|Content:||100 assays per kit|
Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
|Stability:||> 2 years under recommended storage conditions|
|Linear Range:||4 to 100 μg of glucose per assay|
|Limit of Detection:||0.036 g/100 g|
|Reaction Time (min):||~ 120 min|
|Application examples:||Plant materials, starch samples and other materials.|
|Method recognition:||AACC Method 32-40.01, AOAC Method 2002.02 and CODEX Method Type II|
The Resistant Starch Assay Kit for the measurement and analysis of resistant starch in plant materials and starch samples. Official analysis methods: AOAC Method 2002.02, AACC Method 32-40.01, CODEX Type II Method.
By definition, resistant starch (RS) is that portion of the starch that is not broken down by human enzymes in the small intestine. It enters the large intestine where it is partially or wholly fermented. RS is generally considered to be one of the components that make up total dietary fiber (TDF).
See our full range of starch and dietary fiber products.
- Very cost effective
- All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation
- Only enzymatic kit available
- Measures enzyme resistant starch
- Simple format
- Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing
- Standard included
Measurement of available carbohydrates, digestible, and resistant starch in food ingredients and products.
McCleary, B. V., McLoughlin, C., Charmier, L. M. J. & McGeough, P. (2019). Cereal Chemistry, 97(1), 114-137.
Background and objectives: The importance of selectively measuring available and unavailable carbohydrates in the human diet has been recognized for over 100 years. The levels of available carbohydrates in diets can be directly linked to major diseases of the Western world, namely Type II diabetes and obesity. Methodology for measurement of total carbohydrates by difference was introduced in the 1880s, and this forms the basis of carbohydrate determination in the United States. In the United Kingdom, a method to directly measure available carbohydrates was introduced in the 1920s to assist diabetic patients with food selection. The aim of the current work was to develop simple, specific, and reliable methods for available carbohydrates and digestible starch (and resistant starch). The major component of available carbohydrates in most foods is digestible starch. Findings: Simple methods for the measurement of rapidly digested starch, slowly digested starch, total digestible starch, resistant starch, and available carbohydrates have been developed, and the digestibility of phosphate cross‐linked starch has been studied in detail. The resistant starch procedure developed is an update of current procedures and incorporates incubation conditions with pancreatic α‐amylase (PAA) and amyloglucosidase (AMG) that parallel those used AOAC Method 2017.16 for total dietary fiber. Available carbohydrates are measured as glucose, fructose, and galactose, following complete and selective hydrolysis of digestible starch, maltodextrins, maltose, sucrose, and lactose to glucose, fructose, and galactose. Sucrose is hydrolyzed with a specific sucrase enzyme that has no action on fructo‐oligosaccharides (FOS). Conclusions: The currently described “available carbohydrates” method together with the total dietary fiber method (AOAC Method 2017.16) allows the measurement of all carbohydrates in food products, including digestible starch. Significance and novelty: This paper describes a simple and specific method for measurement of available carbohydrates in cereal, food, and feed products. This is the first method that provides the correct measurement of digestible starch and sucrose in the presence of FOS. Such methodology is essential for accurate labeling of food products, allowing consumers to make informed decisions in food selection.Hide Abstract
An integrated procedure for the measurement of total dietary fibre (including resistant starch), non-digestible oligosaccharides and available carbohydrates.
McCleary, B. V. (2007). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 389(1), 291-308.
A method is described for the measurement of dietary fibre, including resistant starch (RS), non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) and available carbohydrates. Basically, the sample is incubated with pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase under conditions very similar to those described in AOAC Official Method 2002.02 (RS). Reaction is terminated and high molecular weight resistant polysaccharides are precipitated from solution with alcohol and recovered by filtration. Recovery of RS (for most RS sources) is in line with published data from ileostomy studies. The aqueous ethanol extract is concentrated, desalted and analysed for NDO by high-performance liquid chromatography by a method similar to that described by Okuma (AOAC Method 2001.03), except that for logistical reasons, D-sorbitol is used as the internal standard in place of glycerol. Available carbohydrates, defined as D-glucose, D-fructose, sucrose, the D-glucose component of lactose, maltodextrins and non-resistant starch, are measured as D-glucose plus D-fructose in the sample after hydrolysis of oligosaccharides with a mixture of sucrase/maltase plus β-galactosidase.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V., Charnock, S. J., Rossiter, P. C., O’Shea, M. F., Power, A. M. & Lloyd, R. M. (2006). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86(11), 1648-1661.
