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Starch Damage Assay Kit

Play Training Video

00:04  Introduction
01:24   Principle
02:22   Reagent Preparation
04:58   Weighing of Samples
05:51    Addition of α-amylase
07:07   Addition of amyloglucosidase
07:49   Glucose determination
09:16    Calculations
11:19      Further information

Starch Damage Assay Kit K-SDAM Scheme
Product code: K-SDAM

200 assays per kit

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Content: 200 assays per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: Starch Damage
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 510
Signal Response: Increase
Limit of Detection: 0.5 g/100 g
Total Assay Time: ~ 40 min
Application examples: Cereal flours and other materials.
Method recognition: AACC Method 76-31.01, ICC Standard No. 164 and RACI Standard Method

The Starch Damage Test Kit is suitable for the determination of starch damage in wheat flour / cereal flours.

The milling of wheat causes physical damage to a proportion of the starch granules of the flour. The level of starch damage directly affects water absorption and dough mixing properties of the flour and is thus of technological significance.

See more of our starch assay kits.

Scheme-K-SDAM SDAM Megazyme

  • Very cost effective 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation 
  • Only enzymatic kit available 
  • Very specific 
  • Simple format 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included
Validation of Methods
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Product Performance
Megazyme publication
Measurement of carbohydrates in grain, feed and food.

McCleary, B. V., Charnock, S. J., Rossiter, P. C., O’Shea, M. F., Power, A. M. & Lloyd, R. M. (2006). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86(11), 1648-1661.

Procedures for the measurement of starch, starch damage (gelatinised starch), resistant starch and the amylose/amylopectin content of starch, β-glucan, fructan, glucomannan and galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose and verbascose) in plant material, animal feeds and foods are described. Most of these methods have been successfully subjected to interlaboratory evaluation. All methods are based on the use of enzymes either purified by conventional chromatography or produced using molecular biology techniques. Such methods allow specific, accurate and reliable quantification of a particular component. Problems in calculating the actual weight of galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides in test samples are discussed in detail.

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Megazyme publication
Measurement of total starch in cereal products by amyloglucosidase-alpha-amylase method: collaborative study.

McCleary, B. V., Gibson, T. S. & Mugford, D. C. (1997). Journal of AOAC International, 80, 571-579.

An American Association of Cereal Chemists/AOAC collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of an enzyme assay kit procedure for measurement of total starch in a range of cereal grains and products. The flour sample is incubated at 95 degrees C with thermostable alpha-amylase to catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to maltodextrins, the pH of the slurry is adjusted, and the slurry is treated with a highly purified amyloglucosidase to quantitatively hydrolyze the dextrins to glucose. Glucose is measured with glucose oxidase-peroxidase reagent. Thirty-two collaborators were sent 16 homogeneous test samples as 8 blind duplicates. These samples included chicken feed pellets, white bread, green peas, high-amylose maize starch, white wheat flour, wheat starch, oat bran, and spaghetti. All samples were analyzed by the standard procedure as detailed above; 4 samples (high-amylose maize starch and wheat starch) were also analyzed by a method that requires the samples to be cooked first in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSD(r)) ranged from 2.1 to 3.9%, and relative standard deviations for reproducibility (RSD(R)) ranged from 2.9 to 5.7%. The RSD(R) value for high amylose maize starch analyzed by the standard (non-DMSO) procedure was 5.7%; the value was reduced to 2.9% when the DMSO procedure was used, and the determined starch values increased from 86.9 to 97.2%.

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Megazyme publication

Collaborative evaluation of an enzymatic starch damage assay kit and comparison with other methods.

Gibson, T. S., Kaldor, C. J. & McCleary, B. V. (1993). Cereal Chemistry, 70(1), 47-51.

