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Phytic Acid Assay Kit

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Chapter 1: Introduction & Kit Description
Chapter 2: Phytic Acid Principle
Chapter 3: Preparation: (Solution A)
Chapter 4: Preparation: (Solution B)
Chapter 5: Preparation of Colour Reagent
Chapter 6: Calibration
Chapter 7: Assay Procedure: A. Sample Extraction
Chapter 8: Assay Procedure: B. Enzymatic Dephosphorylation Reaction
Chapter 9: Assay Procedure: C. Colourimetric Determination of Phosphorous
Chapter 10: Calculations
Phytic Acid Assay Kit K-PHYT Scheme
Product code: K-PHYT

50 assays per kit

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Content: 50 assays per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: Phytic Acid, Phosphorus
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 655
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: ~ 0.5 to ~ 7.5 µg of phosphorus per assay
Limit of Detection: ~ 11.3 mg phosphorus (~ 40 mg phytic acid)
Reaction Time (min): 25 min enzymic; 1 h for phosphate determination
Application examples: Seed materials, feeds and foodstuffs.
Method recognition: Novel method

The Phytic Acid test kit is a simple method for the measurement and analysis of phytic acid/total phosphorus in food and feed samples. This method does not require purification of phytic acid via anion-exchange chromatography making it amenable to high numbers of samples.

Display our complete list of organic acid assay kits.

Scheme-K-PHYT PHYT Megazyme

  • Very cost effective 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Validation Report
Megazyme publication

A Novel and Rapid Colorimetric Method for Measuring Total Phosphorus and Phytic Acid in Foods and Animal Feeds.

McKie, V. A. & McCleary, B. V. (2016). J. AOAC Int. , 99(3), 738-743.

Phytic acid, or myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, is the primary source of inositol and storage phosphorus in plant seeds and has considerable nutritional importance. In this form, phosphorus is unavailable for absorption by monogastric animals, and the strong chelating characteristic of phytic acid reduces the bioavailability of multivalent minerals such as iron, zinc, and calcium. Currently, there is no simple quantitative method for phytic acid; existing methods are complex, and the most commonly accepted method, AOAC Official MethodSM 986.11, has limitations. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple, high-throughput method for the measurement of total phosphorus and phytic acid in foods and animal feeds. The method described here involves acid extraction of phytic acid, followed by dephosphorylation with phytase and alkaline phosphatase. The phosphate released from phytic acid is measured using a modified colorimetric molybdenum blue assay and calculated as total phosphorus or phytic acid content of the original sample. The method was validated to a maximum linearity of 3.0 g phytic acid/100 g sample. Accuracy ranged from 98 to 105% using pure phytic acid and from 97 to 115% for spiked samples. Repeatability ranged from 0.81 to 2.32%, and intermediate precision was 2.27%.

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Phytic Acid in Brown Rice Can Be Reduced by Increasing Soaking Temperature.

Fukushima, A., Uchino, G., Akabane, T., Aiseki, A., Perera, I. & Hirotsu, N. (2021). Foods, 10(1), 23.

Phytic acid (PA) is a storage form of phosphorus in seeds. Phytase enzyme is activated at germination and hydrolyses PA into myo-inositol and inorganic phosphate. PA inhibits the absorption of minerals in the human intestine by chelation. Its degradation, therefore, is a key factor to improve mineral bioavailability in rice. Germinated brown rice (GBR) is favoured because it improves the availability of nutrients, and thus have a positive effect on health. In this study, we show the effects of soaking temperature on phytase activity and PA content in GBR. Rice phytase showed thermostability and its activity peaked at 50°C. After 36 h of soaking, phytase activity was significantly increased at 50°C and PA content was significantly decreased, compared to that at 30°C. Zinc (Zn) analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in Zn content among different temperature treatments. Calculated total daily absorbed Zn (TAZ) was significantly higher in GBR compared with non-soaked seeds. Moreover, brown rice grains germinated at 50°C showed a higher TAZ value than that at 30°C. Seed germination and seed water soaking at high temperatures reduce PA content in brown rice showing a potentially effective way to improve mineral bioavailability in brown rice.

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The Effect of Wet Milling and Cryogenic Milling on the Structure and Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bran.