Procedures for the measurement of starch, starch damage (gelatinised starch), resistant starch and the amylose/amylopectin content of starch, β-glucan, fructan, glucomannan and galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose and verbascose) in plant material, animal feeds and foods are described. Most of these methods have been successfully subjected to interlaboratory evaluation. All methods are based on the use of enzymes either purified by conventional chromatography or produced using molecular biology techniques. Such methods allow specific, accurate and reliable quantification of a particular component. Problems in calculating the actual weight of galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides in test samples are discussed in detail.Hide Abstract
Measurement of resistant starch.
McCleary, B. V. & Monaghan, D. A. (2002). Journal of AOAC International, 85(3), 665-675.
A robust and reliable method was developed to measure resistant starch (RS), i.e., starch that enters the large intestine. In vivo conditions were reflected as much as possible while a user-friendly format was maintained. Parameters investigated included α-amylase concentration, pH of incubation, maltose inhibition of α-amylase, the need for amyloglucosidase inclusion, the effect of shaking and stirring on determined values, and problems in recovering and analyzing the RS-containing pellet. The RS values obtained were in good agreement with published in vivo data. An interlaboratory evaluation of the method has been completed (First Action Method 2002.02).Hide Abstract
Measurement of resistant starch by enzymatic digestion in starch and selected plant materials: Collaborative study.
McCleary, B. V., McNally, M. & Rossiter, P. (2002). Journal of AOAC International, 85(5), 1103-1111.
Interlaboratory performance statistics was determined for a method developed to measure the resistant starch (RS) content of selected plant food products and a range of commercial starch samples. Food materials examined contained RS (cooked kidney beans, green banana, and corn flakes) and commercial starches, most of which naturally contain, or were processed to yield, elevated RS levels. The method evaluated was optimized to yield RS values in agreement with those reported for in vivo studies. Thirty-seven laboratories tested 8 pairs of blind duplicate starch or plant material samples with RS values between 0.6 (regular maize starch) and 64% (fresh weight basis). For matrixes excluding regular maize starch, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values ranged from 1.97 to 4.2%, and reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) values ranged from 4.58 to 10.9%. The range of applicability of the test is 2-64% RS. The method is not suitable for products with <1% RS (e.g., regular maize starch; 0.6% RS). For such products, RSDr and RSDR values are unacceptably high.Hide Abstract
Two issues in dietary fiber measurement.
McCleary, B. V. (2001). Cereal Foods World, 46, 164-165.
Enzyme activity and purity of these topics, the easiest to deal with is the importance of enzyme purity and activity. As a scientist actively involved in polysaccharide research over the past 25 years, I have come to appreciate the importance of enzyme purity and specificity in polysaccharide modification and measurement (7). These factors translate directly to dietary fiber (DF) methodology, because the major components of DF are carbohydrate polymers and oligomers. The committee report published in the March issue of Cereal FOODS WORLD refers only to the methodology for measuring enzyme purity and activity (8) that led up the AOAC method 985.29 (2). In this work enzyme purity was gauged by the lack of hydrolysis (i.e., complete recovery) of a particular DF component (e.g. β-glucan, larch galactan or citrus pectin). Enzyme activity was measured by the ability to completely hydrolyze representative starch and protein (namely wheat starch and casein). These requirements and restrictions on enzyme purity and activity were adequate at the time the method was initially developed and served as a useful working guide. However, it was recognized that there was a need for more stringent quality definitions and assay procedures for enzymes used in DF measurements.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V., Gibson, T. S. & Mugford, D. C. (1997). Journal of AOAC International, 80, 571-579.
