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Sucrose/D-Fructose/D-Glucose Assay Kit

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0:05  Introduction
0:52  Principle
1:21    Reagent Preparation
2:04  Procedure
6:04  Calculation

Sucrose D-Fructose D-Glucose Assay Kit K-SUFRG Scheme
Product code: K-SUFRG

300 assays (100 of each) per kit

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Content: 300 assays (100 of each) per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: D-Fructose, D-Glucose, Sucrose
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 340
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 4 to 80 µg of D-glucose, D-fructose or sucrose per assay
Limit of Detection: 1.38 mg/L
Reaction Time (min): ~ 23 min
Application examples: Beer, fruit juices, soft drinks, milk, jam, honey, dietetic foods, bread, bakery products, dairy products, candies, desserts, confectionery, sweets, ice-cream, fruit and vegetables (e.g. potato), meat products (e.g. sausage), condiments (e.g. ketchup and mustard), feed, tobacco, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paper and other materials.
Method recognition: Methods based on this principle have been accepted by NF, EN, NEN, DIN, GOST, IFU, AIJN, MEBAK and IOCCC

The Sucrose/D-Fructose/D-Glucose test kit is suitable for the measurement and analysis of sucrose, D-glucose and D-fructose in plant and food products.

Sucrose, D-glucose and D-fructose are found in most plant and food products. In plant materials, D-glucose and D-fructose occur as free sugars in sucrose, and in a range of oligosaccharides (galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides) and polysaccharides such as fructans (inulins), starch, 1,3:1,4-β-D-glucans and cellulose.

Note for Content: The number of manual tests per kit can be doubled if all volumes are halved.  This can be readily accommodated using the MegaQuantTM  Wave Spectrophotometer (D-MQWAVE).

See all of our monosaccharide and disaccharide assay kit products.

Scheme-K-SUFRG SUFRG Megazyme

  • Extended cofactors stability. Dissolved cofactors stable for > 1 year at 4oC.
  • Very competitive price (cost per test) 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation 
  • Rapid reaction 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Stabilised D-glucose / D-fructose standard solution included
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Product Performance Validation Report
Megazyme publication

Megazyme “advanced” wine test kits general characteristics and validation.

Charnock, S. J., McCleary, B. V., Daverede, C. & Gallant, P. (2006). Reveue des Oenologues, 120, 1-5.

Many of the enzymatic test kits are official methods of prestigious organisations such as the Association of Official Analytical Chemicals (AOAC) and the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) in response to the interest from oenologists. Megazyme decided to use its long history of enzymatic bio-analysis to make a significant contribution to the wine industry, by the development of a range of advanced enzymatic test kits. This task has now been successfully completed through the strategic and comprehensive process of identifying limitations of existing enzymatic bio-analysis test kits where they occurred, and then using advanced techniques, such as molecular biology (photo 1), to rapidly overcome them. Novel test kits have also been developed for analytes of emerging interest to the oenologist, such as yeast available nitrogen (YAN; see pages 2-3 of issue 117 article), or where previously enzymes were simply either not available, or were too expensive to employ, such as for D-mannitol analysis.

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Megazyme publication

Grape and wine analysis: Oenologists to exploit advanced test kits.

Charnock, S. C. & McCleary, B. V. (2005). Revue des Enology, 117, 1-5.

It is without doubt that testing plays a pivotal role throughout the whole of the vinification process. To produce the best possible quality wine and to minimise process problems such as “stuck” fermentation or troublesome infections, it is now recognised that if possible testing should begin prior to harvesting of the grapes and continue through to bottling. Traditional methods of wine analysis are often expensive, time consuming, require either elaborate equipment or specialist expertise and frequently lack accuracy. However, enzymatic bio-analysis enables the accurate measurement of the vast majority of analytes of interest to the wine maker, using just one piece of apparatus, the spectrophotometer (see previous issue No. 116 for a detailed technical review). Grape juice and wine are amenable to enzymatic testing as being liquids they are homogenous, easy to manipulate, and can generally be analysed without any sample preparation.

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The influence of photoselective shade netting on vegetative growth and bioactivity of Myrsine africana L. for cosmeceutical production.

Coles, Z. S., du Toit, E. S., Lall, N., Payne, B. & Steyn, J. M. (2021). Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 100324.