A commercially available enzymatic assay kit for the measurement of starch damage in wheat flour was compared with current standard methods, and the kit's precision and repeatability were determined in a collaborative study. Starch damage values determined on a range of flours with the assay kit correlated well (r > 0.96) with those determined by existing standard enzymatic methods. The precision of the kit was evaluated in a comprehensive interlaboratory study. The kit procedure was found to be highly repeatable (relative standard deviation, 2.94-6.80%) and reproducible (relative standard deviation, 5.00-10.30%).

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Megazyme publication
An improved enzymic method for the measurement of starch damage in wheat flour.

Gibson, T. S., Al Qalla, H. & McCleary, B. V. (1992). Journal of Cereal Science, 15(1), 15-27.

An improved enzymic method for the determination of starch damage in wheat flour has been developed and characterized. The proposed method is simple and reliable, and enables up to 20 samples to be measured in duplicate in 2 h. A single assay takes approximately 40 min. The assay protocol is in two phases. In the first, the flour sample is incubated with purified fungal alpha-amylase to liberate damaged starch granules as soluble oligosaccharides. After centrifugation, the oligosaccharides in the supernatant are hydrolysed by amyloglucosidase to glucose in phase 2. The glucose is then quantified with a glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. The proposed method therefore avoids potential errors associated with existing standard assays, which employ unpurified amylase preparations and non-specific reducing group methods to quantify the hydrolytic products. Despite the use of purified assay components, the proposed starch damage method did not exhibit an absolute end-point to the action of alpha-amylase in phase 1. This was due to a low rate of hydrolysis of undamaged granules, and is a feature of enzymic methods for starch damage determination. Other amylolytic enzymes, including beta-amylase, isoamylase and pullulanase, and combinations of these enzymes, were evaluated as alternatives to alpha-amylase in the proposed method. These enzymes, when used alone, gave no benefits over the use of alpha-amylase. When used in combination with alpha-amylase, there was a synergistic action on undamaged granules. A test kit based on the assay format described in this paper is the subject of an international interlaboratory evaluation.

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Development of gluten free bread using low‐pressure homogenized rice flour supplemented with faba bean flour.

Boulemkahel, S., Garzon, R., Benatallah, L. & Rosell, C. M. Cereal Chemistry, In Press.

Background and objectives: Low-pressure homogenization (30 MPa-3 passes) applied to long (LRF) and medium (MRF) rice grain flours was tested as physical method for improving gluten-free breads (GFB) without additives. Rice flours were blended with faba bean flour (FBF) in the ratio 2:1 (w:w). Findings: Low-pressure homogenization increased damaged starch content of rice flours and decreased the particle size distribution of blends, leading to higher volumes during batters' fermentation. Homogenization treatment improved the GFB texture profile, decreasing hardness and increasing cohesiveness and resilience. The crumb structure, particularly that of GFB from LRF:FBF blends, was greatly improved by the treatment, and better shape (lower width/height ratio) was obtained. No significant differences were found on the hardening rate of stored GFB, when using homogenized rice flours. Conclusions: In general, long rice homogenized flour revealed the greatest capacity to improve the GFB quality. Low-pressure homogenization of long or medium rice flour can be an adequate physical treatment to improve breadmaking properties of rice flours. Significance and novelty: The study confirms the suitability of low-pressure homogenized LRF and MRF blended with FBF as raw ingredient in GF breadmaking without additives.

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Lachancea fermentati FST 5.1: an alternative to baker’s yeast to produce low FODMAP whole wheat bread.

Ispiryan, L., Borowska, M., Sahin, A. W., Zannini, E., Coffey, A. & Arendt, E. (2021). Food & Function, In Press.