An American Association of Cereal Chemists/AOAC collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of an enzyme assay kit procedure for measurement of total starch in a range of cereal grains and products. The flour sample is incubated at 95 degrees C with thermostable alpha-amylase to catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to maltodextrins, the pH of the slurry is adjusted, and the slurry is treated with a highly purified amyloglucosidase to quantitatively hydrolyze the dextrins to glucose. Glucose is measured with glucose oxidase-peroxidase reagent. Thirty-two collaborators were sent 16 homogeneous test samples as 8 blind duplicates. These samples included chicken feed pellets, white bread, green peas, high-amylose maize starch, white wheat flour, wheat starch, oat bran, and spaghetti. All samples were analyzed by the standard procedure as detailed above; 4 samples (high-amylose maize starch and wheat starch) were also analyzed by a method that requires the samples to be cooked first in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSD(r)) ranged from 2.1 to 3.9%, and relative standard deviations for reproducibility (RSD(R)) ranged from 2.9 to 5.7%. The RSD(R) value for high amylose maize starch analyzed by the standard (non-DMSO) procedure was 5.7%; the value was reduced to 2.9% when the DMSO procedure was used, and the determined starch values increased from 86.9 to 97.2%.Hide Abstract
Starch-palmitic acid complex formation and characterization at different frying temperature and treatment time.
Li, Q., Shi, S., Du, S. K., Dong, Y. & Yu, X. (2021). LWT, 136, 110328.
Starch is the most common substance in fried food. Thus, understanding the properties of starch-lipid complex at frying temperatures is significant. Starch-palmitic acid complexes (SPACs) treated for different times (6 min-15 min) or at various frying temperature (90°C-210°C) were investigated. SPAC formation initially increased and then decreased with prolonged treatment time. The increase in treatment temperature ranging from 120°C to 180°C favored the complex formation; and there was a sharp decrease in 210°C. With prolonged time at frying temperature, the complex gradually formed and then decomposed. The thermostability exhibited an increasing tendency with elevating temperatures. The viscoelasticity of gelatinized samples treated for 9 min or prepared at 150°C decreased significantly. The digestion rate of SPAC for extending time, influenced by the complex formation, increased first and decreased afterwards. The digestibility of SPAC improved with increasing temperature, except that starch–lipid complex formed at 150°C was obviously reflected in the increasing resistant starch. Starch-lipid complex formation at frying temperature and the variation of properties can be adjusted for different needs by means of changing treatment time and temperature.Hide Abstract
Impact of starch storage condition on glycemic index and resistant starch of cooked potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.
Lal, M. K., Kumar, A., Raigond, P., Dutt, S., Changan, S. S., Chourasia, K. N., Tiwari, R. K., Kumar, D., Sharma, S., Chakrabarti, S. K. & Singh, B. (2020). Starch‐Stärke, 1900281.
Potato is a modified stem, which is rich in starch. Very often, potato is categorized as a high glycemic index (GI) food. Consuming high GI foods should be done with moderation to prevent insulinemic spikes, which can be a preventive measure against diabetes and related disorders. A modified, inexpensive, and precise in vitro method is developed for estimation of GI in potato tubers. Among the six varieties, Kufri Chipsona‐3 exhibits the highest GI (83.08) whereas Kufri Jyoti has the lowest value (72.87); the resistant starch (RS) content being 1.08% (low) and 2.18% (high), respectively. The study shows a significant negative correlation (R = -0.88) between GI and RS, whereas a negative nonsignificant correlation (R = -0.79) is found between GI and amylose content. Further, the starch storage of cooked potato tubers at 4°C for various periods (up to 48 h) results in a significant reduction in GI and increase in RS content. This newly developed protocol for estimation of GI in potato is a simple, rapid, and precise method. This will help not only the food industry but also the breeders to select the low GI genotype for their breeding program.Hide Abstract
The effect of taro-wheat flour and taro-gluten free flour on cake batters and quality.