As the global desire for natural remedies derived from botanicals increases, the pressure on plant populations and biodiversity intensifies. Therefore, to conserve biodiversity as a valuable genetic and biochemical resource, sustainable utilisation and commercial production should be prioritised. Myrsine africana L. (MA), has recently been found to possess significant cosmeceutical properties, such as elastase inhibition (anti-wrinkle) and anti-tyrosinase (skin even tone) activity. However, this species is relatively slow growing, recalcitrant to adventitious root (AR) development, and has slightly insufficient bioactivity in raw extracts. These factors reduce the economic feasibility of producing this commercially valuable indigenous species. Consequently, this may enhance wild harvesting of this species, placing pressure on wild populations. Manipulation of light is a common practice in plant production to exploit plant growth and development, as light quantity and quality effectively influence the primary and secondary metabolism of plants. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the influence of selected photoselective shade net on vegetative growth and metabolites of MA shoot material. Results displayed significantly enhanced growth (p < 0.001) under green (50 % density), black (50 %) and red (80 %) shade net in comparison to the control (cultivation under full sun) and inhibited growth under blue (50 %) shade net. Shade net effectively influenced starch and soluble carbohydrate content. Furthermore, significantly higher elastase inhibition was observed under green and red shade net treatments in comparison to the control in autumn, with IC50 values of 18.59 μg/mL, 19.28 μg/mL and 37.93 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, bioactivity was significantly higher in autumn (p < 0.001) under green, red and control treatments. It can be concluded that photoselective shade net may be used to enhance plant growth and bioactivity of MA.

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The effect of Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni infection on sweet cherry fruit.

Wright, A. A., Shires, M. K., Beaver, C., Bishop, G., Dupont, S. T., Naranjo, R. & Harper, S. (2021). Phytopathology, (ja).

In sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), infection by Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni results in small fruit with poor color and taste, rendering the fruit unmarketable. Yet, the disease pathology is poorly understood, particularly at the cultivar level. Therefore, in this study we examined the physiological effects of Ca. P. pruni infection across a range of cultivars and locations within eastern Washington. We found that infection could be separated into early and established stages based on pathogen titer, that correlated with disease severity, including fruit size, color, and sugar and metabolite content. Furthermore, we also observed that the effects of early-stage infections were largely indistinguishable from healthy, uninfected plants. Cultivar and location-specific disease outcomes were observed with regards to size, color, sugar content, and citric acid content. This study presents the first in-depth assessment of X-disease symptoms and biochemical content of fruit from commercially grown sweet cherry cultivars known to be infected with Ca. P. pruni.

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Analysis of the effect of sugars and organic acids on the ice melting behavior of pitanga and araza pulp by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

Sviech, F., Ubbink, J. & Prata, A. S. (2021). Thermochimica Acta, 700, 178934.

Most Brazilian fruits are highly perishable but in frozen state would have the potential to be developed into a variety of commercially viable products. Pitanga and araza were investigated to determine the effect of composition on the freezing behavior using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of low molecular weight compounds on the ice melting temperature Tm was investigated for: 1. Whole fruit pulp (WP); 2. Soluble fractions (SF) isolated by centrifugation from WP; and 3. Simulated systems (SS) prepared only with sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and organic acids (citric, malic, and tartaric acids) as they occur in WP. Ice melting temperatures (Tm) were determined for WP, SF and SS over the range of concentrations between 10 wt. % (Tm = -0.19 °C for both for araza and pitanga) and 40 wt. % Tm = -5.0 °C and -7.05 °C for araza and pitanga, respectively). The Tm data could be fitted using the Chen equation, (C.S. Chen, J. Food Sci. 50 (1985) 1158-1162) for both fruits for WP, SF and SS. Deviations between the predictions of the Chen equation and Tm data are observed for the highest concentration studied (40 wt. %); these deviations can be minimized by fitting the parameters of the Chen equation to the experimental data rather than calculating them based on the molecular properties and composition of the system. We observe that the sugars have the highest impact on the melting behavior, with, in the concentration ranges investigated, a limited effect of organic acids. Using the lever rule, the weight fraction of ice is calculated from ice melting curves as a function of concentration and temperature. Both then ice melting line and the ice fractions are important in developing formulations have the desired freezing behavior as well as determining the processing and storage conditions in the frozen state.

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Modelling the extraction of pectin towards the valorisation of watermelon rind waste.

Méndez, D. A., Fabra, M. J., Gómez-Mascaraque, L., López-Rubio, A. & Martinez-Abad, A. (2021). Foods, 10(4), 738.