De Bondt, Y., Liberloo, I., Roye, C., Windhab, E. J., Lamothe, L., King, R. & Courtin, C. M. (2020). Foods, 9(12), 1755.

Wheat bran consumption is associated with several health benefits, but its incorporation into food products remains low because of sensory and technofunctional issues. Besides, its full beneficial potential is probably not achieved because of its recalcitrant nature and inaccessible structure. Particle size reduction can affect both technofunctional and nutrition-related properties. Therefore, in this study, wet milling and cryogenic milling, two techniques that showed potential for extreme particle size reduction, were used. The effect of the milling techniques, performed on laboratory and large scale, was evaluated on the structure and physicochemical properties of wheat bran. With a median particle size (d50) of 6 µm, the smallest particle size was achieved with cryogenic milling on a laboratory scale. Cryogenic milling on a large scale and wet milling on laboratory and large scale resulted in a particle size reduction to a d50 of 28-38 µm. In the milled samples, the wheat bran structure was broken down, and almost all cells were opened. Wet milling on laboratory and large scale resulted in bran with a more porous structure, a larger surface area and a higher capacity for binding water compared to cryogenic milling on a large scale. The extensive particle size reduction by cryogenic milling on a laboratory scale resulted in wheat bran with the highest surface area and strong water retention capacity. Endogenous enzyme activity and mechanical breakdown during the different milling procedures resulted in different extents of breakdown of starch, sucrose, β-glucan, arabinoxylan and phytate. Therefore, the diverse impact of the milling techniques on the physicochemical properties of wheat bran could be used to target different technofunctional and health-related properties.

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Alterations in the Intestinal Morphology, Gut Microbiota, and Trace Mineral Status Following Intra-Amniotic Administration (Gallus gallus) of Teff (Eragrostis tef) Seed Extracts.

Carboni, J., Reed, S., Kolba, N., Eshel, A., Koren, O. & Tako, E. (2020). Nutrients, 12(10), 3020.

The consumption of teff (Eragrostis tef), a gluten-free cereal grain, has increased due to its dense nutrient composition including complex carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids, trace minerals (especially Fe), and phytochemicals. This study utilized the clinically-validated Gallus gallus intra amniotic feeding model to assess the effects of intra-amniotic administration of teff extracts versus controls using seven groups: (1) non-injected; (2) 18Ω H2O injected; (3) 5% inulin; (4) teff extract 1%; (5) teff extract 2.5%; (6) teff extract 5%; and (7) teff extract 7.5%. The treatment groups were compared to each other and to controls. Our data demonstrated a significant improvement in hepatic iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) concentration and LA:DGLA ratio without concomitant serum concentration changes, up-regulation of various Fe and Zn brush border membrane proteins, and beneficial morphological changes to duodenal villi and goblet cells. No significant taxonomic alterations were observed using 16S rRNA sequencing of the cecal microbiota. Several important bacterial metabolic pathways were differentially enriched in the teff group, likely due to teff’s high relative fiber concentration, demonstrating an important bacterial-host interaction that contributed to improvements in the physiological status of Fe and Zn. Therefore, teff appeared to represent a promising staple food crop and should be further evaluated.

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Phytate degradation, myo-inositol release, and utilization of phosphorus and calcium by two strains of laying hens in five production periods.

Sommerfeld, V., Huber, K., Bennewitz, J., Camarinha-Silva, A., Hasselmann, M., Ponsuksili, S., Seifert, J., Stefanski, V., Wimmers, K. & Rodehutscord, M. (2020). Poultry Science, 99(12), 6797-6808.

