Formic Acid Assay Kit

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00:05 Introduction
00:49 Principle
01:18  Reagent Preparation
02:52 Procedure
05:20  Calculations

Formic Acid Assay Kit K-FORM Scheme
Reference code: K-FORM
SKU: 700004282

25 assays (manual) / 250 assays (microplate) / 220 assays (auto-analyser)

Content: 25 assays (manual) / 250 assays (microplate) / 220 assays (auto-analyser)
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: Formic Acid
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer, Microplate, Auto-analyser
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 340
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 0.4 to 20 µg of formic acid per assay
Limit of Detection: 0.0932 mg/L
Reaction Time (min): ~ 12 min
Application examples: Wine, fruit juices, pickles, vinegar, jam, bakery products, honey, fish, meat and other materials (e.g. biological cultures, samples, etc.).
Method recognition: Methods based on this principle have been accepted by MEBAK

The Formic Acid test kit is a simple method for the rapid, reliable measurement and analysis of formic acid (formate) in foods, beverages and other materials.

Note for Content: The number of manual tests per kit can be doubled if all volumes are halved.  This can be readily accommodated using the MegaQuantTM  Wave Spectrophotometer (D-MQWAVE).

Browse our full list of organic acid test kits.

Scheme-K-FORM FORM Megayzme

  • No wasted formate dehydrogenase solution (stable suspension supplied) 
  • Pyrazole incorporated to prevent alcohol dehydrogenase interference 
  • Very competitive price (cost per test) 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included 
  • Suitable for manual, microplate and auto-analyser formats
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
Assay Protocol Data Calculator Validation Report
Megazyme publication

Megazyme “advanced” wine test kits general characteristics and validation.

Charnock, S. J., McCleary, B. V., Daverede, C. & Gallant, P. (2006). Reveue des Oenologues, 120, 1-5.

Many of the enzymatic test kits are official methods of prestigious organisations such as the Association of Official Analytical Chemicals (AOAC) and the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) in response to the interest from oenologists. Megazyme decided to use its long history of enzymatic bio-analysis to make a significant contribution to the wine industry, by the development of a range of advanced enzymatic test kits. This task has now been successfully completed through the strategic and comprehensive process of identifying limitations of existing enzymatic bio-analysis test kits where they occurred, and then using advanced techniques, such as molecular biology (photo 1), to rapidly overcome them. Novel test kits have also been developed for analytes of emerging interest to the oenologist, such as yeast available nitrogen (YAN; see pages 2-3 of issue 117 article), or where previously enzymes were simply either not available, or were too expensive to employ, such as for D-mannitol analysis.

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Megazyme publication

Grape and wine analysis: Oenologists to exploit advanced test kits.

Charnock, S. C. & McCleary, B. V. (2005). Revue des Enology, 117, 1-5.

It is without doubt that testing plays a pivotal role throughout the whole of the vinification process. To produce the best possible quality wine and to minimise process problems such as “stuck” fermentation or troublesome infections, it is now recognised that if possible testing should begin prior to harvesting of the grapes and continue through to bottling. Traditional methods of wine analysis are often expensive, time consuming, require either elaborate equipment or specialist expertise and frequently lack accuracy. However, enzymatic bio-analysis enables the accurate measurement of the vast majority of analytes of interest to the wine maker, using just one piece of apparatus, the spectrophotometer (see previous issue No. 116 for a detailed technical review). Grape juice and wine are amenable to enzymatic testing as being liquids they are homogenous, easy to manipulate, and can generally be analysed without any sample preparation.

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The phenotype and genotype of fermentative prokaryotes. 

Hackmann, T. J. & Zhang, B. (2023). Science Advances, 9(39), eadg8687.