Arıcı, M., Özülkü, G., Kahraman, B., Yıldırım, R. M. & Toker, Ö. S. (2020). Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 1-10.
Numerous researches have been still carried out for bakery products to improve their technological and nutritional properties. A well-balanced technological properties and nutritional value is needed to attract consumers. This study investigated the substitution of taro flour for both wheat flour cake (WFC) and gluten free flour cake (GFC) formulation. Taro flour was used as an alternative flour type for WFCs and especially GFCs, due to its nutritional components. Cake batter rheology, cake quality and some nutritional properties were determined and compared with those of control cakes. Significant effect was observed in the higher substitution of taro flour (25%) with wheat flour in terms of storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″). For gluten free formulation, gradual increment for G′ value and notable reduction of damping factor (tan δ) was observed with higher substitution value ranged from 12.5 to 25%. The substitution of taro flour up to 25% into GFC formulation cause no significant increase in hardness value (p > 0.05). Total color difference (ΔE) in the crust and crumb characteristics were not detected for WFC significantly (p > 0.05). The highest ΔE values were obtained for both crust and crumb colour characteristics from substitution level of 18.7% and 25% in GFC formulation (p < 0.05). Sensorial evaluation showed that addition of taro flour up to 25% provided similar quality attributes when compared with control cakes in terms of general acceptability.Hide Abstract
Six months under uncontrolled relative humidity and room temperature changes technological characteristics and maintains the physicochemical and functional properties of carioca beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
Alves, N. E., Gomes, M. J., Vasconcelos, C. M., Lima, A. C., de Lima, S. L., Brito, E. S., Bassinello, P. Z. & Martino, H. S. (2020). Food Chemistry, 342, 128390.
Carioca beans contribute to health maintenance around the world, and the evaluation of commercial postharvest storage (CPS) ensures their quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of CPS on technological, physicochemical and functional properties of carioca beans. Two genotypes (Pontal-PO and Madreperola-MP beans) were stored under CPS or controlled conditions and were evaluated after harvest and after three- and six-months storage. PO and MP hardened with time, but the cooking time did not differ. PO is darker than MP and both darkened over time. Storage time affected pH and acidity of the beans and MP presented better physicochemical properties than PO, with lower activity of peroxidase (p = 0.004) and polyphenoloxidase (p = 0.001) enzymes. Glycosylated kaempferol was suggested as a possible chemical marker to differentiate the aging of PO and MP beans. In conclusion, besides the technological differences, the storage was able to prevent physicochemical and functional alterations of beans.Hide Abstract
Nutritional quality and in vitro digestion of immature rice-based processed products.
Miraji, K. F., Linnemann, A. R., Fogliano, V., Laswai, H. S. & Capuano, E. (2020). Food & Function, 11(9), 7611-7625.
Rice is commonly consumed as fully mature grain, but immature rice is considered to have better nutrient and technological properties. This is attributed to changes in content and profile of nutritional and functional compounds during maturation. This study assessed the effect of maturity on nutrient content of rice grains, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein, for immature rice grains of TXD306 and Lawama varieties. The effect of processing of immature rice into so-called pepeta, traditionally produced from immature rice grains and widely consumed in Tanzania, was studied as well. The results showed reductions in lipid, protein, ash, thiamine, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and soluble and insoluble dietary fibre contents during rice grain development. However, no effect of maturity on in vitro starch and protein digestibility was observed. The contents of protein, ash, lipid, nicotinamide, iron, zinc, and total, soluble and insoluble dietary fibre were higher in pepeta from both varieties than in the corresponding rice grains. Protein digestibility of pepeta flour was 58.9% higher than that of cooked rice for variety TXD306, and 73.8% higher for Lawama. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that starch of processed immature rice was completely gelatinized whereas its susceptibility to digestion in vitro was slightly lower than for cooked rice, possibly due to the higher cellular integrity retained after processing. These results demonstrate that pepeta-type processing improves the nutritional properties of rice and its potential use as a snack or ingredient in cereal-based formulas.Hide Abstract
Potential of Musa sapientum Linn. for digestive function promotion by supporting Lactobacillus sp.