A diet low in fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is a successful therapeutic approach to alleviate symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, wheat, as a fructan accumulating grain, is a major source of FODMAPs. Baker's yeast degrades fructans during fermentation, yet conventional whole wheat bread is often still high in FODMAPs. In this study, 96 yeast isolates from different environments were screened regarding their capability to metabolise FODMAPs. Two promising isolates were identified: Lachancea fermentati FST 5.1 and Cyberlindnera fabianii NTCyb, and their potential to produce low FODMAP whole wheat bread was compared to baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A comprehensive characterisation of the carbohydrate metabolism by the different yeasts was achieved via HPAEC-PAD analysis of flour, doughs, and breads. L. fermentati FST 5.1 fermented fructans and excess fructose much more efficiently than baker's yeast and resulted in bread low in FODMAPs (below all cutoff levels known to induce symptoms). In contrast, C. fabianii NTCyb was unable to ferment FODMAPs in the wheat-dough-matrix. Furthermore, the yeasts’ impact on the GC/MS-TOF profile of volatile aroma compounds, the sensory profile, the breads’ ultrastructure, and the technological quality was examined. While C. fabianii NTCyb bread had poor technological and sensory attributes, the quality characteristics (volume, crumb structure, texture, sensory, aroma) of L. fermentati FST 5.1 bread were comparable to the baker's yeast bread. Ultimately, this study identified Lachancea fermentati FST 5.1 as an alternative to baker's yeast to produce low FODMAP whole wheat bread while maintaining optimal bread quality and consumer acceptance.

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Assessment of the quality of fresh nixtamalized maize doughs with different degrees of cooking and milling: A comparison of Mixolab and RVA analyses.

Espinosa-Ramírez, J., De la Rosa-Millan, J., Pérez-Carrillo, E. & Serna-Saldívar, S. O. (2021). Journal of Cereal Science, 102, 103321.

Fresh nixtamalized maize dough (NMD) is commonly preferred by producers as raw material for the manufacture of a diversity of nixtamalized products. Based on the application, NMD may have different particle size distributions that may limit their analysis by common methods such as RVA. In the present study, we used the Mixolab to analyze fresh NMD produced with three degrees of cooking (undercooked, adequate cooked and overcooked) and milled to produce coarse, intermediate and fine doughs. Results were correlated with starch and tortilla features in order to evaluate the prediction of pregelatinization and starch damage occurring during processing, and with the quality of the final product. RVA was used for comparison purposes. Unlike RVA curves, Mixolab showed defined peak viscosities during heating independently of the milling degree of samples. Moreover, the Mixolab parameters showed strong correlations with the starch thermal properties, crystallinity, starch damage and lixiviated amylose. More correlations were obtained among Mixolab and RVA parameters in relationship with the attributes of tortillas. Results validated that the Mixolab is an efficient and rapid strategy to discern among different cooking degrees of fresh NMD independently of the particle size distribution, and may be useful to predict the quality of tortillas.

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Effects of moisture changes on physicochemical properties of rice flour during semidry grinding.

Lin, Z., Huang, J., Qin, W., Geng, D., Wang, L., Zhou, X., Liu, L., Zhou, S. & Tong, L. T. (2021). Journal of Cereal Science, 103254.

In this study, the effects of moisture changes on rice grain crack, volume and hardness during the semidry grinding process, as well as the damaged starch, microstructure, hydration, and pasting properties of rice flours prepared with different semidry grinding conditions were studied. Moisture changes of semidry grinding showed a “decrease-increase-decrease” pattern which represents hot-air treatment, tempering and drying process, respectively. With the moisture changes of semidry grinding, severe cracks occurred on the rice grains after hot-air treatment, and the hardness of the rice grains decreased rapidly in the first 15 min of tempering. For rice flours, the hot-air treatment and tempering were beneficial to reduce the content of damaged starch, and the tempering process had the greatest influence on the hydration and pasting properties of the rice flours among the three processes of semidry grinding. Moreover, the drying process had a positive effect on thermal paste stability and the resistance of retrogradation of the rice flours. These findings indicated that the “decrease-increase-decrease” pattern of moisture changes during the semidry grinding process affected the rice flour qualities, and could be used to guide the semidry grinding production of specific rice flours.

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Modeling energy requirements in planetary ball milling of rice grain.

