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Curdlan P-CURDL
Product code: P-CURDL

8 g

Prices exclude VAT

This product has been discontinued

Content: 8 g
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Ambient
Physical Form: Powder
Stability: > 10 years under recommended storage conditions
CAS Number: 54724-00-4
Synonyms: 1,3-β-D-Glucan
Source: Alcaligenes faecaeli
Purity: > 99% 
Monosaccharides (%): Glucose
Main Chain Glycosidic Linkage: β-1,3
Substrate For (Enzyme): endo-1,3-β-Glucanase

This product has been discontinued (read more).

High purity Curdlan for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.

For the assay of endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase.

Display our entire high purity polysaccharides product list.

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Megazyme publication
Unravelling Glucan Recognition Systems by Glycome Microarrays Using the Designer Approach and Mass Spectrometry.

Palma, A. S., Liu, Y., Zhang, H., Zhang, Y., McCleary, B. V., Yu, G., Huang, Q., Guidolin, L. S., Ciocchini, A. E., Torosantucci, A., Wang, D., Carvalho, A. L., Fontes, C. M. G. A., Mulloy, B., Childs, R. A., Feizi,T. & Chai, W. (2015). Mol. Cell Proteomics, 14(4), 974-988.

Glucans are polymers of D-glucose with differing linkages in linear or branched sequences. They are constituents of microbial and plant cell-walls and involved in important bio-recognition processes, including immunomodulation, anticancer activities, pathogen virulence, and plant cell-wall biodegradation. Translational possibilities for these activities in medicine and biotechnology are considerable. High-throughput micro-methods are needed to screen proteins for recognition of specific glucan sequences as a lead to structure–function studies and their exploitation. We describe construction of a “glucome” microarray, the first sequence-defined glycome-scale microarray, using a “designer” approach from targeted ligand-bearing glucans in conjunction with a novel high-sensitivity mass spectrometric sequencing method, as a screening tool to assign glucan recognition motifs. The glucome microarray comprises 153 oligosaccharide probes with high purity, representing major sequences in glucans. Negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation was used for complete linkage analysis of gluco-oligosaccharides in linear “homo” and “hetero” and branched sequences. The system is validated using antibodies and carbohydrate-binding modules known to target α- or β-glucans in different biological contexts, extending knowledge on their specificities, and applied to reveal new information on glucan recognition by two signaling molecules of the immune system against pathogens: Dectin-1 and DC-SIGN. The sequencing of the glucan oligosaccharides by the MS method and their interrogation on the microarrays provides detailed information on linkage, sequence and chain length requirements of glucan-recognizing proteins, and are a sensitive means of revealing unsuspected sequences in the polysaccharides.

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Fermentation profile, cholesterol-reducing properties and chemopreventive potential of β-glucans from Levilactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus claussenii–a comparative study with β-glucans from different sources.

Schlörmann, W., Bockwoldt, J. A., Mayr, M. F., Lorkowski, S., Dawczynski, C., Rohn, S., Ehrmann, M. A. & Glei, M. (2021). Food & Function, In Press.

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether β-glucans obtained from the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Levilactobacillus (L.) brevis and Pediococcus (P.) claussenii exhibit similar physiological effects such as cholesterol-binding capacity (CBC) as the structurally different β-glucans from oat, barley, and yeast as well as curdlan. After in vitro fermentation, fermentation supernatants (FSs) and/or -pellets (FPs) were analyzed regarding the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), ammonia, bile acids, the relative abundance of bacterial taxa and chemopreventive effects (growth inhibition, apoptosis, genotoxicity) in LT97 colon adenoma cells. Compared to other glucans, the highest CBC was determined for oat β-glucan (65.9 ± 8.8 mg g-1, p < 0.05). Concentrations of SCFA were increased in FSs of all β-glucans (up to 2.7-fold). The lowest concentrations of ammonia (down to 0.8 ± 0.3 mmol L-1) and bile acids (2.5-5.2 μg mL-1) were detected in FSs of the β-glucans from oat, barley, yeast, and curdlan. The various β-glucans differentially modulated the relative abundance of bacteria families and reduced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Treatment of LT97 cells with the FSs led to a significant dose-dependent growth reduction and increase in caspase-3 activity without exhibiting genotoxic effects. Though the different β-glucans show different fermentation profiles as well as cholesterol- and bile acid-reducing properties, they exhibit comparable chemopreventive effects.