Watermelon is the second largest fruit crop worldwide, with great potential to valorise its rind waste. An experimental design was used to model how extraction parameters (temperature, pH, and time) impact on the efficiency of the process, purity, esterification degree, monosaccharide composition and molar mass of watermelon rind pectin (WRP), with an insight on changes in their structural properties (linearity, branching degree and extraction severity). The models for all responses were accurately fitted (R2 > 90%, lack of fit p ≥ 0.05) and experimentally validated. At optimum yield conditions, WRP yield (13.4%), purity (540 µg/g galacturonic acid) and molar mass (106.1 kDa) were comparable to traditional pectin sources but showed a higher branching degree with longer galactan side chains and a higher protein interaction. Harsher conditions (pH 1) generated purer homogalacturonan fractions with average molar masses (80 kDa) at the expense of yield, while mild extraction conditions (pH ≥ 2) produced highly branched entangled pectin structures. This study underlines novel compositional features in WRP and the possibility of producing novel customized pectin ingredients with a wider potential application scope depending on the targeted structure.

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Mixture design applied for formulation and characterization of vegetal-based fermented products.

Chekdid, A. A., Kahn, C. J., Prévot, E., Ferrières, M., Lemois, B., Choquet, C. & Linder, M. (2021). LWT, 146, 111336.

The present study consists on the characterization of six different flours in order to evaluate their ability to ferment alone and in mixtures. A discrepancy in the composition and physico-chemical characteristics of the flours was recorded. Three of these flours (oats, chickpea and coconut) were selected for the construction of the mixture design, which was used to formulate a base for a fermented vegetable dessert. Oat and chickpea flours have an effect on color accentuation (ΔE = 17.37) as well as on increasing water retention (75.31 g/100 g). During storage, post-acidification of the media to pH 4.42 was recorded, with a water holding capacity ranging from 56.64 to 66.12 g per 100 g, indicating a change in the texture of the mixtures. The fermented plant product showed a high viability of lactic acid bacteria, more than 107 CFU/mL for L. delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus and more than 108 CFU/mL for S. thermophiles after 30 days of storage. The use of flours in the formulation of fermented products was demonstrated as an alternative strategy for the development of new vegetable-based desserts.

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The effect of summer water stress on the nutritive value of orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) in permanent grassland under increased temperature and elevated atmospheric CO2.

Küsters, J., Pötsch, E. M., Resch, R. & Gierus, M. (2021). Ecological Indicators, 125, 107566.

Grassland provides high nutritive forages for ruminants being a main factor in feeding beef and especially dairy cattle. Changes in precipitation patterns, asides rising temperature and CO2 concentration, will severely affect forage species and modify the nutritive value, and this in turn will also impact animal performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of water stress on agronomic parameters and the nutritive value of orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) in mountainous permanent grassland, under i) ambient (C0T0) and ii) future (C2T2) climate conditions with increased temperature (+3 °C) and elevated CO2 (+300 ppm). To simulate water stress, a drought experiment was conducted during the experimental period. The experiment took place at the Agricultural Research and Education Centre (AREC) Raumberg-Gumpenstein in Styria (Austria) from 2016 to 2018. Experimental plots were harvested in a 3-cut-system and plant samples were analysed for development stage, leaf weight ratio (LWR) and tiller height and weight. The nutritive value was determined by analysing crude protein (CP) and its fractionation, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), NDForg, ADForg, metabolizable energy (ME) and digestibility of organic matter (DOM), among others. The results showed that water stress did not alter the development stage of orchard grass, but decreased tiller height and weight under ambient climate conditions. Furthermore, an increase in ME and DOM, and a decrease in NDForg and ADForg occurred under water stress. In combination with elevated temperature and CO2, water stress improved CP, WSC, ME and DOM, and decreased NDForg and ADForg. Conclusively, water stress improved specific nutritive parameters but, in some circumstances, caused a decline in biomass production.

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Design of a “Clean-Label” Gluten-Free Bread to Meet Consumers Demand.

Montemurro, M., Pontonio, E. & Rizzello, C. G. (2021). Foods, 10(2), 462.