Loubes, M. A., González, L. C. & Tolaba, M. P. (2021). Particulate Science and Technology, 1-8.

Modified rice flours were obtained by high-impact milling. A factorial design was performed in a planetary ball mill varying rotational speed (450-650 rpm) and milling time (10-40 min) while milling energy (0.3-4.3 kJ/g), particle size distribution (PSD) of rice flour, and changes in starch structure were recorded. The effect of rotational speed and time on milling energy was satisfactorily modeled by the Response Surface Methodology. Modified flours presented bimodal PSD unlike that of the control flour, which was monomodal with a lower size dispersion. A significant reduction of D[4,3] (mean diameter) was observed as the milling energy increased. However, the effect of milling energy on PSD was dependent on milling speed. Classical milling equations provided a satisfactory fit of energy-size records at low speed (450 rpm), but at higher speed, a poor adjustment was obtained due to the increasing relevance of heat dissipation. The empirical milling equation based on linear or exponential relationships between milling energy and size reduction ratio provided a good fit for experimental data. Significant correlations between milling energy and damaged starch, crystallinity, and gelatinization degree were found. The proposed mathematical models are a contribution to the milling process design for specific modifications of rice flour.

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Physicochemical properties of rice flour suspension treated by ultrahigh hydrostatic pressure.

Park, J. W., Seo, J. H., Hong, C. Y., Kim, M. Y., Lee, Y. J., Chun, A., Lee., Y. R., Lee, J. & Jeong, H. S. (2021). Journal of Food Quality, 2021, 8838131

This study investigated the physicochemical properties of rice flour suspensions under ultrahigh hydrostatic pressure (UHP) treatment. Rice flour suspensions were subjected to 200, 400, and 600 MPa of pressure for 10 min, and heat treatment was used as a control. Proximate characteristics of different rice cultivar were analyzed to amylose, damage starch content, and particle size. Changes in physicochemical properties of rice flour suspensions according to UHP treatment were analyzed to microscopic structure, iodine reaction, α-amylase hydrolysis rate, and resistant starch content. Microscopic structural analyses showed that the structures of the rice flours were altered under both heat and 600 MPa treatment conditions. Water absorption rates were highest under heat treatment (467.53-554.85%), followed by 600 MPa treatment (269.55-334.57%). Iodine reaction values increased with increasing applied pressure. α-Amylase hydrolysis rates and resistant starch contents were highest under heat treatment and increased with increasing applied pressure. Based on these results, 600 MPa treatment of rice flour suspensions was shown to be comparable to heat treatment; as a result, the development of the new rice processing method with different physicochemical properties is expected from rice cultivars treated under UHP processing methods.

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Influence of three types of freezing methods on physicochemical properties and digestibility of starch in frozen unfermented dough.

Yang, Y., Zheng, S., Li, Z., Pan, Z., Huang, Z., Zhao, J. & Ai, Z. (2021). Food Hydrocolloids, 115, 106619.

Three types of freezing methods, namely, spiral tunnel freezing method (SF), cryogenic refrigerator freezing method (RF) and liquid nitrogen spray freezing method (LF), were applied to frozen unfermented dough. The particle size distribution and SEM results showed freezing methods reduced the average particle size of starch granules and destroyed the surface microstructure, especially RF, and the damaged starch content and swelling power of starch after treatment increased. Gelatinization and pasting properties of starches changed to varying degrees, indicating freezing methods caused the internal rearrangement of starch molecules. This view could also be inferred from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) data. The relative crystallinity (35.51%-38.56%) and the R1047/1022 (0.562-0.590) were increased, compared with the control (32.44%, 0.559, respectively). Meanwhile, freezing treatment improved the digestibility of starch by promoting the combination of enzymes and starch, especially RF. Larger ice crystals formed by RF with slower freezing rate produced larger damage to starch structure, more likely to promote the binding with enzymes. LF with faster freezing rate had less effect on the starch composition than RF and SF with slower freezing rate. The data obtained clarified the influence of freezing methods on the structure and properties of starch in a yeast-free dough system, and enriched the knowledge regarding the effect of freezing technology on food components.