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Four cellulose-active lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases from Cellulomonas species.

Li, J., Solhi, L., Goddard-Borger, E. D., Mathieu, Y., Wakarchuk, W. W., Withers, S. G. & Brumer, H. (2021). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 14(1), 1-19.

Background: The discovery of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) has fundamentally changed our understanding of microbial lignocellulose degradation. Cellulomonas bacteria have a rich history of study due to their ability to degrade recalcitrant cellulose, yet little is known about the predicted LPMOs that they encode from Auxiliary Activity Family 10 (AA10). Results: Here, we present the comprehensive biochemical characterization of three AA10 LPMOs from Cellulomonas flavigena (CflaLPMO10A, CflaLPMO10B, and CflaLPMO10C) and one LPMO from Cellulomonas fimi (CfiLPMO10). We demonstrate that these four enzymes oxidize insoluble cellulose with C1 regioselectivity and show a preference for substrates with high surface area. In addition, CflaLPMO10B, CflaLPMO10C, and CfiLPMO10 exhibit limited capacity to perform mixed C1/C4 regioselective oxidative cleavage. Thermostability analysis indicates that these LPMOs can refold spontaneously following denaturation dependent on the presence of copper coordination. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed substrate-specific surface and structural morphological changes following LPMO action on Avicel and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC). Further, we demonstrate that the LPMOs encoded by Cellulomonas flavigena exhibit synergy in cellulose degradation, which is due in part to decreased autoinactivation. Conclusions: Together, these results advance understanding of the cellulose utilization machinery of historically important Cellulomonas species beyond hydrolytic enzymes to include lytic cleavage. This work also contributes to the broader mapping of enzyme activity in Auxiliary Activity Family 10 and provides new biocatalysts for potential applications in biomass modification.

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Linear and branched β-Glucans degrading enzymes from versatile Bacteroides uniformis JCM 13288T and their roles in cooperation with gut bacteria.

Singh, R. P., Rajarammohan, S., Thakur, R. & Hassan, M. (2020). Gut Microbes, 12(1), 1826761.

β-glucans are the dietary nutrients present in oats, barley, algae, and mushrooms. The macromolecules are well known for their immune-modulatory activity; however, how the human gut bacteria digest them is vaguely understood. In this study, Bacteroides uniformis JCM 13288T was found to grow on laminarin, pustulan, and porphyran. We sequenced the genome of the strain, which was about 5.05 megabase pairs and contained 4868 protein-coding genes. On the basis of growth patterns of the bacterium, two putative polysaccharide utilization loci for β-glucans were identified from the genome, and associated four putative genes were cloned, expressed, purified, and characterized. Three glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that were endo-acting enzymes (BuGH16, BuGH30, and BuGH158), and one which was an exo-acting (BuGH3) enzyme. The BuGH3, BuGH16, and BuGH158 can cleave linear exo/endo-β-1-3 linkages while BuGH30 can digest endo-β- 1-6 linkages. BuGH30 and BuGH158 were further explored for their roles in digesting β- glucans and generation of oligosaccharides, respectively. The BuGH30 predominately found to cleave long chain β-1-6 linked glucans, and obtained final product was gentiobiose. The BuGH158 used for producing oligosaccharides varying from degree of polymerization 2 to 7 from soluble curdlan. We demonstrated that these oligosaccharides can be utilized by gut bacteria, which either did not grow or poorly grew on laminarin. Thus, B. uniformis JCM 13288T is not only capable of utilizing β-glucans but also shares these glycans with human gut bacteria for potentially maintaining the gut microbial homeostasis.

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Carboxymethylation of polysaccharides-A comparative study.