Fermentation is a type of metabolism pervasive in oxygen-deprived environments. Despite its importance, we know little about the range and traits of organisms that carry out this metabolism. Our study addresses this gap with a comprehensive analysis of the phenotype and genotype of fermentative prokaryotes. We assembled a dataset with phenotypic records of 8350 organisms plus 4355 genomes and 13.6 million genes. Our analysis reveals fermentation is both widespread (in ~30% of prokaryotes) and complex (forming ~300 combinations of metabolites). Furthermore, it points to previously uncharacterized proteins involved in this metabolism. Previous studies suggest that metabolic pathways for fermentation are well understood, but metabolic models built in our study show gaps in our knowledge. This study demonstrates the complexity of fermentation while showing that there is still much to learn about this metabolism. All resources in our study can be explored by the scientific community with an online, interactive tool.

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Formate Utilization by the Crenarchaeon Desulfurococcus amylolyticus.

Ergal, I., Reischl, B., Hasibar, B., Manoharan, L., Zipperle, A., Bochmann, G., Fuchs, W. & Rittmann, S. K. M. (2020). Microorganisms, 8(3), 454.

Formate is one of the key compounds of the microbial carbon and/or energy metabolism. It owes a significant contribution to various anaerobic syntrophic associations, and may become one of the energy storage compounds of modern energy biotechnology. Microbial growth on formate was demonstrated for different bacteria and archaea, but not yet for species of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. Here, we show that Desulfurococcus amylolyticus DSM 16532, an anaerobic and hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeon, metabolises formate without the production of molecular hydrogen. Growth, substrate uptake, and production kinetics on formate, glucose, and glucose/formate mixtures exhibited similar specific growth rates and similar final cell densities. A whole cell conversion experiment on formate revealed that D. amylolyticus converts formate into carbon dioxide, acetate, citrate, and ethanol. Using bioinformatic analysis, we examined whether one of the currently known and postulated formate utilisation pathways could be operative in D. amylolyticus. This analysis indicated the possibility that D. amylolyticus uses formaldehyde producing enzymes for the assimilation of formate. Therefore, we propose that formate might be assimilated into biomass through formaldehyde dehydrogenase and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. These findings shed new light on the metabolic versatility of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota.

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Assessment of β-glucans, phenols, flavor and volatile profiles of hulless barley wine originating from highland areas of China.

Zhang, K., Yang, J., Qiao, Z., Cao, X., Luo, Q., Zhao, J., Wang, F. & Zhang, W. (2019). Food Chemistry, 293, 32-40.

Low alcohol hulless barley wine (HW) is a popular beverage among the highland areas in China. It is known to have several health benefits due to the presence of β-glucan and antioxidant compounds. Therefore, the total β-glucan content, total phenols and flavonoids of HW samples from the highland areas of Sichuan province and Tibet were determined in this study. The results indicated that HW is abundant in both β-glucan (54-76 mg/L) and phenolic compounds (131-178 mg/L). Moreover, this study also investigated the flavor and aroma characteristics of HW samples. A total of forty six volatile aroma substances were identified by GC-MS. The HWs could be classified into three distinct groups in terms of the region of origin according to the results of PCA based on the GC-MS data. These findings provide a useful foundation for further study of the health benefits and the flavor characteristics of HW in highland areas.

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Acetate metabolism and the inhibition of bacterial growth by acetate.

Pinhal, S., Ropers, D., Geiselmann, J. & de Jong, H. (2019). Journal of Bacteriology, 201(13).

During aerobic growth on glucose, Escherichia coli excretes acetate, a mechanism called “overflow metabolism.” At high concentrations, the secreted acetate inhibits growth. Several mechanisms have been proposed for explaining this phenomenon, but a thorough analysis is hampered by the diversity of experimental conditions and strains used in these studies. Here, we describe the construction of a set of isogenic strains that remove different parts of the metabolic network involved in acetate metabolism. Analysis of these strains reveals that (i) high concentrations of acetate in the medium inhibit growth without significantly perturbing central metabolism; (ii) growth inhibition persists even when acetate assimilation is completely blocked; and (iii) regulatory interactions mediated by acetyl-phosphate play a small but significant role in growth inhibition by acetate. The major contribution to growth inhibition by acetate may originate in systemic effects like the uncoupling effect of organic acids or the perturbation of the anion composition of the cell, as previously proposed. Our data suggest, however, that under the conditions considered here, the uncoupling effect plays only a limited role.

