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Formic Acid Assay Kit

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0:05 Introduction
0:49 Principle
1:18  Reagent Preparation
2:50 Procedure
5:18 Calculation

Formic Acid Assay Kit K-FORM Scheme
   
Product code: K-FORM
€150.00

25 assays (manual) / 250 assays (microplate) / 220 assays (auto-analyser)

Prices exclude VAT

Available for shipping

Content: 25 assays (manual) / 250 assays (microplate) / 220 assays (auto-analyser)
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: Formic Acid
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer, Microplate, Auto-analyser
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 340
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 0.1 to 20 µg of formic acid per assay
Limit of Detection: 0.0932 mg/L
Reaction Time (min): ~ 12 min
Application examples: Wine, fruit juices, pickles, vinegar, jam, bakery products, honey, fish, meat and other materials (e.g. biological cultures, samples, etc.).
Method recognition: Methods based on this principle have been accepted by MEBAK

The Formic Acid test kit is a simple method for the rapid, reliable measurement and analysis of formic acid (formate) in foods, beverages and other materials.

Note for Content: The number of manual tests per kit can be doubled if all volumes are halved.  This can be readily accommodated using the MegaQuantTM  Wave Spectrophotometer (D-MQWAVE).

Browse our full list of organic acid test kits.

Advantages
  • No wasted formate dehydrogenase solution (stable suspension supplied) 
  • Pyrazole incorporated to prevent alcohol dehydrogenase interference 
  • Very competitive price (cost per test) 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included 
  • Suitable for manual, microplate and auto-analyser formats
Documents
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
Booklet Data Calculator Validation Report
Publications
Megazyme publication

Megazyme “advanced” wine test kits general characteristics and validation.

Charnock, S. J., McCleary, B. V., Daverede, C. & Gallant, P. (2006). Reveue des Oenologues, 120, 1-5.

Many of the enzymatic test kits are official methods of prestigious organisations such as the Association of Official Analytical Chemicals (AOAC) and the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) in response to the interest from oenologists. Megazyme decided to use its long history of enzymatic bio-analysis to make a significant contribution to the wine industry, by the development of a range of advanced enzymatic test kits. This task has now been successfully completed through the strategic and comprehensive process of identifying limitations of existing enzymatic bio-analysis test kits where they occurred, and then using advanced techniques, such as molecular biology (photo 1), to rapidly overcome them. Novel test kits have also been developed for analytes of emerging interest to the oenologist, such as yeast available nitrogen (YAN; see pages 2-3 of issue 117 article), or where previously enzymes were simply either not available, or were too expensive to employ, such as for D-mannitol analysis.

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Megazyme publication

Grape and wine analysis: Oenologists to exploit advanced test kits.

Charnock, S. C. & McCleary, B. V. (2005). Revue des Enology, 117, 1-5.

It is without doubt that testing plays a pivotal role throughout the whole of the vinification process. To produce the best possible quality wine and to minimise process problems such as “stuck” fermentation or troublesome infections, it is now recognised that if possible testing should begin prior to harvesting of the grapes and continue through to bottling. Traditional methods of wine analysis are often expensive, time consuming, require either elaborate equipment or specialist expertise and frequently lack accuracy. However, enzymatic bio-analysis enables the accurate measurement of the vast majority of analytes of interest to the wine maker, using just one piece of apparatus, the spectrophotometer (see previous issue No. 116 for a detailed technical review). Grape juice and wine are amenable to enzymatic testing as being liquids they are homogenous, easy to manipulate, and can generally be analysed without any sample preparation.

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Publication
Tuning the Composition of Electrodeposited Bimetallic Tin-Lead Catalysts for Enhanced Activity and Durability in Carbon Dioxide Electroreduction to Formate.

Gyenge, E. & Moore, C. (2017). ChemSusChem, 10(17), 3512–3519.