The objective of this study was to compare 2 laying hen strains in 5 production periods regarding phytase activity, phytate (InsP6) degradation, and myo-inositol (MI) release in the digestive tract and phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) utilization. One offspring of 10 nonrelated roosters per strain (Lohmann Brown-classic (LB) or Lohmann LSL-classic (LSL)) was placed in one of 20 metabolic units in a completely randomized block design in week 8, 14, 22, 28, and 58 of life. All hens were fed the same corn and soybean meal–based diet at one time, but the diet composition was adjusted to the requirements in the respective period. For 4 consecutive days, excreta were collected quantitatively at 24-hour intervals. In week 10, 16, 24, 30, and 60, the blood plasma, digesta of crop, gizzard, jejunum, ileum, and ceca, and mucosa of the jejunum was collected. The concentration of inorganic P in the blood plasma was higher in LB than in LSL hens (P = 0.026). Plasma Ca concentrations increased with each period (P < 0.001) in both strains. In jejunum digesta, the MI concentration did not differ between strains, but InsP6 concentration was higher in LB than in LSL hens (P = 0.002) and the highest in week 30 and 60. Total phosphatase and phytase activities were higher in LB than in LSL hens (P ≤ 0.009). Period effects were also significant for these enzymes. Concentrations of some constituents of the cecal content were different between the strains. The MI concentration in the egg albumen and yolk was higher in LB than in LSL hens. Differences in InsP6- and MI-related metabolism of the 2 hen strains existed. These differences were partly dependent of the period. Especially, week 24 was a period of remarkable change of metabolism. Great differences also existed among individuals, making it worth to have a closer look at the metabolism of individuals in addition to evaluating treatment means. Further studies on metabolic, genetic, and microbiome level may help explain these differences.

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Morphological and nutritional assessment of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.: a potential tuberous legume of India.

Tripathi, K., Gore, P. G., Pandey, A., Nayar, E. R., Gayacharan, C., Pamarthi, R. K., Bhardwak, R. & Kumar, A. (2020). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 1-12.

Vigna vexillate (L.) A. Rich. is a tropical tuberous legume which is fascinating for multiple uses in India. It is a climate-resilient legume and reported as a source of bruchid resistance, abiotic stresses tolerance and proteinaceous tubers. Meagre information is available for storage roots (tubers) of V. vexillate in general in the Indian scenario. In the present study, the evaluation of morphological and nutritional traits of storage roots are presented along with the genetic resources study. Herbarium study verified its wide distribution and occurrence in India since ancient time. Significant variability was observed for tuber morphological traits and nutritional parameters. Among accessions studied, IC259504 was identified promising agronomically and nutritionally both. Protein content in tubers of V. vexillate was recorded up to eightfold higher than that in sweet potato and tapioca. Results indicated that this species has the potential to meet the future needs of food and nutritional security and further utilization in Vigna improvement programme.

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Protein-rich flours from quinoa and buckwheat favourably affect the growth parameters, intestinal microbial activity and plasma lipid profile of rats.

Fotschki, B., Juśkiewicz, J., Jurgoński, A., Amarowicz, R., Opyd, P., Bez, J., Muranyi, I., Petersen, I. L. & Laparra Llopis, M. (2020). Nutrients, 12(9), 2781.

In recent years, dietary products with quinoa and buckwheat have attracted attention mostly due to the high nutritive value of their protein fraction. However, their dietary effect on intestinal microbiota activity and related systemic responses are still poorly understood. Therefore, a 2 week study of twenty-eight growing male Wistar rats was conducted to investigate the effects of quinoa (QU) and buckwheat (BK) protein-rich flours on the growth parameters, intestinal microbial activity, plasma lipid profile, and inflammatory markers. The biological value of protein and body weight gain were considerably increased in the QU and BK groups compared with those in the soy protein isolate group. Moreover, both flours increased the microbial activity of α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and α-galactosidase and the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the caecum. The studied flours favourably reduced the plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. In rats fed a diet with QU, elevated levels of plasma interleukin 6 and alanine transaminase were observed. The effect of QU on inflammatory markers may be related to the increased expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the liver and to the decreased level of plasma albumin. In conclusion, quinoa and buckwheat protein-rich flours are valuable sources of proteins that favourably affect growth parameters, gut metabolism, and blood lipid profile in rats; however, only the buckwheat flour has no effect on inflammatory processes.

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Extension of the Shelf-Life of Fresh Pasta Using Chickpea Flour Fermented with Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria.

Schettino, R., Pontonio, E., Gobbetti, M. & Rizzello, C. G. (2020). Microorganisms, 8(9), 1322.