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Conversion of Escherichia coli to generate all biomass carbon from CO2.

Gleizer, S., Ben-Nissan, R., Bar-On, Y. M., Antonovsky, N., Noor, E., Zohar, Y., Jona, G., Krieger, E., Shamshoum, M., Bar-Even, A. & Milo, R. (2019). Cell, 179(6), 1255-1263.

The living world is largely divided into autotrophs that convert CO2 into biomass and heterotrophs that consume organic compounds. In spite of widespread interest in renewable energy storage and more sustainable food production, the engineering of industrially relevant heterotrophic model organisms to use CO2 as their sole carbon source has so far remained an outstanding challenge. Here, we report the achievement of this transformation on laboratory timescales. We constructed and evolved Escherichia coli to produce all its biomass carbon from CO2. Reducing power and energy, but not carbon, are supplied via the one-carbon molecule formate, which can be produced electrochemically. Rubisco and phosphoribulokinase were co-expressed with formate dehydrogenase to enable CO2 fixation and reduction via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. Autotrophic growth was achieved following several months of continuous laboratory evolution in a chemostat under intensifying organic carbon limitation and confirmed via isotopic labeling.

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Coordinative Binding of Polymers to Metal-Organic Framework Nanoparticles for Control of Interactions at the Biointerface.

Zimpel, A., Al Danaf, N., Steinborn, B., Kuhn, J., Höhn, M., Bauer, T., Hirschle, P., Schrimpf, W., Engelke, H., Wagner, E., Barz, M., Lamb, D. C., LächeltU. & Wuttke, S. (2019). ACS Nano, 13(4), 3884-3895.

Metal-organic framework nanoparticles (MOF NPs) are of growing interest in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, and due to their hybrid nature, they display enhanced properties compared to more established nanomaterials. The effective application of MOF NPs, however, is often hampered by limited control of their surface chemistry and understanding of their interactions at the biointerface. Using a surface coating approach, we found that coordinative polymer binding to Zr-fum NPs is a convenient way for peripheral surface functionalization. Different polymers with biomedical relevance were assessed for the ability to bind to the MOF surface. Carboxylic acid and amine containing polymers turned out to be potent surface coatings and a modulator replacement reaction was identified as the underlying mechanism. The strong binding of polycarboxylates was then used to shield the MOF surface with a double amphiphilic polyglutamate-polysarcosine block copolymer, which resulted in an exceptional high colloidal stability of the nanoparticles. The effect of polymer coating on interactions at the biointerface was tested with regard to cellular association and protein binding, which has, to the best of our knowledge, never been discussed in literature for functionalized MOF NPs. We conclude that the applied approach enables a high degree of chemical surface confinement, which could be used as a universal strategy for MOF NP functionalization. In this way, the physicochemical properties of MOF NPs could be tuned, which allows for control over their behavior in biological systems.

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Tuning the Composition of Electrodeposited Bimetallic Tin-Lead Catalysts for Enhanced Activity and Durability in Carbon Dioxide Electroreduction to Formate.

Gyenge, E. & Moore, C. (2017). ChemSusChem, 10(17), 3512–3519.