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The quality of gluten-free bread made of brown rice flour prepared by low temperature impact mill.

Luo, S., Yan, X., Fu, Y., Pang, M., Chen, R., Liu, Y., Chen. J. & Liu, C. (2021). Food Chemistry, 348, 129032.

Our previous work reported that the brown rice flour prepared by low temperature impact mill possessed excellent physicochemical properties. The performance of brown rice flour in making gluten-free bread was further investigated. It was found that the starch crystal structure was destroyed and the damaged starch content increased as the particle size of brown rice flour decreased. The interaction between the starch and water in the model dough and the matrix structures among the endosperm masses were enhanced as the particle size decreased, making the gluten-free dough more viscoelastic. However, dough made with finer flour was too sticky, which limited the expansion of dough. Gluten-free bread prepared with medium-sized brown rice flour had favorable quality characterized by large specific volume, low hardness, numerous and homogeneous gas cells.

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Influence of starch and protein molecular interactions on the in vitro digestion characteristics of biscuits partially substituted with pulse flours.

Chávez‐Murillo, C. E., Aceves‐Flores, M. S., Verástegui‐Quevedo, M. & de la Rosa‐Millán, J. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, In Press.

Recent research has shown that pulse‐derived ingredients present a technological alternative to cereals, higher protein and fibre content, and differentiated starch characteristics. In this work, the partial substitution of pulse flours with and without heat moisture treatment (HMT) was evaluated in a biscuit model. The digestion residues at 20 and 120 min that correspond to rapidly, slowly and resistant starch from the Englyst methodology were analysed by DSC, X‐Ray and ATR‐FTIR. The use of pulse flours in biscuits improved their thermal stability (ΔH = 3.01 and 4.99 J/g for control and Lentil + HMT), preserving a fraction of particularly ling glucans, that influenced the decreasing in the rapidly available starch from 55.26 to 24.11 % (Control and Faba bean + HMT), and enhanced its protein's digestibility from 75.26 to 87.43 % for the same sources. Among pulses, there were similarities regarding their resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis that may help select those with better organoleptic attributes.

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Physicochemical and bread‐making characteristics of millstreams obtained from an experimental long‐flow mill in hard red spring wheat.

Baasandorj, T., Ohm, J. B. & Simsek, S. (2020). Cereal ChemistryIn Press.

Background and Objective: Limited data have been reported on the evaluation of physicochemical characteristics in millstreams (MS) obtained from large‐scale mills for hard red spring (HRS) wheat. Therefore, this research was designed to evaluate the MIAG‐Multomat mill that is a large‐scale experimental mill imitating the commercial flour mills. Findings: The MIAG‐Multomat mill yielded different trends across MS for ash and arabinoxylan. Specifically, reduction MS had lower ash content but higher arabinoxylan content than break MS. Moreover, arabinoxylan and other factors such as damaged starch content and coarse particle (over 600‐µm) percent had significant (p < .05) correlations with bread‐making traits including mixograph peak time, water absorption, and bread loaf volume, while ash had nonsignificant correlations with these quality traits. Conclusions: This research investigated the influence of physicochemical characteristics on bread‐making quality for the MIAG‐Multomat MS. Overall, the arabinoxylan, starch damage content, and coarse particle percent rather than flour ash content were identified as primary physicochemical components to influence variation of bread‐making traits for MIAG‐Multomat MS for HRS wheat. Significance and Novelty: The knowledge on composition of MS obtained in this research is valuable to optimize the functionality of flour blends, especially, in the long‐flow milling of HRS wheat.

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Evaluation of cassava starch as raw material according to the characteristics of the granules.

de Oliveira, D. C., Maieves, H. A., Bernardo, C., Bellettini, I. C., Remor, B. B., Moresco, R. & Amante, E. R. (2020). Research, Society and Development, 9(12), e8491210879-e8491210879.

