|Content:||100 assays / 200 assays|
Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
|Stability:||> 2 years under recommended storage conditions|
|Limit of Detection:||0.5 g/100 g|
|Total Assay Time:||~ 100 min|
|Application examples:||Food ingredients, food products and other materials.|
|Method recognition:||AACC Method 32-05.01, AACC Method 32-06.01, AACC Method 32-07.01, AACC Method 32-21.01, AOAC Method 985.29, AOAC Method 991.42, AOAC Method 991.43, AOAC Method 993.19, CODEX Method Type I and GB Standards 5009.88-2014|
The Total Dietary Fiber test kit is suitable for the measurement and analysis of Total, Soluble and Insoluble Dietary Fiber according to AOAC and AACC approved methods.
See our full range of starch and dietary fiber products.
See General Referee Reports: Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Vol. 81, No. 1, 1998.
Fiber is a mixture of complex organic substances, including hydrophilic compounds, such as soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and non-digestable oligosaccharides, as well as a range of non-swellable, more or less hydrophobic, compounds such as cutins, suberins and lignins. The procedures for the determination and analysis of total dietary fiber as outlined in our booklet are based on the methods of Lee et al.1 and Prosky et al.2,3 (AOAC 991.43, AOAC 985.29, AACC 32-07.01 and AACC 32-05.01). However, the enzymes in the Megazyme Total Dietary Fiber Kit can also be used in other dietary fiber analytical methods such as AACC Method 32-21.01 and AACC Method 32-06.01.
1. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (1985). Official Methods of Analysis, 14th ed., 1st suppl. Secs. 43, A14-43, A20, p.399.
2. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (1986). Changes in methods. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 69, 370.
3. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (1987). Changes in methods. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 70, 393.
Two separate methods are described in the associated data booklet:
METHOD 1: DETERMINATION OF TOTAL, SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE DIETARY FIBER
Based on AOAC Method 991.43 “Total, Soluble, and Insoluble Dietary Fiber in Foods” (First Action 1991) and AACC Method 32-07.01 “Determination of Soluble, Insoluble, and Total Dietary Fiber in Foods and Food Products” (Final Approval 10-16-91).
METHOD 2: DETERMINATION OF TOTAL DIETARY FIBER
Based on AACC method 32-05.01 and AOAC Method 985.29.
Note that a letter of endorsement from the original method developer, Dr. Leon Prosky, is included in the Documents Tab.
- Very competitive price (cost per test)
- All reagents stable for > 2 years
- High purity / standardised enzymes employed
- Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing
- Simple format
McCleary, B. V., Sloane, N. & Draga, A. (2015). Starch/Stärke, 67(9-10), 860–883.
The new definition of dietary fibre introduced by Codex Alimentarius in 2008 includes resistant starch and the option to include non-digestible oligosaccharides. Implementation of this definition required new methodology. An integrated total dietary fibre method was evaluated and accepted by AOAC International and AACC International (AOAC Methods 2009.01 and 2011.25; AACC Method 32–45.01 and 32–50.01, and recently adopted by Codex Alimentarius as a Type I Method. However, in application of the method to a diverse range of food samples and particularly food ingredients, some limitations have been identified. One of the ongoing criticisms of this method was that the time of incubation with pancreatic α-amylase/amyloglucosidase mixture was 16 h, whereas the time for food to transit through the human small intestine was likely to be approximately 4 h. In the current work, we use an incubation time of 4 h, and have evaluated incubation conditions that yield resistant starch and dietary values in line with ileostomy results within this time frame. Problems associated with production, hydrolysis and chromatography of various oligosaccharides have been addressed resulting in a more rapid procedure that is directly applicable to all foods and food ingredients currently available.Hide Abstract
Modification to AOAC Official Methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 to allow for minor overestimation of low molecular weight soluble dietary fiber in samples containing starch.
McCleary, B. V. (2014). Journal of AOAC International, 97(3), 896-901.