Bimetallic Sn–Pb catalysts with five different Sn/Pb atomic ratios were electrodeposited on Teflonated carbon paper and non-Teflonated carbon cloth using both fluoroborate- and oxide-containing deposition media to produce catalysts for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 (ERC) to formate (HCOO-). The interaction between catalyst composition, morphology, substrate, and deposition media was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry and constant potential electrolysis at -2.0 V versus Ag/AgCl for 2 h in 0.5 m KHCO3). The catalysts were analyzed before and after electrolysis by using SEM and XRD to determine the mechanisms of Faradaic efficiency loss and degradation. Catalysts that are mainly Sn with 15–35 at % Pb generated Faradaic efficiencies up to 95 % with a stable performance. However, pure Sn catalysts showed high initial stage formate production rates but experienced an extensive (up to 30 %) decrease of the Faradaic efficiency. The XRD results demonstrated the presence of polycrystalline SnO2 after electrolysis using Sn–Pb catalysts with 35 at % Pb and its absence in the case of pure Sn. It is proposed that the presence of Pb (15–35 at %) in mainly Sn catalysts stabilized SnO2, which is responsible for the enhanced Faradaic efficiency and catalytic durability in the ERC.

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Publication
Relative contributions of Dehalobacter and zerovalent iron in the degradation of chlorinated methanes.

Lee, M., Wells, E., Wong, Y. K., Koenig, J., Adrian, L., Richnow, H. H. & Manefield, M. (2015). Environmental Science & Technology, 49(7), 4481-4489.

The role of bacteria and zerovalent iron (Fe0) in the degradation of chlorinated solvents in subsurface environments is of interest to researchers and remediation practitioners alike. Fe0 used in reactive iron barriers for groundwater remediation positively interacted with enrichment cultures containing Dehalobacter strains in the transformation of halogenated methanes. Chloroform transformation and dichloromethane formation was up to 8-fold faster and 14 times higher, respectively, when a Dehalobacter-containing enrichment culture was combined with Fe0 compared with Fe0 alone. The dichloromethane-fermenting culture transformed dichloromethane up to three times faster with Fe0 compared to without. Compound-specific isotope analysis was employed to compare abiotic and biotic chloroform and dichloromethane degradation. The isotope enrichment factor for the abiotic chloroform/ Fe0 reaction was large at −29.4 ± 2.1‰, while that for chloroform respiration by Dehalobacter was minimal at −4.3 ± 0.45‰. The combined abiotic/biotic dechlorination was −8.3 ± 0.7‰, confirming the predominance of biotic dechlorination. The enrichment factor for dichloromethane fermentation was −15.5 ± 1.5‰; however, in the presence of Fe0 the factor increased to −23.5 ± 2.1‰, suggesting multiple mechanisms were contributing to dichloromethane degradation. Together the results show that chlorinated methane-metabolizing organisms introduced into reactive iron barriers can have a significant impact on trichloromethane and dichloromethane degradation and that compound-specific isotope analysis can be employed to distinguish between the biotic and abiotic reactions involved.

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Publication
Postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) with ethyl formate and its impact on citrus fruit quality.

Pupin, F., Bikoba, V., Biasi, W. B., Pedroso, G. M., Ouyang, Y., Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. & Mitcham, E. J. (2013). Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(6), 2341-2348.

The postharvest control of arthropod pests is a challenge that the California citrus industry must overcome when exporting fruit overseas. Currently, methyl bromide fumigation is used to control postharvest pests on exported citrus, but it may soon be unavailable because of use restrictions and cost of this health-hazard ozone-depleting chemical. Ethyl formate is a natural plant volatile and possible alternative to methyl bromide in postharvest insect control. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the mortality of third instar California red scale [Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)] (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and adult western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under a wide range of ethyl formate concentrations, 2) to determine the ethyl formate concentration required to reach a Probit 9 level of control for both pests, and 3) to test the effects of ethyl formate fumigation on the quality of navel oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and lemons [Citrus limon (L.) Burman f.] at 24 h after fumigation, and at different time periods to simulate shipping plus storage (5 wk at 5°C), and shipping, storage, handling, and shelf-life (5 wk at 5°C, plus 5 d at 15°C, and 2 d at 20°C). The results indicate that ethyl formate is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for the California citrus industry, because of successful control of adult western flower thips and third instar California red scale and no deleterious effect on fruit quality at any of the evaluated periods and quality parameters.

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Safety Information
Symbol : Not Applicable
Signal Word : Not Applicable
Hazard Statements : Not Applicable
Precautionary Statements : Not Applicable
Safety Data Sheet
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