In this study, the physicochemical characteristics of starch extracted from ten different cultivars of cassava roots, from different soils, were investigated. There are significant (p<0.05) variations in the proportion of starch damaged during extraction, even in samples of the same cultivar. Amylose content differs among cultivars and even within the same cultivar harvested in different soils (varying from 20.00 to 24.07%). According to the type of soil the starch samples showed distinct values for the crystallinity index. This indicates the need for the physicochemical characterization of starch samples to be carried out even when they originate from the same cultivar. The results obtained can be used as support tools for improvement of cassava genetics, optimizing the process of selection and maintenance of a genetic bank. The results, coupled with chemometric analyses (PCAs and clusters), allowed to distinguish cultivars according to their physicochemical and functional peculiarities, suggesting their potential to be used by industries and as food.

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Physicochemical and multi-scale structural alterations of pea starch induced by supercritical carbon dioxide+ ethanol extraction.

Vatansever, S., Whitney, K., Ohm, J. B., Simsek, S. & Hall, C. (2020). Food Chemistry, 344, 128699.

The objective of this study was to establish the impacts of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) processing on the physicochemical properties of pea flour and the structure of isolated pea starch. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in protein content and reduction in several pasting and thermal parameters as measured by rapid visco-analyzer and differential scanning calorimeter were observed after SFE. Additionally, SFE increased starch digestibility as determined by an in vitro starch digestion assay. An increased amylopectin content and crystallinity along with the loss of double helix content was supported by size exclusion chromatography and FT-IR data, respectively. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed minimal alterations of starch, by SFE, in long-range crystalline and morphological structure of starch granules, respectively. The data demonstrated SFE influenced the physicochemical and structural characteristics of pea starch. These outcomes illustrated that SFE might be a green and novel technology for starch modification.

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Impact of high-intensity ultrasound waves on structural, functional, thermal and rheological properties of rice flour and its biopolymers structural features.

Vela, A. J., Villanueva, M., Solaesa, Á. G. & Ronda, F. (2020). Food Hydrocolloids, 113, 106480.

Physical modifications of flours are an environment-friendly technology receiving increasing attention for widening the range of utilization of these raw materials. Rice flour was modified with ultrasound treatments at a frequency of 24 kHz and varying treatment time (2-60 min) and flour concentration (5-30%) in the dispersion. The effect of the modification was measured in the flours' physical, functional, pasting and rheological properties. Particle size of treated samples was reduced, and particle's disruption was observed by SEM; this had an impact on the water absorption ability, as shown by a sharp increase of swelling power. The thermal properties showed a significant reduction of gelatinization enthalpy, as well as narrowing of the gelatinization temperature range, characteristic of better packed starch crystalline structures after sonication. Modified patterns in starch and proteins were obtained with XRD and FTIR, which indicated impact to their crystalline and amide I secondary structures as a consequence of ultrasonication. Pasting profiles were found to be reduced with increasing treatment time, while higher concentrations did not significantly change the modification achieved. The pasting temperature was found to be significantly increased in all treated samples. Ultrasound treatment led to gels with higher strength, obtaining lower values of tan δ with increasing sonication time and flour concentration. Ultrasound allowed the modulation of rice flour functionality, being the effect independent on the concentration of the treated flour dispersion, up to 30%, and increased by treatment time up to 10 min; for longer treatments not many differences were found.

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Endogenous alpha-amylase explains the different pasting and rheological properties of wet and dry milled glutinous rice flour.

Zhang, H., Wu, F., Xu, D. & Xu, X. (2020). Food Hydrocolloids, 113, 106425.