Jaiturong, P., Laosirisathian, N., Sirithunyalug, B., Eitssayeam, S., Sirilun, S., Chaiyana, W. & Sirithunyalug, J. (2020). Heliyon, 6(10), e05247.
Lactobacillus is a beneficial bacteria that could inhibit pathogenic potential of other microorganisms. This is the first study to develop a potential tablet from Musa sapientum Linn. (locally known as Kluai Namwa) using the direct compression method to support Lactobacillus sp. We compared the amount of resistant starch and prebiotic properties of the dry powder from unpeeled raw fruit, peeled raw fruit, and starch from M. sapientum. These dry powders were formulated into tablets using the direct compression method and evaluated for their prebiotic index compared to their native powder. Resistant starch, which possessed the highest prebiotic index, generated a tablet that possessed remarkable in vitro prebiotic properties. All tablets met the requirement of the United States Pharmacopeia. Therefore, resistant starch tablets from M. sapientum are suggested for use as a health promotion product.Hide Abstract
Nutritional characterization of an Italian traditional bread from ancient grains: the case study of the durum wheat bread “Pane di Monreale”.
Melini, V., Melini, F. & Acquistucci, R. (2020). European Food Research and Technology, 1-8.
Common wheat flour is the raw material of choice in bread-making; however, local food customs and the availability of supplies mainly determine the use of ingredients other than common wheat. In Southern Italy, durum wheat semolina from locally grown varieties is mainly used in bread-making that is still performed according to a long-lasting tradition. The traditional traits of some durum breads have been acknowledged by the Italian denomination Prodotto Agroalimentare Tradizionale-standing for Traditional Agricultural Food Product. Among them, “Pane di Monreale” refers to a traditional durum bread produced in the area of Monreale (Sicily). Despite being the cornerstones of the native diet, traditional products have been poorly studied. This paper reports on color characteristics, chemical composition, starch digestibility and carotenoid content of two samples of “Pane di Monreale” bread, made with the durum ancient grains Russello or Tumminia. A dominant red tone was found in the crust of both samples and a low content of lutein was detected. High crude fat and ash content was observed. A low amount of resistant starch was found, while the content of non-starch polysaccharides in Russello bread was two-fold higher than in Tumminia bread.Hide Abstract
Effect of pullulanase debranching and retrogradation on resistant starch yield and glycemic Index of Garri.
Ogbo, F. C. & Nwozor, N. C. (2020). Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 67-75.
Aims: This research is aimed at developing a method of processing to increase the quantity of resistant starch in garri and reduce its glycemic index using pullulanase-producing Bacillus subtilis organism. Place and Duration of Study: Department of applied microbiology and brewing, Nnnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka between January, 2018 and February, 2019. Methodology: The organism was isolated from different cassava processing sites in Anambra metropolis, Nigeria. It was then identified based on phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characteristics After which the pullulanase assay, the fermentation studies, resistant starch analysis and glycemic index was analysed. Results: Pullulanase assay result showed Bacillus subtilis as a very good pullulanase producing organism with a pullulanase quantity of. The resistant starch content was found to be higher for the samples fermented with the choice organism and retrograded at 10oC at 14.29%, than the control garri sample fermented without any organism and not retrograded at 4.73%. The glycemic index was relatively high in all the garri samples, however, the lowest glycemic index, 62% was observed in the garri sample produced with the choice organism. Conclusion: This research has been able to show that pullulanase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis is a very useful industrial raw material in production of functional foods with low glycemic index.Hide Abstract
Two Complementary Genes, SBE3 and GBSS1 Contribute to High Amylose Content in Japonica Cultivar Dodamssal.