AOAC Official Methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 have been modified to allow removal of resistant maltodextrins produced on hydrolysis of various starches by the combination of pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase (AMG) used in these assay procedures. The major resistant maltodextrin, 63,65-di-α-D-glucosyl maltopentaose, is highly resistant to hydrolysis by microbial α-glucosidases, isoamylase, pullulanase, pancreatic, bacterial and fungal α-amylase and AMG. However, this oligosaccharide is hydrolyzed by the mucosal α-glucosidase complex of the pig small intestine (which is similar to the human small intestine), and thus must be removed in the analytical procedure. Hydrolysis of these oligosaccharides has been by incubation with a high concentration of a purified AMG at 60°C. This incubation results in no hydrolysis or loss of other resistant oligosaccharides such as FOS, GOS, XOS, resistant maltodextrins (e.g., Fibersol 2) or polydextrose. The effect of this additional incubation with AMG on the measured level of low molecular weight soluble dietary fiber (SDFS) and of total dietary fiber in a broad range of samples is reported. Results from this study demonstrate that the proposed modification can be used with confidence in the measurement of dietary fiber.Hide Abstract
Measurement of total dietary fiber using AOAC method 2009.01 (AACC International approved method 32-45.01): Evaluation and updates.
McCleary, B. V., Sloane, N., Draga, A. & Lazewska, I. (2013). Cereal Chemistry, 90(4), 396-414.
The Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling recently recommended 14 methods for measurement of dietary fiber, eight of these being type I methods. Of these type I methods, AACC International Approved Method 32-45.01 (AOAC method 2009.01) is the only procedure that measures all of the dietary fiber components as defined by Codex Alimentarius. Other methods such as the Prosky method (AACCI Approved Method 32-05.01) give similar analytical data for the high-molecular-weight dietary fiber contents of food and vegetable products low in resistant starch. In the current work, AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 has been modified to allow accurate measurement of samples high in particular fructooligosaccharides: for example, fructotriose, which, in the HPLC system used, chromatographs at the same point as disaccharides, meaning that it is currently not included in the measurement. Incubation of the resistant oligosaccharides fraction with sucrase/β-galactosidase removes disaccharides that interfere with the quantitation of this fraction. The dietary fiber value for resistant starch type 4 (RS4), varies significantly with different analytical methods, with much lower values being obtained with AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 than with 32-05.01. This difference results from the greater susceptibility of RS4 to hydrolysis by pancreatic α-amylase than by bacterial α-amylase, and also a greater susceptibility to hydrolysis at lower temperatures. On hydrolysis of samples high in starch in the assay format of AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 (AOAC method 2009.01), resistant maltodextrins are produced. The major component is a heptasaccharide that is highly resistant to hydrolysis by most of the starch-degrading enzymes studied. However, it is hydrolyzed by the maltase/amyloglucosidase/isomaltase enzyme complex present in the brush border lining of the small intestine. As a consequence, AOAC methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 (AACCI Approved Methods 32-45.01 and 32-50.01, respectively) must be updated to include an additional incubation with amyloglucosidase to remove these oligosaccharides.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V., DeVries, J. W., Rader, J. I., Cohen, G., Prosky, P., Mugford, D. C., Champ, M. & Okuma, K. (2012). Journal of AOAC International, 95(3), 824-844.
A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official MethodsSM 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (sR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within-laboratory variability sr for SDF ranged from 0.28 to 1.03, and the between-laboratory variability sR for SDF ranged from 0.85 to 1.66. The within-laboratory variability sr for TDF ranged from 0.47 to 1.41, and the between-laboratory variability sR for TDF ranged from 0.95 to 3.14. This is comparable to other official and approved dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V., DeVries, J. W., Rader, J. I., Cohen, G., Prosky, L., Mugford, D. C., Champ, M. & Okuma, K. (2010). Journal of AOAC International, 93(1), 221-233.
A method for the determination of total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official MethodsSM 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates high- and low-molecular-weight dietary fiber (HMWDF and LMWDF, respectively). In 2007, McCleary described a method of extended enzymatic digestion at 37°C to simulate human intestinal digestion followed by gravimetric isolation and quantitation of HMWDF and the use of LC to quantitate low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF). The method thus quantitates the complete range of dietary fiber components from resistant starch (by utilizing the digestion conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02) to digestion resistant oligosaccharides (by incorporating the deionization and LC procedures of AOAC Method 2001.03). The method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Eighteen laboratories participated with 16 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 11.57 to 47.83. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02 followed by the isolation and gravimetric procedures of AOAC Methods 985.29 and 991.43 results in quantitation of HMWDF. The filtrate from the quantitation of HMWDF is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the LMWSDF, i.e., all nondigestible oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization 3. TDF is calculated as the sum of HMWDF and LMWSDF. Repeatability standard deviations (Sr) ranged from 0.41 to 1.43, and reproducibility standard deviations (SR) ranged from 1.18 to 5.44. These results are comparable to other official dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V., Mills, C. & Draga, A. (2009). Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, 1(4), 213–224.