Fresh pasta is subjected to rapid spoilage, mainly due to the metabolic activity of bacteria, yeasts, and especially molds, which negatively affect the sensorial characteristics and the safety of the product. In this work, chickpea flour was fermented with selected lactic acid bacteria, characterized in terms of the antifungal activity, and used to fortify fresh semolina pasta. Pasta was characterized and subjected to a long period of storage after being artificially inoculated with Penicillium roqueforti. Conventional fresh semolina pasta, produced with or without calcium propionate addition, was used as a reference. The water/salt-soluble extract from chickpea sourdough exhibited antifungal activity towards a large spectrum of molds. Its purification led to the identification of ten potentially active peptides. Besides the high content of dietary fibers (4.37%) and proteins (11.20%), nutritional improvements, such as the decrease of the antinutritional factors concentration and the starch hydrolysis index (25% lower than the control) and the increase of the protein digestibility (36% higher than the control), were achieved in fresh pasta fortified with the chickpea sourdough. Inhibition of the indicator mold growth during a 40-day storage period was more effective than in pasta added to calcium propionate.

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Research note: jejunum phosphatases and systemic myo-inositol in broiler chickens fed without or with supplemented phytase.

Gonzalez-Uarquin, F., Molano, E., Heinrich, F., Sommerfeld, V., Rodehutscord, M. & Huber, K. (2020). Poultry Science, 99(11), 5972-5976.

As a constituent of animal cells, myo-inositol (MI) has been hypothesized to be crucial in several metabolic and regulatory pathways. Recently, it was shown that dietary phytase contributes to release of MI from phytate in the poultry digestive tract, increasing its systemic concentrations. This study investigated the activities of phosphatases in the jejunum and systemic plasma MI concentration in broilers not supplemented or supplemented with phytase through analyses based on modifications from commercial enzyme activity kits. Three hundred sixty male Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated to 24 pens (15 birds per pen) in 4 dietary groups. The positive control group was fed with an adequate basal diet. The negative control group (NC) was fed with a reduced level of P and Ca. Groups Phy1500 and Phy3000 were fed with the NC diet plus 1,500 or 3,000 FTU of phytase per kilogram of feed, respectively. One bird per pen was selected for the measurement of jejunal phosphatase activity; MI concentration in plasma, the liver, and the kidney; and key MI enzyme concentrations (liver inositol monophosphatase 1 [IMPase 1] and kidney myo-inositol oxygenase [MIOX]). Endogenous phytase and alkaline phosphatase activity as well as IMPase 1 and MIOX expression were not statistically different among the dietary groups. The supplementation of 1500 FTU of phytase per kilogram of feed resulted in increase of plasma (P < 0.001) and kidney (P < 0.05) but not liver MI concentrations. The results indicated that systemic MI might reflect MI released from dietary sources; however, it did not appear to change expression of enzymes related to endogenous MI synthesis in the liver and catabolism in the kidney. New and larger studies are necessary to reach stronger evidence on the effects of dietary phytase on intestinal and systemic MI concentrations in broilers.

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Low phytate peas (Pisum sativum L.) improve iron status, gut microbiome, and brush border membrane functionality in vivo (Gallus gallus).

Warkentin, T., Kolba, N. & Tako, E. (2020). Nutrients, 12(9), 2563.

The inclusion of pulses in traditional wheat-based food products is increasing as the food industry and consumers are recognizing the nutritional benefits due to the high protein, antioxidant activity, and good source of dietary fiber of pulses. Iron deficiency is a significant global health challenge, affecting approximately 30% of the world’s population. Dietary iron deficiency is the foremost cause of anemia, a condition that harms cognitive development and increases maternal and infant mortality. This study intended to demonstrate the potential efficacy of low-phytate biofortified pea varieties on dietary iron (Fe) bioavailability, as well as on intestinal microbiome, energetic status, and brush border membrane (BBM) functionality in vivo (Gallus gallus). We hypothesized that the low-phytate biofortified peas would significantly improve Fe bioavailability, BBM functionality, and the prevalence of beneficial bacterial populations. A six-week efficacy feeding (n = 12) was conducted to compare four low-phytate biofortified pea diets with control pea diet (CDC Bronco), as well as a no-pea diet. During the feeding trial, hemoglobin (Hb), body-Hb Fe, feed intake, and body weight were monitored. Upon the completion of the study, hepatic Fe and ferritin, pectoral glycogen, duodenal gene expression, and cecum bacterial population analyses were conducted. The results indicated that certain low-phytate pea varieties provided greater Fe bioavailability and moderately improved Fe status, while they also had significant effects on gut microbiota and duodenal brush border membrane functionality. Our findings provide further evidence that the low-phytate pea varieties appear to improve Fe physiological status and gut microbiota in vivo, and they highlight the likelihood that this strategy can further improve the efficacy and safety of the crop biofortification and mineral bioavailability approach.