The market of gluten-free (GF) products has been steadily increasing in last few years. Due to the technological importance of gluten, the GF food production is still a challenge for the industry. Indeed, large quantities of fat, sugars, structuring agents, and flavor enhancers are added to GF formulations to make textural and sensorial characteristics comparable to conventional products, leading to nutritional and caloric intake imbalances. The formulation of the novel “clean-label” GF bread included a commonly used mixture of maize and rice flour (ratio 1:1) fortified with selected protein-rich flours. Naturally hydrocolloids-containing flours (psyllium, flaxseed, chia) were included in the bread formulation as structuring agents. A type-II sourdough was obtained by using a selected Weissella cibaria P9 and a GF sucrose-containing flour as substrate for fermentation to promote the exo-polysaccharides synthesis by the starter lactic acid bacterium. A two-step protocol for bread-making was set-up: first, the GF sourdough was fermented (24 h at 30°C); then, it was mixed with the other ingredients (30% of the final dough) and leavened with baker’s yeast before baking. Overall, the novel GF bread was characterized by good textural properties, high protein content (8.9% of dry matter) and in vitro protein digestibility (76.9%), low sugar (1.0% of dry matter) and fat (3.1% of dry matter) content, and an in vitro predicted glycemic index of 85.

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Physicochemical properties and effects of honeys on key biomarkers of oxidative stress and cholesterol homeostasis in HepG2 cells.

Nguyen, H. T. L., Kasapis, S. & Mantri, N. (2021). Nutrients, 13(1), 151.

Manuka honey and newly developed honeys (arjuna, guggul, jiaogulan and olive) were examined for their physicochemical, biochemical properties and effects on oxidative stress and cholesterol homeostasis in fatty acid-induced HepG2 cells. The honeys exhibited standard moisture content (<20%), electrical conductivity (<0.8 mS/cm), acidic pH, and monosaccharides (>60%), except olive honey (<60% total monosaccharides). They all expressed non-Newtonian behavior and 05 typical regions of the FTIR spectra as those of natural ones. Guggul and arjuna, manuka honeys showed the highest phenolic contents, correlating with their significant antioxidant activities. Arjuna, guggul and manuka honeys demonstrated the agreement of total cholesterol reduction and the transcriptional levels of AMPK, SREBP2, HCMGR, LDLR, LXRα. Jiaogulan honey showed the least antioxidant content and activity, but it was the most cytotoxic. Both jiaogulan and olive honeys modulated the tested gene in the pattern that should lead to a lower TC content, but this reduction did not occur after 24 h. All 2% concentrations of tested honeys elicited a clearer effect on NQO1 gene expression. In conclusion, the new honeys complied with international norms for natural honeys and we provide partial evidence for the protective effects of manuka, arjuna and guggul honeys amongst the tested ones on key biomarkers of oxidative stress and cholesterol homeostasis, pending further studies to better understand their modes of action.

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Comparative phytochemical profile of the elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum var. holmense) and the common garlic (Allium sativum) from the Val di Chiana area (Tuscany, Italy) before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

Ceccanti, C., Rocchetti, G., Lucini, L., Giuberti, G., Landi, M., Biagiotti, S. & Guidi, L. (2020). Food Chemistry, 338, 128011.

This study is aimed to comparatively investigate the phytochemical profiles, focusing on the nutritional and phytochemical properties of common garlic (Allium sativum L.; CG) and elephant garlic (EG) (Allium ampeloprasum var. holmense) collected from the Val di Chiana area (Tuscany, Italy). The results showed a lower amount of fibers, demonstrating a higher digestibility of the bulb, and sulfur-containing compounds in EG rather than in CG. Untargeted metabolomic profiling followed by supervised and unsupervised statistics allowed understanding the differences in phytochemical composition among the two bulbs, both as raw bulbs, processed following the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process. Typical sulfur-containing compounds, such as alliin and N-gamma-glutamyl-S-allyl cysteine, could notably be detected in lower amounts in EG. EG maintains a distinct phytochemical signature during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Our findings support the distinct sensorial attributes of the bulbs.

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Beverage-Drug Interaction: Effects of Green Tea Beverage Consumption on Atorvastatin Metabolism and Membrane Transporters in the Small Intestine and Liver of Rats.

Yao, H. T., Hsu, Y. R. & Li, M. L. (2020). Membranes, 10(9), 233.