An integrated total dietary fibre (TDF) method, consistent with the recently accepted CODEX definition of dietary fibre, has been developed. The CODEX Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU) has been deliberating for the past 8 years on a definition for dietary fibre that correctly reflects the current consensus thinking on what should be included in this definition. As this definition was evolving, it became evident to us that neither of the currently available methods for TDF (AOAC Official Methods 985.29 and 991.43), nor a combination of these and other methods, could meet these requirements. Consequently, we developed an integrated TDF procedure, based on the principals of AOAC Official Methods 2002.02, 991.43 and 2001.03, that is compliant with the new CODEX definition. This procedure quantitates high- and low-molecular weight dietary fibres as defined, giving an accurate estimate of resistant starch and non-digestible oligosaccharides also referred to as low-molecular weight soluble dietary fibre. In this paper, the method is discussed, modifications to the method to improve simplicity and reproducibility are described, and the results of the first rounds of interlaboratory evaluation are reported.Hide Abstract
An integrated procedure for the measurement of total dietary fibre (including resistant starch), non-digestible oligosaccharides and available carbohydrates.
McCleary, B. V. (2007). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 389(1), 291-308.
A method is described for the measurement of dietary fibre, including resistant starch (RS), non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) and available carbohydrates. Basically, the sample is incubated with pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase under conditions very similar to those described in AOAC Official Method 2002.02 (RS). Reaction is terminated and high molecular weight resistant polysaccharides are precipitated from solution with alcohol and recovered by filtration. Recovery of RS (for most RS sources) is in line with published data from ileostomy studies. The aqueous ethanol extract is concentrated, desalted and analysed for NDO by high-performance liquid chromatography by a method similar to that described by Okuma (AOAC Method 2001.03), except that for logistical reasons, D-sorbitol is used as the internal standard in place of glycerol. Available carbohydrates, defined as D-glucose, D-fructose, sucrose, the D-glucose component of lactose, maltodextrins and non-resistant starch, are measured as D-glucose plus D-fructose in the sample after hydrolysis of oligosaccharides with a mixture of sucrase/maltase plus β-galactosidase.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V. & Rossiter, P. (2004). Journal of AOAC International, 87(3), 707-717.
With the recognition that resistant starch (RS) and nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) act physiologically as dietary fiber (DF), a need has developed for specific and reliable assay procedures for these components. The ability of AOAC DF methods to accurately measure RS is dependent on the nature of the RS being analyzed. In general, NDO are not measured at all by AOAC DF Methods 985.29 or 991.43, the one exception being the high molecular weight fraction of fructo-oligosaccharides. Values obtained for RS, in general, are not in good agreement with values obtained by in vitro procedures that more closely imitate the in vivo situation in the human digestive tract. Consequently, specific methods for the accurate measurement of RS and NDO have been developed and validated through interlaboratory studies. In this paper, modifications to AOAC fructan Method 999.03 to allow accurate measurement of enzymically produced fructo-oligosaccharides are described. Suggested modifications to AOAC DF methods to ensure complete removal of fructan and RS, and to simplify pH adjustment before amyloglucosidase addition, are also described.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V. (2003). Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62, 3-9.
The 'gold standard' method for the measurement of total dietary fibre is that of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000; method 985.29). This procedure has been modified to allow measurement of soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, and buffers employed have been improved. However, the recognition of the fact that non-digestible oligosaccharides and resistant starch also behave physiologically as dietary fibre has necessitated a re-examination of the definition of dietary fibre, and in turn, a re-evaluation of the dietary fibre methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. With this realisation, the American Association of Cereal Chemists appointed a scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. It organised various workshops and accepted comments from interested parties worldwide through an interactive website. More recently, the (US) Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Health, National Academy of Sciences, under the oversight of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, assembled a panel to develop a proposed definition(s) of dietary fibre. Various elements of these definitions were in agreement, but not all. What was clear from both reviews is that there is an immediate need to re-evaluate the methods that are used for dietary fibre measurement and to make appropriate changes where required, and to find new methods to fill gaps. In this presentation, the 'state of the art' in measurement of total dietary fibre and dietary fibre components will be described and discussed, together with suggestions for future research.Hide Abstract
Two issues in dietary fiber measurement.