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Impact of fermentation and phytase treatment of pea-oat protein blend on physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional properties of extruded meat analogs.

Kaleda, A., Talvistu, K., Tamm, M., Viirma, M., Rosend, J., Tanilas, K., Kriisa, M., Part, N. & Tammik, M. L. (2020). Foods, 9(8), 1059.

Plant materials that are used for the production of extruded meat analogs are often nutritionally incomplete and also contain antinutrients, thus there is a need to explore alternative plant proteins and pre-treatments. This study demonstrates application of phytase and fermentation to a pea-oat protein blend with a good essential amino acid profile and subsequent texturization using extrusion cooking. Enzymatic treatment reduced the content of antinutrient phytic acid by 32%. Extrusion also degraded phytic acid by up to 18%, but the effect depended on the material. Differences in physicochemical, sensorial, and textural properties between untreated and phytase-treated extruded meat analogs were small. In contrast, fermented material was more difficult to texturize due to degradation of macromolecules; physicochemical and textural properties of extrudates were markedly different; sensory analysis showed enhancement of flavor, but also detected an increase in some unwanted taste attributes (bitterness, cereal and off-taste). Phytic acid was not degraded by fermentation. Analysis of volatile compounds showed extrusion eliminated volatiles from the raw material but introduced Maillard reaction products. Overall, phytase treatment and fermentation demonstrated the potential for application in extruded meat analogs but also highlighted the necessity of optimization of process conditions.

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Teff Type-I Sourdough to Produce Gluten-Free Muffin.

Dingeo, C., Difonzo, G., Paradiso, V. M., Rizzello, C. G. & Pontonio, E. (2020). Microorganisms, 8(8), 1149.

The increasing number of persons following a gluten-free (GF) diet and the need for healthy and natural products are forcing researchers and industries to provide gluten-free products with high nutritional value. Here, a biotechnological approach combining the use of teff flour and type-I sourdough has been proposed to produce GF muffins with nutritional benefits. Teff-sourdough was prepared and propagated following the traditional daily refreshment procedure until the biochemical stability was achieved. The sourdough, dominated by Lactiplantibacillus plantarumLimosilactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, was used to produce muffins at three different levels (up to 15%, wt/wt) of fortification, achieving several positive effects on the nutritional properties of the products. The use of teff flour led to high content of fiber (>3 g/100 g) and proteins (>6 g/100 g) in muffins achieving the nutritional requirements for the healthy claims “source of fiber” and “rich in protein”. Thanks to their metabolic traits, sourdough lactic acid bacteria caused the increase of the total free amino acids (TFAA, up to 1000 mg/kg, final concentration) and phytic acid decrease (50% lower than control), which positively affect the nutritional properties of the products. Besides, high in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD, 79%) and low starch hydrolysis rate (HI, 52%) characterized the fortified muffins. Muffins also presented high in vitro antioxidant (56%) and mold-inhibitory activities, potentially contributing to an extended shelf-life of the products.

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Production of a yeast-free focaccia with reduced salt content using a selected Leuconostoc citreum strain and seawater.

De Bellis, P., Montemurro, M., D'Imperio, M., Rizzello, C. G., Sisto, A. & Lavermicocca, P. (2020). LWT, 134, 109918.

A biotechnological protocol to produce a focaccia (a typical Italian flat bread) without bakers' yeast addition and with reduced salt was developed, to meet the current needs of the consumer. Based on its leavening capability, the Leuconostoc citreum strain C2.27 was selected to be used as a starter instead of the baker's yeast and inoculated in a liquid sourdough (type-II) for the production of the “yeast-free” focaccia. The addition of different NaCl concentrations and the replacement of the salt with food grade seawater were evaluated, and the capability of the selected strain to affect technological, nutritional and sensory features of the focaccia investigated. A significant improvement of the nutritional characteristics of the focaccia was observed compared to the control (leavened with bakers' yeast and added with NaCl 1.5 g/100 g) using 0.7 g/100 g of salt in the form of NaCl or seawater. Besides the reduced Na content (66% lower than the control), focaccia with seawater also showed a higher content of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (ca. 36% and 53%, respectively), and the lowest predicted glycemic index compared to the other experimental focaccia.