Wet-milled glutinous rice flour (WMF) and dry milled glutinous rice flour (DMF) have different pasting and rheological properties but the underlying mechanism has not been defined. Dry milling methods can result in glutinous rice flour (GRF) with higher residual alpha-amylase activity and damaged starch content compared to flours prepared by wet milling methods. The addition of alpha-amylase significantly increased starch hydrolysis and reduced the peak, trough, and final viscosity of GRF gels. The pasting viscosity and dynamic modules of WMF-Water gels were significantly higher than those of DMF-Water gels. Inhibiting amylase activity significantly reduced the differences in paste viscosity and dynamic modules between WMF and DMF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that alpha-amylase affected the microstructure of the DMF. FT-IR spectra results indicated no new formation of covalent bonds in GRF-Water or GRF-Ag gels. These results suggested that endogenous alpha-amylase influenced starch hydrolysis and subsequently the viscoelastic property of GRF gels, indicating that residual endogenous alpha-amylase explains the differences in pasting and rheological properties between WMF and DMF.

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Vacuum steam treatment of soft wheat: Quality and reduction of Escherichia coli O121 and Salmonella Enteritidis PT30.

Simsek, S., Snelling, J., Malekmohammadi, S. & Bergholz, T. M. (2020). Cereal ChemistryIn Press.

Background and objectives: Several foodborne outbreaks due to contaminated wheat flour have occurred, resulting in a need for a microbial reduction process. Thermal treatments utilizing high temperatures can compromise wheat end‐use quality. Vacuum steam treatment (VST) is a promising method for reducing pathogens on wheat. This study determined the pathogen inactivation levels on soft red winter (SRW) wheat while maintaining flour functionality. Findings: Soft red winter wheat samples underwent VST for 4 and 8 min at 65, 75, and 85°C prior to milling. SRW flour was evaluated for end‐product quality. Increasing VST temperatures negatively impacted bread quality due to protein denaturation. Cake and cookie quality parameters resulted in little to no significant (p < .05) difference with increasing VST temperatures. SRW wheat was also inoculated with Escherichia coli O121 and Salmonella Enteritidis PT30. The treatments resulted in a maximum average microbial reduction of 5.09 ± 0.50 log CFU/g for Salmonella and 7.34 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for E. coli. Conclusions: Vacuum steam treatment could be used by the milling industry to effectively inactive pathogens without compromising soft wheat flour quality. Significance and novelty: Vacuum steam treatment process could improve the safety of wheat flour‐based products without adding chemical treatments and while maintaining flour quality.

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Application of a Handheld Near-Infrared Spectrometer to Predict Gelatinized Starch, Fiber Fractions, and Mineral Content of Ground and Intact Extruded Dry Dog Food.

Goi, A., Simoni, M., Righi, F., Visentin, G. & De Marchi, M. (2020). Animals, 10(9), 1660.

The pet food industry is interested in performing fast analyses to control the nutritional quality of their products. Despite having some limitations related to the need to modify the production process or to have a laboratory to prepare the samples for analysis through desktop instruments, near-infrared spectroscopy is one of the most used technologies for inexpensive analysis of foodstuffs. Thus, the miniaturization of infrared devices allows a wider industrial applicability of this technique. Information on the use of miniaturized infrared tools in the pet food sector is currently very limited, and the present research is the first attempt to predict the total and gelatinized starch, insoluble fibrous fractions, and mineral content of ground and intact dry pet food using the handheld NIR scanner SCiO™. Results from the current study revealed no significant differences in the predictive ability of the instrument using both ground and intact samples. The instrument offers a potential for screening purposes of both total and gelatinized starch, revealing the potential to monitor their content and ratio in commercial dog food on a large scale. Improvements such as widening the wavelength range is expected to increase prediction models’ accuracy.

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Safety Information
Symbol : GHS05, GHS08
Signal Word : Danger
Hazard Statements : H314, H315, H319, H334
Precautionary Statements : P260, P261, P264, P280, P284, P301+P330+P331, P302+P352, P303+P361+P353, P304+P340, P342+P311, P501
Safety Data Sheet
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