McCleary, B. V. (2001). Cereal Foods World, 46, 164-165.
Enzyme activity and purity of these topics, the easiest to deal with is the importance of enzyme purity and activity. As a scientist actively involved in polysaccharide research over the past 25 years, I have come to appreciate the importance of enzyme purity and specificity in polysaccharide modification and measurement (7). These factors translate directly to dietary fiber (DF) methodology, because the major components of DF are carbohydrate polymers and oligomers. The committee report published in the March issue of Cereal FOODS WORLD refers only to the methodology for measuring enzyme purity and activity (8) that led up the AOAC method 985.29 (2). In this work enzyme purity was gauged by the lack of hydrolysis (i.e., complete recovery) of a particular DF component (e.g. β-glucan, larch galactan or citrus pectin). Enzyme activity was measured by the ability to completely hydrolyze representative starch and protein (namely wheat starch and casein). These requirements and restrictions on enzyme purity and activity were adequate at the time the method was initially developed and served as a useful working guide. However, it was recognized that there was a need for more stringent quality definitions and assay procedures for enzymes used in DF measurements.Hide Abstract
Measurement of dietary fibre components: the importance of enzyme purity, activity and specificity.
McCleary, B. V. (2001), “Advanced Dietary Fibre Technology”, (B. V. McCleary and L. Prosky, Eds.), Blackwell Science, Oxford, U.K., pp. 89-105.
Interest in dietary fibre is undergoing a dramatic revival, thanks in part to the introduction of new carbohydrates as dietary fibre components. Much emphasis is being placed on determining how much fibre is present in a food. Linking a particular amount of fibre to a specific health benefit is now an important area of research. The term 'dietary fibre' first appeared in 1953, and referred to hemicelluloses, celluloses and lignin (Theandere/tf/.1995). Trowell (1974) recommended this term as a replacement for the no longer acceptable term 'crude fibre'. Burkitt (1995) has likened the interest in dietary fibre to the growth of a river from its first trickle to a mighty torrent He observes that dietary fibre 'was first viewed as merely the less digestible constituent of food which exerts a laxative action by irritating the gut', thus acquiring the designation 'roughage' - a term later replaced by 'crude fibre' and ultimately by 'dietary fibre'. Various definitions of dietary fibre have appeared over the years, partly due to the various concepts used in deriving the term (i.e. origin of material, resistance to digestion, fermentation in the colon, etc.), and partly to the difficulties associated with its measurement and labelling (Mongeau et al. 1999). The principal components of dietary fibre, as traditionally understood, are non-starch polysaccharides (which in plant fibre are principally hemicelluloses and celluloses), and the non-carbohydrate phenolic components, cutin, suberin and waxes, with which they are associated in nature. In 1976, the definition of dietary fibre was modified to include gums and some pectic substances, based on the resistance to digestion of these components in the upper intestinal tract. For the purposes of labelling, Englyst et al. (1987) proposed that dietary fibre be defined as 'non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diet that are not digested by the endogenous secretions of the human digestive tract'. Methods were concurrently developed to specifically measure NSP (Englyst et al. 1994).Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V. (2000). Journal of AOAC International, 83(4), 997-1005.