Adeva, C. C., Lee, H. S., Kim, S. H., Jeon, Y. A., Shim, K. C., Luong, N. H., Kang, J. W., Kim, C. S., Cho, J. H. & Ahn, S. N. (2020). Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, 8(4), 354-367.
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the starch-related traits amylose content (AC) and resistant starch (RS) content have received much attention due to the potential benefits of grains high in these starch levels. In this study, QTLs associated with AC and RS content were identified using 92 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross between two closely related japonica cultivars ‘Dodamssal’ and ‘Hwayeong’. One QTL on chromosome 2 for RS content and 2 QTLs for AC on chromosomes 2 and 6 were detected. The F2 population derived from a cross between Hwayeong and two selected RILs were used to analyze the interaction between starch branching enzyme 3 (SBE3) and granule-bound starch synthase 1 (GBSS1). The combined effect of SBE3 and GBSS1 in the F2 population suggested that these two genes behaved in an additive manner in increasing AC. Haplotype analysis based on two SNPs in GBSS1 classified 117 rice accessions into three groups. At the first SNP site, all indica, Korean landrace, and weedy rice accessions had the Wxa allele at the 5ʹ splice site of intron 1, whereas japonica accessions had the mutated Wxb allele. This suggests that this splice-donor mutation is prevalent in japonica cultivars, but rare or absent in landrace and weedy rice cultivars. Landrace or weedy rice accessions harboring the Wxa allele could be employed in breeding programs to manipulate AC in cultivated japonica rice considering the difficulty and time to introduce desirable indica traits into japonica due to reproductive barriers.Hide Abstract
Physicochemical and prebiotic properties of resistant starch from Musa sapientum Linn., ABB group, cv. Kluai Namwa Luang.
Jaiturong, P., Laosirisathian, N., Sirithunyalug, B., Eitssayeam, S., Sirilun, S., Chaiyana, W. & Sirithunyalug, J. (2020). Heliyon, 6(12), e05789.
Resistant starch (RS), a current health trend, can be obtained from various natural sources. Musa sapientum Linn., ABB group, cv. Kluai Namwa Luang is a good source of RS. This is the first study to investigate the physicochemical properties, RS contents, and prebiotic properties of unpeeled raw banana powder (URB), peeled raw banana powder (PRB), and banana starch (BS) from Kluai Namwa Luang. Their physicochemical properties were characterized by scanning electron microscope, differential scanning calorimeter, and X-ray diffractometer. The RS contents were determined using the Megazyme Resistant Starch Assay Kit. The prebiotic properties are reported as a prebiotic index (PI). The particle morphology of URB, PRB, and BS granules showed a smooth surface with irregular size and shape. Their gelatinization temperatures were 74-78°C. All samples exhibited typical B-type diffraction patterns. URB contained the highest dietary fiber (9.7 ± 0.2 g per 100 g of dried sample), whereas BS contained the highest RS content (74.1 ± 0.1 g per 100 g of dried sample). Both URB and BS possessed excellent probiotic growth promotion, prebiotic properties with PI values comparable to the commercial inulin, and were highly resistant to digestive enzymes. Therefore, BS from Kluai Namwa Luang is suggested as functional nutrient in health promotion products.Hide Abstract
Storage temperature and time affect the enzyme resistance starch and glycemic response of cooked noodles.
Tian, Y., Li, M., Liu, X., Jane, J. L., Guo, B. & Dhital, S. (2020). Food Chemistry, 344, 128702.
White-salted noodles are prepared, stored and consumed in various ways. However, relationships among cooking and storage conditions on nutritional functionality are not fully understood. The manuscript elucidates the mechanism of formation of resistant starch (RS) leading to slower digestion rate of variously cooked (boiled, steamed, stir-fried, fried and microwave heated) noodles followed by storage under different conditions (-18, 4 and 25°C for 4, 24 and 48 h). RS content of noodles stored at 25°C was higher than noodles stored at 4°C, which was consistent with increases in the degree of crystallinity during storage. We showed that the residual moisture content primarily facilitated the mobility of starch chains and contributed towards the increase in RS associated with the decrease of enzyme susceptivity of noodles after storage. Evidence that supramolecular organization (helical structure and crystallinity) had a more pronounced effect than the macroscopic structure such as compactness or bulk density was also provided.Hide Abstract
Chemical composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics of legumes using canine fecal inoculum.