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In vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability of iron from mature and microgreen fenugreek, rocket and broccoli.

K Khoja, K., Buckley, A., F Aslam, M., A Sharp, P. & Latunde-Dada, G. O. (2020). Nutrients, 12(4), 1057.

Iron deficiency is a global epidemic affecting a third of the world’s population. Current efforts are focused on investigating sustainable ways to improve the bioavailability of iron in plant-based diets. Incorporating microgreens into the diet of at-risk groups in populations could be a useful tool in the management and prevention of iron deficiency. This study analysed and compared the mineral content and bioavailability of iron from microgreen and mature vegetables. The mineral content of rocket, broccoli and fenugreek microgreens and their mature counterparts was determined using microwave digestion and ICP-OES. Iron solubility and bioavailability from the vegetables were determined by a simulated gastrointestinal in vitro digestion and subsequent measurement of ferritin in Caco-2 cells as a surrogate marker of iron uptake. Iron contents of mature fenugreek and rocket were significantly higher than those of the microgreens. Mature fenugreek and broccoli showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher bioaccessibility and low-molecular-weight iron than found in the microgreens. Moreover, iron uptake by Caco-2 cells was significantly higher only from fenugreek microgreens than the mature vegetable. While all vegetables except broccoli enhanced FeSO4 uptake, the response to ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) was inhibitory apart from the mature rocket. Ascorbic acid significantly enhanced iron uptake from mature fenugreek and rocket. Microgreen fenugreek may be bred for a higher content of enhancers of iron availability as a strategy to improve iron nutrition in the populace.

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Impact of debittering and fermentation processes on the antinutritional and antioxidant compounds in Lupinus mutabilis sweet.

Villacrés, E., Quelal, M. B., Fernández, E., Garcìa, G., Cueva, G. & Rosell, C. M. (2020). LWT, 131, 109745.

Lupin is a nutritive grain, but its use is limited due to its high content of bitter alkaloids and other antinutritional factors, such as phytic acid, tannins, nitrates and trypsin inhibitors (TI), that have undesirable physiological effects. There is increasing interest in finding appropriate methods for reducing the antinutritional compounds in lupin. The objective of this research was to assess the efficacy of a biotechnological process, namely, fungal fermentation, as a debittering process relative to that of conventional aqueous thermal treatment (ATT). We evaluated the effects of these processes on the reduction of antinutritional compounds as well as their potential impacts on enhancing the beneficial antioxidant properties of lupin. Three varieties (INIAP-450, INIAP-451 and Criollo) of the Lupinus mutabilis species were studied. The application of ATT and fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus caused decreases in the following antinutrients: nitrates (94.59%), tannins (82.10%), alkaloids (94%), urease activity (93.75%), phytic acid (70.06%) and trypsin inhibitors (76.76%). Ascorbic acid also decreased (79.72%). All values corresponded to the average in the three varieties evaluated. While the contents of phenols, carotenoids and the antioxidant capacity decreased by 96.83, 49.42 and 96.13%, respectively, due to the debittering process, solid fermentation promoted increases in these compounds and properties in the debittered grain.

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Processing white or yellow dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) into a heat treated flour enhances the iron bioavailability of bean-based pastas.

Wiesinger, J. A., Cichy, K. A., Hooper, S. D., Hart, J. J. & Glahn, R. P. (2020). Journal of Functional Foods, 71, 104018.

Processing techniques can disrupt the cotyledon cell walls of raw beans, allowing digestive enzymes greater access to intercellular stores of micronutrients such as iron during digestion. This study evaluated the iron bioavailability of seven bean varieties with different seed coat colors (white, yellow, cranberry, red, black) either boiled or processed into spaghetti pastas formulated from heat treated bean flour as the major ingredient (90% bean flour). Iron bioavailability was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in spaghetti made from white or yellow bean varieties Snowdon, Alpena, Samurai and Canario when compared to boiled beans. Although cotyledon cells were broken and the phytate to iron molar ratios were significantly lower, the iron bioavailability of the cranberry (Etna), red kidney (Red Hawk) and black (Zenith) bean varieties did not improve after processing into spaghetti. Iron bioavailability of bean-based pastas was associated with procyanidin and cinnamtannin compounds that have a negative impact on the absorption of iron.