A study was made of the effect of the activity and purity of enzymes in the assay of total dietary fiber (AOAC Method 985.29) and specific dietary fiber components: resistant starch, fructan, and β-glucan. In the measurement of total dietary fiber content of resistant starch samples, the concentration of α-amylase is critical; however, variations in the level of amyloglucosidase have little effect. Contamination of amyloglucosidase preparations with cellulase can result in significant underestimation of dietary fiber values for samples containing β-glucan. Pure β-glucan and cellulase purified from Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase preparations were used to determine acceptable critical levels of contamination. Sucrose, which interferes with the measurement of inulin and fructooligosaccharides in plant materials and food products, must be removed by hydrolysis of the sucrose to glucose and fructose with a specific enzyme (sucrase) followed by borohydride reduction of the free sugars. Unlike invertase, sucrase has no action on low degree of polymerization (DP) fructooligosaccharides, such as kestose or kestotetraose. Fructan is hydrolyzed to fructose and glucose by the combined action of highly purified exo- and endo-inulinases, and these sugars are measured by the p-hydroxybenzoic acid hydrazide reducing sugar method. Specific measurement of β-glucan in cereal flour and food extracts requires the use of highly purified endo-1,3:1,4 β-glucanase and A. niger β-glucosidase. β-glucosidase from almonds does not completely hydrolyze mixed linkage β-glucooligosaccharides from barley or oat β-glucan. Contamination of these enzymes with starch, maltosaccharide, or sucrose-hydrolyzing enzymes results in production of free glucose from a source other than β-glucan, and thus an overestimation of β-glucan content. The glucose oxidase and peroxidase used in the glucose determination reagent must be essentially devoid of catalase and α- and β-glucosidase.Hide Abstract
Measuring dietary fibre.
McCleary, B. V. (1999). The World of Ingredients, 50-53.
Interest in dietary fibre is undergoing a dramatic revival thanks in part to the introduction of new carbohydrates as dietary fibre components. Much emphasis is being placed on determining how much fibre is present in a food. Linking a particular amount of fibre to a specific health benefit is now an important area of research. Total Dietary Fibre. The term “dietary fibre” first appeared in 1953 and referred to hemicelluloses, celluloses and lignin (1). In 1974, Trowell (2) recommended this term as a replacement for the no longer acceptable term “crude fibre” Burkitt (3) has likened the interest in dietary fibre to the growth of a river from its first trickle to a mighty torrent. He observes that dietary fibre “was viewed as merely the less digestible constituent of food which exerts a laxative action by irritating the gut “thus acquiring the designation “roughage” a term which was later replaced by “crude fibre” and ultimately by “dietary fibre” Various definitions of dietary fibre have appeared over the years, partly due the various concepts used in deriving the term (i.e. origin of material, resistance to digestion, fermentation in the colon etc.), and partly to the difficulties associated with its measurement and labelling (4). The principle components of dietary fibre, as traditionally understood, are non-starch polysaccharides, which in plant fibre are principally hemicelluloses and celluloses, and the non-carbohydrate phenolic components, cutin, suberin and waxes with which they are associated in Nature.Hide Abstract
Enzyme purity and activity in fibre determinations.
McCleary, B. V. (1999). Cereal Foods World, 44(8), 590-596.
Dietary fiber is mainly composed of plant cell wall polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectic substances, but it also includes lignin and other minor components (1). Basically, it covers the polysaccharides that are not hydrolyzed by the endogenous secretions of the human digestive tract (2,3). This definition has served as the target for those developing analytical procedures for the measurement of dietary fiber for quality control and regulatory considerations (4). Most procedures for the measurement of total dietary fiber (TDF), or specific polysaccharide components, either involve some enzyme treatment steps or are mainly enzyme-based. In the development of TDF procedures such as the Prosky method (AOAC International 985.29, AACC 32—05) (5), the Uppsala method (AACC32-25) (6), and the Englyst method (7), the aim was to remove starch and protein through enzyme treatment, and to measure the residue as dietary fiber (after allowing for residual, undigested protein and ash). Dietary fiber was measured either gravimetrically or by chemical or instrumental procedures. Many of the enzyme treatment steps in each of the methods, particularly the prosky (5) and the Uppsala (6) methods are very similar. As a new range of carbohydrates is being introduced as potential dietary fiber components, the original assay procedures will need to be reexamined, and in some cases slightly modified, to ensure accurate and quantitative measurement of these components and of TDF. These “new” dietary fiber components include resistant nondigestible oligosaccharides; native and chemically modified polysaccharides of plant and algal origin (galactomannan, chemically modified celluloses, and agars and carrageenans); and resistant starch. To measure these components accurately, the purity, activity, and specificity of the enzymes employed will become much more important. A particular example of this is the mesurement of fructan. This carbohydrate consists of a fraction with a high degree of polymerization (DP) that is precipitated in the standard Prosky method (5,8) and a low DP fraction consequently is not measured (9). Resistant starch poses a particular problem. This component is only partially resistant to degradation by α-amylase, so the level of enzyme used and the incubation conditions (time and temperature) are critical.Hide Abstract
Colantuono, A., Vitaglione, P., Ferracane, R., Campanella, O. H. & Hamaker, B. R. (2017). Food Research International, 101, 155-164.