Traughber, Z. T., He, F., Hoke, J. M., Davenport, G. M. & de Godoy, M. R. (2020). Translational Animal Science, 4(4), txaa200.
Legumes are a popular grain-free alternative carbohydrate source in canine diets, however, information on their fermentative characteristics have not been established. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to 1) quantify the chemical compositions and 2) fermentative profile of select legumes using canine fecal inoculum. Five legume varieties, whole yellow peas (WYP), green lentils (GL), black bean grits (BBG), navy bean powder (NBP), and garbanzo beans, were analyzed and compared to a positive control, beet pulp (BP). Substrates were analyzed for gross energy (GE), dry and organic matter, crude protein (CP), acid hydrolyzed fat, and total dietary fiber (TDF) fractions, beta-glucans, starch-free, and hydrolyzed sugars, as well as fermentative characteristics: pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), total gas, hydrogen, and methane. Substrates then underwent a two-stage in vitro digestion and subsequent fermentation using canine fecal inoculum for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. All test substrates contained approximately 8% to 9% moisture and 4.5 kcal/g GE. The highest CP content was observed in GL (27%). Analyzed TDF content of test substrates was greatest for WYP (32%) and GL (36%). Total starch content was greatest for GL (58%) and WYP (56%). Sucrose and stachyose were the most predominant free sugars and glucose was the most predominant hydrolyzed sugar among test substrates. After 3 and 6 h of fermentation, a net negative change in pH was observed among most substrates with a net negative change in all substrates after 9 and 12 h. Values for SCFA did not differ among substrates after 3 or 6 h of fermentation with BP and WYP among the greatest acetate (1,656 and 1,765 umol/g, respectively) and propionate production values (157.7 and 126.1, respectively) after 9 h. All substrates produced greater total gas volumes than WYP after 3 h, with no differences observed after any other time points. However, BP hydrogen production values were greater after 9 and 12 h (P < 0.0001; 726,042 and 394,675 ng/g, respectively) with greater methane production values after 12 h (P < 0.0001; 54,291 ng/g) than all test substrates. These data suggest that legumes offer a diverse macronutrient profile and appear to be a source of slowly fermentable fiber, which may have beneficial implications on the ratios of saccharolytic to proteolytic fermentation toward the distal colon.Hide Abstract
Aroma, Quality, and Consumer Mindsets for Shelf-Stable Rice Thermally Processed by Reciprocal Agitation.
Dixon, W. R., Morales-Contreras, B. E., Kongchum, M., Xu, Z., Harrell, D., Moskowitz, H. R. & Wicker, L. (2020). Foods, 9(11), 1559.
Food engineering, food chemistry, and consumer segmentation were used to evaluate ready-to-eat rice. The aromatic Louisiana Clearfield Jazzman (CJ) and Thai Jasmine (TJ), and a non-aromatic parboiled (PB) rice were hydrated during the first 10 min of processing with reciprocal agitation followed by static retort processing. The aroma compound, 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) was more heat-stable in CJ than TJ rice but decreased 15-fold compared to the rice cooker method. Pareto analysis indicated that rice type and agitation had the main effect on amylose and total starch and chroma and hue. Color differences of rice agitated during hydration and between rice cooker or static retort processed rice, indicated only slight differences for each rice variety. Hydration of dry rice during retort cooking and similar starch, color, and aroma quality were achieved with reciprocal compared to static or rice cooker methods. Survey responses categorized consumers into three, mindsets driven by rice consumption, convenience, or packaging.Hide Abstract