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Dietary phytic acid weakened the antimicrobial activity and aggravated the inflammatory status of head kidney, spleen and skin in on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

Zhong, J. R., Wu, P., Feng, L., Jiang, W. D., Liu, Y., Kuang, S. Y., Tang, L. & Zhou, X. Q. (2020). Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 103, 256-265.

The present study aimed to explore the effects of phytic acid (PA) on the antimicrobial activity and inflammatory response in three immune organs (head kidney, spleen and skin) of on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). To achieve this goal, we first conducted a 60-day growth trial by feeding fish with graded levels of PA (0, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0%). Then, the fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 6 days. Compared with the control group, the following results were obtained regarding supplementation with certain levels of PA in the diet. (1) There was an increase in skin haemorrhage and lesion morbidity in fish. (2) There was a decrease in activities or contents of immune factors, including lysozyme (LZ), complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM), and there was downregulation of gene expression levels of hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2A (LEAP-2A), LEAP-2B, and β-defensin-1 in immune organs. (3) There was upregulation in the gene expression of the following pro-inflammatory cytokines: tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) (except in the spleen), interferon γ2 (IFN-γ2), IL-6 (except in the spleen), IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-15 and IL-17D. These changes were partly related to the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway, but downregulation of mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), TGF-β2, IL-413/A, IL-413/B, IL-10 (except in the skin) and IL-11) occurred in a manner partially related to the target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway. Finally, based on the broken-line analysis of skin haemorrhage and lesion morbidity and IgM content in the head kidney, the maximum tolerance levels of PA for on-growing grass carp (120.56-452.00 g) were estimated to be 1.79 and 1.31% of the diet, respectively.

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Selection of non-Lactobacillus strains to be used as starters for sourdough fermentation.

Montemurro, M., Celano, G., De Angelis, M., Gobbetti, M., Rizzello, C. G. & Pontonio, E. (2020). Food Microbiology, 90, 103491.

The suitability of forty-one non-Lactobacillus strains to be used as selected starters for sourdough fermentation was evaluated. According to the data collected, Pediococcus pentosaceus OA1 and S3N3 and Leuconostoc citreum PRO17 were selected based on the optimal acidification and growth performances and the intense proteolytic activity (increase of TFFA up to 80%) on whole wheat flour doughs. A relevant degradation of phytic acid (up to 58%) and the increase of phenols content and scavenging activity (4- and 2-folds, respectively) were also observed. The technological performances were compared to two representative Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis). The investigation of the robustness of the selected strains during the propagation (back-slopping procedure) showed their long-term dominance only when singly-inoculated; while Leuc. Citreum PRO17 dominated the fermentation when the strains were co-inoculated. The sourdoughs obtained by the non-Lactobacillus selected strains (singly or pooled) were used for breadmaking. Selected sourdoughs allowed the production of breads characterized by in-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) higher than that of breads obtained with Lactobacillus strains or baker's yeast. The aroma profile, estimated by GC/MS, was complex and characterized by high concentration of the typical compounds (hexanol, 3-methylbutanol and 2-pentylfuran) of sourdough bread.

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Characterization of Pot Ale from a Scottish Malt Whisky Distillery and Potential Applications.

White, J. S., Stewart, K. L., Maskell, D. L., Diallo, A., Traub-Modinger, J. E. & Willoughby, N. A. (2020). ACS Omega, 5(12), 6429-6440.

Over 2.7 billion liters of pot ale is produced annually as a co-product of Scottish malt whisky, and apart from evaporation to pot ale syrup as a feed, it is primarily treated by anaerobic digestion or land/sea disposal. The aim of this study was to assess pot ale components and their potential applications. The insoluble solid fraction, mainly consisting of yeast, contained 55% protein, and as a protein feed ingredient, this could yield 32,400 tons of feed per annum, although the Cu content of this fraction would need to be monitored. The liquid fraction could yield 33,900 tons of protein per annum, and an SDS-PAGE profile of this fraction demonstrated that the proteins may be similar to those found in beer, which could extend their application as a food ingredient. This fraction also contained phosphorus, potassium, and polyphenols among other components, which could have added value. Overall, fractionation of pot ale could offer an alternative to evaporation to pot ale syrup while retaining the protein fraction in the food chain.

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