A novel ingredient acting as a slow digestible dietary fiber(DF) was developed by including native corn starch in calcium alginate microspheres (MS). In this study three types of antioxidant DF-rich ingredients were designed and developed by including in the MS, polyphenol-rich vegetable by-product extracts (obtained from pomegranate peels, olive leaves and artichoke leaves) and their potential functionality was assessed in vitro. Specifically, the physico-chemical properties of the new MS were compared with those of six commercially available DF concentrates and with wheat and oat brans. To evaluate the potential efficacy to release PPs along the gastrointestinal tract (GiT), pomegranate peels-microspheres (PPe-MS) were subjected to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Results showed that the newly developed MS had higher free antioxidant capacity (free-TAC) than commercial DF rich products, and the bound antioxidant capacity (bound-TAC) of PPe-MS was comparable to that of wheat bran and 4.4 folds higher than that of oat-bran. Furthermore, it was shown that the release of ellagitannins from cooked PPe-MS along in vitro simulated gastro-intestinal digestion decreased from the salivary to the small intestine phase whereas gallic acid, ellagic acid and its derivatives had an opposite trend. A certain amount of PPs was found in the spent pellet obtained from the in vitro digestion, which was mimicking the residue reaching the colon in vivo. In conclusion data showed that the new antioxidant MS have physical-chemical properties like those of wheat and oat brans, mainly including the bound antioxidant capacity. This open to new possibilities of functional utilization of vegetable by-products for obtaining valuable and healthy food ingredients.Hide Abstract
Zeppa, G., Belviso, S., Bertolino, M., Cavallero, M. C., Bello, B. D., Ghirardello, D., Giorgis, M., Grosso, A., Rolle, L., & Gerbi, V. (2015). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 95(8), 1678-1688.
BACKGROUND: Hazelnut skin is the perisperm of the hazelnut kernel. It is separated from the kernel during the roasting process and is normally discarded. Recent studies have reported that hazelnut skin is a rich source of dietary fibre as well as of natural antioxidants owing to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the use of hazelnut skins obtained from different cultivars for enhancing the nutritional value of fresh egg pasta. RESULTS: Skins obtained from roasted hazelnuts of four different varieties were used at three concentrations as a flour replacement in fresh egg pasta. Hazelnut skin concentration significantly influenced all evaluated physicochemical parameters as well as consumers' appreciation for the pasta, but significant differences were also observed between the four varieties. Although pasta produced with 10 and 15% hazelnut skin displayed the highest content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in vitro, pasta containing 5% Tombul hazelnut skin showed maximum consumer preference. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in the present study highlighted that it is possible to use hazelnut skin in fresh pasta production to obtain a fortified food with high fibre content and antioxidant activity. The characteristics of the resulting pasta were strictly correlated with the hazelnut variety used for skin production and, of course, with the percentage of skin that was added.Hide Abstract
Singh, A. K., Bhardwaj, R. & Singh, I. S. (2014). Journal of AgriSearch, 1(2), 96-101.
Five promising lines of faba bean, which includes two line i.e. 2011215 and 2011410 for grain purpose with yield potential of >5.0t/ha and three promising lines viz., VFBP201302, VFBP201304 and VFBP201306 were identified for vegetable purposes with green pod yield potential of 21.51 to 23.54 t/ha, suitable for Eastern Parts of India.These developed lines were evaluated along with national check varieties viz., Vikrant and Pusa Sumeet for its nutritional and antinutritional quality. Developed lines contain more dietary fiber, total soluble sugar, total starch, phosphorus, iron manganese and zinc. Less phytate was found in the developed lines as compare to checks varieties. Maximum (1.56%) fat was reported in VFBP 201304 (IC No IC No. 0595988), Maximum dietary fiber (13.49%) was obtained in the 2011410 line (IC No.0595986), however, minimum dietary fiber was found in check variety Vikrant (11.94). Similarly, minimum (0.10%) phytate was noticed in the line 2011215 (IC No. 0595985).Hide Abstract
Myat, L. & Ryu, G. H. (2014). Journal of Cereal Science, 60(2), 289-296.