Gabriel, L., Tied, A. & Heinze, T. (2020). Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, 54(9-10), 835-844.

The present study describes the heterogeneous carboxymethylation of xylan,α-1,3-glucan, glucomannan, pullulan, curdlan, galactoglucomannan, and agarose with sodium monochloracetate (SMCA) using iso-propanol as slurry medium in the presence of caustic soda. Using heteropolysaccharides for the carboxymethylation, higher DS values are obtained compared to the DS of homopolysaccharides. The influence of the amount caustic soda in the reaction medium is studied. The characterization of the products obtained is performed by means of 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Carboxymethylation transforms the investigated polysaccharides into water-soluble products.

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Degradative GH5 β-1, 3-1, 4-glucanase PpBglu5A for glucan in Paenibacillus polymyxa KF-1.

Yuan, Y., Zhang, X., Zhang, H., Wang, W., Zhao, X., Gao, J. & Zhou, Y. (2020). Process Biochemistry, 98, 183-192.

A novel β-1,3-1,4-glucanase in the glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) has been identified in the secretome of Paenibacillus polymyxa KF-1. The recombinant GH5 enzyme PpBglu5A shows broad substrate specificity, with strong lichenase activity, medium β-1,3-glucanase activity, and minimal cellulase activity. Barley β-glucan, lichenan, curdlan, and carboxymethyl cellulose are hydrolyzed to varying degrees by PpBglu5A, with the highest catalytic activity being observed with barley β-glucan. Hydrolysates from barley β-glucan or lichenan are primarily glucan oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization from 2 to 4. PpBglu5A also hydrolyzes oat bran into oligosaccharides mainly consisted of di-, tri-, and tetra- oligosaccharides that are useful in the preparation of gluco-oligosaccharides. In addition to hydrolytic activity, transglycosylation was also observed with PpBglu5A and cellotriose as substrate. An in vitro assay indicated that the recombinant PpBglu5A has antifungal activity and can inhibit the growth of Canidia albicans. These results suggest that PpBglu5A exhibits unique properties and may be useful as an antifungal agent.

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A Novel Dimeric Exoglucanase (GH5_38): Biochemical and Structural Characterisation towards its Application in Alkyl Cellobioside Synthesis.

Mafa, M. S., Dirr, H. W., Malgas, S., Krause, R. W., Rashamuse, K. & Pletschke, B. I. (2020). Molecules, 25(3), 746.

An exoglucanase (Exg-D) from the glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 38 (GH5_38) was heterologously expressed and structurally and biochemically characterised at a molecular level for its application in alkyl glycoside synthesis. The purified Exg-D existed in both dimeric and monomeric forms in solution, which showed highest activity on mixed-linked β-glucan (88.0 and 86.7 U/mg protein, respectively) and lichenin (24.5 and 23.7 U/mg protein, respectively). They displayed a broad optimum pH range from 5.5 to 7 and a temperature optimum from 40 to 60 °C. Kinetic studies demonstrated that Exg-D had a higher affinity towards β-glucan, with a km of 7.9 mg/mL and a kcat of 117.2 s-1, compared to lichenin which had a km of 21.5 mg/mL and a kcat of 70.0 s-1. The circular dichroism profile of Exg-D showed that its secondary structure consisted of 11% α-helices, 36% β-strands and 53% coils. Exg-D performed transglycosylation using p-nitrophenyl cellobioside as a glycosyl donor and several primary alcohols as acceptors to produce methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-cellobiosides. These products were identified and quantified via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). We concluded that Exg-D is a novel and promising oligomeric glycoside hydrolase for the one-step synthesis of alkyl glycosides with more than one monosaccharide unit.

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A processive endoglucanase with multi-substrate specificity is characterized from porcine gut microbiota.

Wang, W., Archbold, T., Lam, J. S., Kimber, M. S. & Fan, M. Z. (2019). Scientific Reports, 9(1), 1-13.

