1,3-1,4-Glucanase (BGlc8H) from Paenibacillus sp. X4 was mutated by error-prone PCR or truncated using termination primers to improve its enzyme properties. The crystal structure of BGlc8H was determined at a resolution of 1.8 Å to study the possible roles of mutated residues and truncated regions of the enzyme. In mutation experiments, three clones of EP 2-6, 2-10, and 5-28 were finally selected that exhibited higher specific activities than the wild type when measured using their crude extracts. Enzyme variants of BG2-6, BG2-10, and BG5-28 were mutated at two, two, and six amino acid residues, respectively. These enzymes were purified homogeneously by Hi-Trap Q and CHT-II chromatography. Specific activity of BG5-28 was 2.11-fold higher than that of wild-type BGwt, whereas those of BG2-6 and BG2-10 were 0.93- and 1.19-fold that of the wild type, respectively. The optimum pH values and temperatures of the variants were nearly the same as those of BGwt (pH 5.0 and 40°C, respectively). However, the half-life of the enzyme activity and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of BG5-28 were 1.92- and 2.12-fold greater than those of BGwt at 40°C, respectively. The catalytic efficiency of BG5-28 increased to 3.09-fold that of BGwt at 60°C. These increases in the thermostability and catalytic efficiency of BG5-28 might be useful for the hydrolysis of β-glucans to produce fermentable sugars. Of the six mutated residues of BG5-28, five residues were present in mature BGlc8H protein, and two of them were located in the core scaffold of BGlc8H and the remaining three residues were in the substrate-binding pocket forming loop regions. In truncation experiments, three forms of C-terminal truncated BGlc8H were made, which comprised 360, 286, and 215 amino acid residues instead of the 409 residues of the wild type. No enzyme activity was observed for these truncated enzymes, suggesting the complete scaffold of the α66-double-barrel structure is essential for enzyme activity.

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Oligomerization triggered by foldon: a simple method to enhance the catalytic efficiency of lichenase and xylanase.

Wang, X., Ge, H., Zhang, D., Wu, S. & Zhang, G. (2017). BMC Biotechnology, 17(1), 57.

Background: Effective and simple methods that lead to higher enzymatic efficiencies are highly sough. Here we proposed a foldon-triggered trimerization of the target enzymes with significantly improved catalytic performances by fusing a foldon domain at the C-terminus of the enzymes via elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs). The foldon domain comprises 27 residues and can forms trimers with high stability. Results: Lichenase and xylanase can hydrolyze lichenan and xylan to produce value added products and biofuels, and they have great potentials as biotechnological tools in various industrial applications. We took them as the examples and compared the kinetic parameters of the engineered trimeric enzymes to those of the monomeric and wild type ones. When compared with the monomeric ones, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the trimeric lichenase and xylanase increased 4.2- and 3.9- fold. The catalytic constant (kcat) of the trimeric lichenase and xylanase increased 1.8- fold and 5.0- fold than their corresponding wild-type counterparts. Also, the specific activities of trimeric lichenase and xylanase increased by 149% and 94% than those of the monomeric ones. Besides, the recovery of the lichenase and xylanase activities increased by 12.4% and 6.1% during the purification process using ELPs as the non-chromatographic tag. The possible reason is the foldon domain can reduce the transition temperature of the ELPs. Conclusion: The trimeric lichenase and xylanase induced by foldon have advantages in the catalytic performances. Besides, they were easier to purify with increased purification fold and decreased the loss of activities compared to their corresponding monomeric ones. Trimerizing of the target enzymes triggered by the foldon domain could improve their activities and facilitate the purification, which represents a simple and effective enzyme-engineering tool. It should have exciting potentials both in industrial and laboratory scales.

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Bonds broken and formed during the mixed-linkage glucan: xyloglucan endotransglucosylase reaction catalysed by Equisetum hetero-trans-β-glucanase.

Simmons, T. J. & Fry, S. C. (2017). Biochemical Journal, 474(7), 1055-1070.

Mixed-linkage glucan : xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (MXE) is one of the three activities of the recently characterised hetero-trans-β-glucanase (HTG), which among land-plants is known only from Equisetum species. The biochemical details of the MXE reaction were incompletely understood - details that would promote understanding of MXE's role in vivo and enable its full technological exploitation. We investigated HTG's site of attack on one of its donor substrates, mixed-linkage (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucan (MLG), with radioactive oligosaccharides of xyloglucan as acceptor substrate. Comparing three different MLG preparations, we showed that the enzyme favours those with a high content of cellotetraose blocks. The reaction products were analysed by enzymic digestion, thin-layer chromatography, HPLC and gel-permeation chromatography. Equisetum HTG consistently cleaved the MLG at the third consecutive β-( 1→4)-bond following (towards the reducing terminus) a β-( 1→3)-bond. It then formed a β-( 1→4)-bond between the MLG and the non-reducing terminal glucose residue of the xyloglucan oligosaccharide, consistent with its XTH subfamily membership. Using size-homogeneous barley MLG as donor substrate, we showed that HTG does not favour any particular region of the MLG chain relative the polysaccharide's reducing and non-reducing termini; rather, it selects its target cellotetraosyl unit stochastically along the MLG molecule. This work improves our understanding of how enzymes can exhibit promiscuous substrate specificities and provides the foundations to explore strategies for engineering novel substrate specificities into transglycanases.

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A fibrolytic potential in the human ileum mucosal microbiota revealed by functional metagenomics.

Patrascu, O., Béguet-Crespel, F., Marinelli, L., Le Chatelier, E., Abraham, A., Leclerc, M., Klopp, C., Terrapon, N., Henrissat, B., Blottière, H. M., Doré, J. & Christel Béra-Maillet. (2017). Scientific Reports, 7, 40248.

The digestion of dietary fibers is a major function of the human intestinal microbiota. So far this function has been attributed to the microorganisms inhabiting the colon, and many studies have focused on this distal part of the gastrointestinal tract using easily accessible fecal material. However, microbial fermentations, supported by the presence of short-chain fatty acids, are suspected to occur in the upper small intestine, particularly in the ileum. Using a fosmid library from the human ileal mucosa, we screened 20,000 clones for their activities against carboxymethylcellulose and xylans chosen as models of the major plant cell wall (PCW) polysaccharides from dietary fibres. Eleven positive clones revealed a broad range of CAZyme encoding genes from Bacteroides and Clostridiales species, as well as Polysaccharide Utilization Loci (PULs). The functional glycoside hydrolase genes were identified, and oligosaccharide break-down products examined from different polysaccharides including mixed-linkage β-glucans. CAZymes and PULs were also examined for their prevalence in human gut microbiome. Several clusters of genes of low prevalence in fecal microbiome suggested they belong to unidentified strains rather specifically established upstream the colon, in the ileum. Thus, the ileal mucosa-associated microbiota encompasses the enzymatic potential for PCW polysaccharide degradation in the small intestine.

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