Bimetallic Sn–Pb catalysts with five different Sn/Pb atomic ratios were electrodeposited on Teflonated carbon paper and non-Teflonated carbon cloth using both fluoroborate- and oxide-containing deposition media to produce catalysts for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 (ERC) to formate (HCOO-). The interaction between catalyst composition, morphology, substrate, and deposition media was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry and constant potential electrolysis at -2.0 V versus Ag/AgCl for 2 h in 0.5 m KHCO3). The catalysts were analyzed before and after electrolysis by using SEM and XRD to determine the mechanisms of Faradaic efficiency loss and degradation. Catalysts that are mainly Sn with 15–35 at % Pb generated Faradaic efficiencies up to 95 % with a stable performance. However, pure Sn catalysts showed high initial stage formate production rates but experienced an extensive (up to 30 %) decrease of the Faradaic efficiency. The XRD results demonstrated the presence of polycrystalline SnO2 after electrolysis using Sn–Pb catalysts with 35 at % Pb and its absence in the case of pure Sn. It is proposed that the presence of Pb (15–35 at %) in mainly Sn catalysts stabilized SnO2, which is responsible for the enhanced Faradaic efficiency and catalytic durability in the ERC.

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Relative contributions of Dehalobacter and zerovalent iron in the degradation of chlorinated methanes.

Lee, M., Wells, E., Wong, Y. K., Koenig, J., Adrian, L., Richnow, H. H. & Manefield, M. (2015). Environmental Science & Technology, 49(7), 4481-4489.

The role of bacteria and zerovalent iron (Fe0) in the degradation of chlorinated solvents in subsurface environments is of interest to researchers and remediation practitioners alike. Fe0 used in reactive iron barriers for groundwater remediation positively interacted with enrichment cultures containing Dehalobacter strains in the transformation of halogenated methanes. Chloroform transformation and dichloromethane formation was up to 8-fold faster and 14 times higher, respectively, when a Dehalobacter-containing enrichment culture was combined with Fe0 compared with Fe0 alone. The dichloromethane-fermenting culture transformed dichloromethane up to three times faster with Fe0 compared to without. Compound-specific isotope analysis was employed to compare abiotic and biotic chloroform and dichloromethane degradation. The isotope enrichment factor for the abiotic chloroform/ Fe0 reaction was large at −29.4 ± 2.1‰, while that for chloroform respiration by Dehalobacter was minimal at −4.3 ± 0.45‰. The combined abiotic/biotic dechlorination was −8.3 ± 0.7‰, confirming the predominance of biotic dechlorination. The enrichment factor for dichloromethane fermentation was −15.5 ± 1.5‰; however, in the presence of Fe0 the factor increased to −23.5 ± 2.1‰, suggesting multiple mechanisms were contributing to dichloromethane degradation. Together the results show that chlorinated methane-metabolizing organisms introduced into reactive iron barriers can have a significant impact on trichloromethane and dichloromethane degradation and that compound-specific isotope analysis can be employed to distinguish between the biotic and abiotic reactions involved.

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Postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) with ethyl formate and its impact on citrus fruit quality.

Pupin, F., Bikoba, V., Biasi, W. B., Pedroso, G. M., Ouyang, Y., Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. & Mitcham, E. J. (2013). Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(6), 2341-2348.

The postharvest control of arthropod pests is a challenge that the California citrus industry must overcome when exporting fruit overseas. Currently, methyl bromide fumigation is used to control postharvest pests on exported citrus, but it may soon be unavailable because of use restrictions and cost of this health-hazard ozone-depleting chemical. Ethyl formate is a natural plant volatile and possible alternative to methyl bromide in postharvest insect control. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the mortality of third instar California red scale [Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)] (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and adult western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under a wide range of ethyl formate concentrations, 2) to determine the ethyl formate concentration required to reach a Probit 9 level of control for both pests, and 3) to test the effects of ethyl formate fumigation on the quality of navel oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and lemons [Citrus limon (L.) Burman f.] at 24 h after fumigation, and at different time periods to simulate shipping plus storage (5 wk at 5°C), and shipping, storage, handling, and shelf-life (5 wk at 5°C, plus 5 d at 15°C, and 2 d at 20°C). The results indicate that ethyl formate is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for the California citrus industry, because of successful control of adult western flower thips and third instar California red scale and no deleterious effect on fruit quality at any of the evaluated periods and quality parameters.

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Safety Information
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Safety Data Sheet
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