Cellulases play important roles in the dietary fibre digestion in pigs, and have multiple industrial applications. The porcine intestinal microbiota display a unique feature in rapid cellulose digestion. Herein, we have expressed a cellulase gene, p4818Cel5_2A, which singly encoded a catalytic domain belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 2, and was previously identified from a metagenomic expression library constructed from porcine gut microbiome after feeding grower pigs with a cellulose-supplemented diet. The activity of purified p4818Cel5_2A was maximal at pH 6.0 and 50°C and displayed resistance to trypsin digestion. This enzyme exhibited activities towards a wide variety of plant polysaccharides, including cellulosic substrates of avicel and solka-Floc®, and the hemicelluloses of β-(1 → 4)/(1 → 3)-glucans, xyloglucan, glucomannan and galactomannan. Viscosity, reducing sugar distribution and hydrolysis product analyses further revealed that this enzyme was a processive endo-β-(1 → 4)-glucanase capable of hydrolyzing cellulose into cellobiose and cellotriose as the primary end products. These catalytic features of p4818Cel5_2A were further explored in the context of a three-dimensional homology model. Altogether, results of this study report a microbial processive endoglucanase identified from the porcine gut microbiome, and it may be tailored as an efficient biocatalyst candidate for potential industrial applications.

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Comparative analysis and biochemical characterization of two endo-β-1, 3-glucanases from the thermophilic bacterium Fervidobacterium sp.

Burkhardt, C., Schäfers, C., Claren, J., Schirrmacher, G. & Antranikian, G. (2019). Catalysts, 9(10), 830.

Laminarinases exhibit potential in a wide range of industrial applications including the production of biofuels and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we present the genetic and biochemical characteristics of FLamA and FLamB, two laminarinases derived from a metagenomic sample from a hot spring in the Azores. Sequence comparison revealed that both genes had high similarities to genes from Fervidobacterium nodosum Rt17-B1. The two proteins showed sequence similarities of 62% to each other and belong to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 16. For biochemical characterization, both laminarinases were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. FLamA and FLamB exhibited similar properties and both showed highest activity towards laminarin at 90° C and pH 6.5. The two enzymes were thermostable but differed in their half-life at 80° C with 5 h and 1 h for FLamA and FLamB, respectively. In contrast to other laminarinases, both enzymes prefer β-1,3-glucans and mixed-linked glucans as substrates. However, FLamA and FLamB differ in their catalytic efficiency towards laminarin. Structure predictions were made and showed minor differences particularly in a kink adjacent to the active site cleft. The high specific activities and resistance to elevated temperatures and various additives make both enzymes suitable candidates for application in biomass conversion.

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Optimization of Chitosan-α-casein Nanoparticles for Improved Gene Delivery: Characterization, Stability, and Transfection Efficiency.

Costa, J. P., Carvalho, S., Jesus, S., Soares, E., Marques, A. P. & Borges, O. (2019). AAPS PharmSciTech, 20(3), 132.

Among non-viral vectors, the cationic polymer chitosan has gained attention as a gene delivery system. We hypothesized that the addition of casein into the nanoparticle’s structure would facilitate a proper gene transfer. The work herein presented aimed to optimize the production method of chitosan-casein nanoparticles (ChiCas NPs) and to test their ability as a gene delivery system. ChiCas NPs formulation optimization was carried out by analyzing several characteristics such as NP size, zeta potential, and chitosan and casein incorporation efficacy. The best formulation developed presented small and homogenous particle size (around 335 nm) and positive zeta potential (≈ + 38 mV), and showed to be stable for 34 weeks both, at 4°C and 20°C. The particles were further used to entrap or to adsorb DNA and form NPs-DNA complexes. In vitro transfection studies, carried out in COS-7 cells, suggested a low transfection efficiency of the different NPs:DNA ratios tested, comparatively to the positive control. Nonetheless, we could observe that the complexes with larger sizes presented better transfection results than those with smaller diameters. To conclude, ChiCas NPs have great technological potential since the preparation process is very simple, and the DNA incorporation efficacy is very high and shows to be physically very stable. The NPs:DNA ratio still needs to be optimized with the aim of achieving better transfection results and being able to anticipate a high gene expression on DNA-based vaccination studies.

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