Green tea (GT) beverages are popular worldwide and may prevent the development of many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. To investigate whether the consumption of a GT beverage causes drug interactions, the effects of GT beverage consumption on atorvastatin metabolism and membrane transporters were evaluated. Male rats were fed a chow diet with tap water or the GT beverage for 3 weeks. Then, the rats were given a single oral dose (10 mg/kg body weight (BW)) of atorvastatin (ATV), and blood was collected at various time points within 6 h. The results show that GT consumption increased the plasma concentrations (AUC0–6h) of ATV (+85%) and 2-OH ATV (+93.3%). GT also increased the 2-OH ATV (+40.9%) and 4-OH ATV (+131.6%) contents in the liver. Decreased cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzyme activity, with no change in P-glycoprotein expression in the intestine, was observed in rats treated with GT. Additionally, GT increased hepatic CYP3A-mediated ATV metabolism and decreased organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) 2 membrane protein expression. There was no significant difference in the membrane protein expression of OATP2B1 and P-glycoprotein in the intestine and liver after the GT treatment. The results show that GT consumption may lower hepatic OATP2 and, thus, limit hepatic drug uptake and increase plasma exposure to ATV and 2-OH ATV.

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Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana in rhizobox culture system evaluated through the lens of root microbiome.

Mercier, A., Mignerot, L., Hennion, N., Gravouil, K., Porcheron, B., Durand, M., Maurousset, L., Héchard, Y., Bertaux, J., Ferreira, T., Lauga, B., Lemoine, R. & Pourtau, N. (2020). Plant and Soil, 455(1), 467-487.

Aims: The present study provides an insight on physiological parameters and root-associated microbiome of two complementary Arabidopsis thaliana culture systems suitable for physiological studies. Methods: A. thaliana plants were grown in rhizobox and in classic pot culture. An analysis of plant growth parameters along with the characterization of the bacterial communities of the compost and the rhizosphere, rhizoplane and endosphere compartments were performed. Results: A. thaliana plants grown in rhizobox exhibited a plant habitus similar to those grown in pots during the first month, but with a delayed leaf initiation and slower rate of growth over the experiment. No nutrient deficiency symptoms were observed in these plants. The rhizobox design permits the migration of bacteria from compost to plant roots and allowed root-bacteria interactions to be established as in traditional pot culture. Some differences into the composition of the rhizobiome were highlighted between the two culture systems. Nevertheless, key bacterial taxa that help to ensure plant growth and health colonized the rhizo- and endosphere compartments in both systems. Conclusions: This study gives some clues for future research programs and selection of efficient root systems with the use of such specific culture devices.

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Non‐structural carbohydrates and sugar export in grapevine leaves exposed to different light regimes.

Dayer, S., Murcia, G., Prieto, J. A., Durán, M., Martinez, L., Píccoli, P. & Perez Peña, J. (2020). Physiologia PlantarumIn Press.

Light is a main environmental factor that determines leaf microclimate within the vine, as well as its photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. This study aimed to examine the relationships between photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and the expression of related genes in leaves of grapevine grown under different radiation regimes. During the 2014/2015 growing season, an experiment was conducted on a Malbec vineyard (Vitis vinifera L.) in which four radiation exposure treatments were established on the leaves: (1) East, (2) West, (3) Sun, and (4) Shade (i.e., reduction in light intensity). Diurnal dynamics of photosynthesis and non‐structural carbohydrates were measured and leaf export rates were calculated. Transcript profiles of leaf sugar transporters (VvHT1, VvHT3, VvSUC27), a sucrose phosphate synthase enzyme (VvSPS), and invertases (VvGIN1, VvCWI) were also examined. We showed that East and Sun leaves had higher daily photosynthetic and export rates than West leaves, which was mainly explained by the environmental conditions (air and leaf temperature, VPDleaf‐air) and leaf water status. Shade leaves accumulated less starch and soluble sugars than exposed leaves, which correlated with a higher expression of hexose transporters and invertases. The hypotheses that these sugars in Shade leaves would play a role as signaling molecules and/or have increased sink strength and phloem unloading are discussed. These results allow us to understand the physiological and molecular behavior of leaves exposed to different radiation regimes, which can be used to design appropriate vineyard management practices.

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Cake perception, texture and aroma profile as affected by wheat flour and cocoa replacement with carob flour.

Papageorgiou, M., Paraskevopoulou, A., Pantazi, F. & Skendi, A. (2020). Foods, 9(11), 1586.