The effect of extrusion on characteristics of destarched corn fiber was investigated. Extrusion was conducted at a screw speed of 300 rpm, feed rate of 100 g/min, feed moisture content of 30%, melt temperature of 140°C and die diameter of 3 mm. After extrusion, characteristics of raw and extruded destarched corn fiber were compared. Raw and extruded destarched corn fibers were enzymatically saccharified and fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC 24858). Extrusion pretreatment resulted in low crystallinity index, significant decrease in degree of polymerization and microstructure disruption of destarched corn fiber for enzymatic saccharification. This provides a significant increase in xylose yield for fermentation. Significant increase in protein digestibility and free amino nitrogen were additional benefits of extrusion for yeast nutrient in fermentation. Therefore, extruded destarched corn fiber significantly increased (p < 0.05) ethanol yield (29.08 g/L) and higher conversion (88.79%) by improving the physiochemical and functional properties for saccharification and fermentation.Hide Abstract
Villarino, C. B., Jayasena, V., Coorey, R., Chakrabarti‐Bell, S. & Johnson, S. (2014). International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 49(11), 2373-2381.
Factorial experimental design was used to investigate the effects of: sponge proofing time (min), sponge and dough mixing time (min), final proofing time (min), final proofing temperature (°C) and baking time (min) on Australian sweet lupin-wheat bread physical attributes. Factorial models show that bread specific volume was positively associated with sponge and dough mixing time (P = 0.01) and baking time (P = 0.02). Crumb area was positively associated (P = 0.01) with sponge and dough mixing time. Final proofing time positively influenced cell wall thickness (P < 0.01) and cell diameter (P < 0.01) but negatively affected number of cells (P < 0.01). Cell diameter was positively associated with baking time (P = 0.04), whilst number of cells was negatively influenced by sponge and dough mixing time (P = 0.01). Instrumental springiness was positively associated with sponge and dough mixing time (P = 0.02). Sponge and dough mixing and baking times were the two most significant process parameters affecting the bread physical quality and hence should be optimised.Hide Abstract
Kraler, M., Schedle, K., Domig, K. J., Heine, D., Michlmayr, H. & Kneifel, W. (2014). Animal Feed Science and Technology, 197, 121-129.
A pig digestibility trial was conducted to investigate the effects of fermentation or extrusion of wheat bran included in a basal diet on coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) regarding dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), ether extract (EE), starch, energy (GE), phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca). In the experiment, 9 growing pigs were allocated to a 3 × 3 Latin square design to measure the CTTAD of the basal diet containing different modified wheat bran variants, and therefore to demonstrate relative differences in the CTTAD among the diets as a result of wheat bran modification. The wheat bran was used in native form (NWB), as fermented bran ensiled with Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum (FWB) and as extruded wheat bran (EWB). Wheat bran variants were included at 200 g kg-1 in a phosphorus deficient basal diet. The obtained results show that the CTTAD of DM was increased when feeding the diet with FWB (+2%, P<0.05) instead of NWB (0.87). Likewise the CTTAD of OM was also increased with FWB (+2%, P<0.05), compared to NWB (0.88). Also the CTTAD of CF was improved with FWB and EWB (+9%, P<0.05), related to NWB (0.58). The CTTAD of ash was improved with FWB (+14%, P<0.05) compared to NWB (0.60). Correspondingly, the CTTAD values of P and Ca were also elevated when feeding the FWB diet. P-digestibility was increased in the FWB feeding group compared to those groups fed with NWB (+35%, P<0.05) and EWB (+53%, P<0.05). Regarding the Ca digestibility, similar results were obtained (P<0.05). While the CTTAD of energy was increased in the FWB (+3%, P<0.05) and EWB (+2%, P<0.05) feeding groups compared to that of NWB (0.85), the N-balance and the CTTAD of starch were not affected by the treatments. Nevertheless, the CTTAD of EE was enhanced in the FWB treatment group (+40%, P<0.05), and was also improved by extrusion (+30%, P<0.05) compared to the NWB (0.50) treatment. In conclusion, fermented and extruded wheat bran exert some significant influence on the apparent total tact digestibility of several essential nutrients, minerals and energy when included in a basal diet, whereby fermentation seems to be the more potent strategy, as positive effects on the CTTAD of P and Ca could only be observed in the feeding group with FWB.Hide Abstract