Carob flour has been used in the production of a wide range of functional food formulations such as bakery goods either as a natural sweetener or food ingredient that, when roasted, exerts a chocolate/cocoa-reminiscent flavor and color. The aim of the present study was twofold; firstly to study the effect of an increasing incorporation of roasted carob flour (0-70% flour basis) on the quality and sensory attributes of a conventional cocoa cake recipe and secondly to investigate the obtained volatile fraction responsible for the aroma by means of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) while comparing it with the control, cocoa-containing cake recipe. Thirty and fifty percent carob flour incorporation rendered cakes with acceptable texture and sensory attributes, comparable to the control cake recipe containing 20% cocoa. Similarity to cocoa aroma was attributed to a great number of odor active compounds mainly belonging to aldehydes, lactones, furan/pyran derivatives, and pyrrole derivatives.

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Breakfast cereals with inulin obtained through thermoplastic extrusion: Chemical characteristics and physical and technological properties.

Ferreira, S. M., Capriles, V. D. & Conti-Silva, A. C. (2020). LWT, 137, 110390.

Inulin is an interesting dietary fiber with potential to improve the technological and nutritional properties of food products. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop breakfast cereals through extrusion of corn grits with added inulin and evaluating the effects of different extrusion conditions on the chemical, physical and technological characteristics. The independent variables of the experimental design were the moisture of the ‘corn grits and inulin’ mixture (11.5-18.5 g/100 g) and the amount of inulin added (5.1-24.9 g/100 g). The breakfast cereals presented adequate expansion ratio and they maintained their texture after milk addition. Increasing the inulin enhanced the total fructan content and reduced the cutting force after the addition of milk, although increasing together with the moisture of ‘corn grits and inulin’ mixture resulted in higher losses of the total fructans. Decreasing the amount of inulin and increasing the moisture of the ‘corn grits and inulin’ mixture enhanced the color parameters (chroma and hue) and the paste properties (final viscosity and setback). Therefore, the production of breakfast cereals through extrusion of corn grits and inulin is feasible, providing products with fructans in their composition and contributing to consumption of breakfast cereals with fibers.

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Effects of darkness and light spectra on nutrients and pigments in radish, soybean, mung bean and pumpkin sprouts.

Mastropasqua, L., Dipierro, N. & Paciolla, C. (2020). Antioxidants, 9(6), 558.

Fresh sprouts are an important source of antioxidant compounds and contain useful phytonutrients in the human diet. Many factors, such as the time of germination and types of light, influence the physiological processes and biosynthetic pathways in sprouts. The effect of red, blue and white light vs. dark conditions on the quality parameters in different sprout species after 5 d of germination was evaluated. Total ascorbate, soluble proteins, sugars, phenolic compounds, and pigments, such as carotenoids, chlorophylls, and anthocyanins, were investigated in radishes, soybeans, mung beans, and pumpkin sprouts. The light treatments increased the contents of vitamin C and the various pigments in all sprouts, conversely, they increased the soluble proteins and sugars, including d-glucose, d-fructose and sucrose, in soybeans and pumpkins, respectively. The dark treatment prevented the decrease in dry matter due to the lighting, while the red light induced an increase in polyphenols in soybean. These results suggest that the nutritional content of different sprouts grown under different light conditions depend on the dark or specific spectral wavelength used for their growth. The manuscript may increase the knowledge on light use for the industrialized food production aiming at preserving the phytonutrient content of vegetables, increasing the consumer health, or developing tailored diets for specific nutritional needs.

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Nutritional and nutraceutical properties of raw and traditionally obtained flour from chestnut fruit grown in Tuscany.

Piccolo, E. L., Landi, M., Ceccanti, C., Mininni, A. N., Marchetti, L., Massai, R., Guidi, L. & Remorini, D. (2020). European Food Research and Technology, 246(9), 1867-1876.

The study of local chestnut and traditional techniques related to their use and consumption are considered of primary importance to promote their nutritional/nutraceutical values. Fruit of four local chestnut cultivars (‘Carpinese’, ‘Pontecosi’, ‘Capannaccia’ and ‘Morona’) from Garfagnana (Italy) were analysed under nutritional and antioxidant aspects and compared with their flour obtained through a traditional thermal-drying process. Raw fruit contained significative amounts of P, K and Mg (~ 149, 1960 and 50 mg 100 g−1 dry weight, respectively) and they were characterised by a good moisture content (~ 49%) and starch (~ 50 g 100 g−1 dw). The traditional thermal-drying processes affected the carbohydrate content of dried chestnut showing a higher sucrose and lower starch content as compared to raw fruits. Traditional thermal-drying processes negatively influenced also total phenol content (TP) and total antioxidant activity: flours from all cultivars contained lower amounts of TP than raw fruit except for ‘Morona’ in which these compounds remained unchanged. This study provides new useful information about the evaluation of nutritional and nutraceutical characteristics of Tuscany local chestnuts and the effects of a traditional thermal-drying processing method, helping consumers and producers to valorise these “forest products”.

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Soil Nitrogen Fertilization Increases Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen Concentrations in ‘Golden Russet’and ‘Medaille d’Or’Apples Used for Cider Production.

Karl, A. D., Brown, M. G., Ma, S., Sandbrook, A., Stewart, A. C., Cheng, L., Mansfield, A. K. & Peck, G. M. (2020). Hort. Science, 55(8), 1345-1355.

The recent growth in the U.S. hard-cider industry has increased the demand for cider apples (Malus×domestica Borkh.), but little is known about how to manage orchard soil fertility best to optimize horticultural performance and juice characteristics for these cultivars. To assess whether nitrogen fertilizer applied to the soil can improve apple juice and cider quality, calcium nitrate (CaNO3) fertilizer was applied at different rates to the soil beneath ‘Golden Russet’ and ‘Medaille d’Or’ trees over the course of three growing seasons. The experiment started when the trees were in their second leaf. The trees were cropped in their third and fourth leaf. At the end of the first growing season of the experiment, the greatest fertilizer rate increased tree trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) by 82% relative to the control, but this difference did not persist through to the end of the study. Yield and crop load were unaffected by the nitrogen fertilization treatments. Increasing the nitrogen fertilizer rate correlated positively with more advanced harvest maturity in ‘Golden Russet’ fruit, which resulted in greater soluble solid concentration (SSC). Fruit from the greatest fertilizer rate treatment had an average starch pattern index (SPI) that was 1 U greater than in the control, and an SSC that was 3% greater than the control. The fertilizer treatments did not affect juice pH, titratable acidity (TA), or total polyphenol concentrations. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentrations were increased by nitrogen fertilization for both cultivars in both harvest years. The greatest fertilizer treatment increased juice primary amino nitrogen by 103% relative to the control. Greater nitrogen fertilization rates correlated positively with less hydrogen sulfide production during the fermentation of ‘Golden Russet’ juice from the first, but not the second, harvest. During the first year, cumulative hydrogen sulfide production for the ‘Golden Russet’ control treatment was 29.6 μg·L-1 compared with the ‘Golden Russet’ high treatment, which cumulatively produced 0.1 μg·L-1. Greater maximum fermentation rates and shorter fermentation durations correlated positively with increased fertilization rate for both cultivars after the second harvest. High treatment fermentations had maximum fermentation rates 110% greater, and fermentation durations 30% shorter than the control. Other horticultural and juice-quality parameters were not affected negatively by the CaNOtreatments. In orchards producing apples specifically for the hard-cider industry, nitrogen fertilizer could increase juice YAN, thus reducing the need for exogenous additions during cider production.

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Revalorization of coffee silverskin as a potential feedstock for antifungal chemicals in wood preservation.

Barbero-López, A., Monzó-Beltrán, J., Virjamo, V., Akkanen, J. & Haapala, A. (2020). International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation,152, 105011.

The possibility of using coffee silverskin, an industrial waste from the coffee roasting process, as an antifungal feedstock in wood preservative formulations was investigated. Silverskin hot water extract and its antifungal properties in vitro against Rhodonia (Poria) placenta,Gloeophyllum trabeum, and Trametes versicolor were characterized, and its in vitro effects on wood decay caused by Coniophora puteana were analyzed. A kinetic luminescent bacteria test was performed using Aliivibrio fischeri to measure the acute ecotoxicity of the silverskin extracts. The antifungal test showed 60-70% growth inhibition of the studied fungi at higher concentrations-3%-but did not meet the high inhibition-100%-of the commercial wood preservative. The phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid and its derivatives, and caffeine derivatives, were the main constituents of the silverskin extracts and considered the responsible compounds of the fungal inhibition. The silverskin extracts were significantly less toxic than the commercial copper-based wood preservative. Revalorization of silverskin from industrial residues does not perform as a wood preservative but it remains a potential source of antifungal chemicals for wood preservative formulations.

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