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|Mannose: Glucose: Gaclactose,arabinose,xylose = 60: 37: 3. Acetylated.
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In vitro and in vivo characterization of genes involved in mannan degradation in Neurospora crassa.
Hsu, Y. & Arioka, M. (2020). Fungal Genetics and Biology, 144, 103441.
To better understand the roles of genes involved in mannan degradation in filamentous fungi, in this study we searched, identified, and characterized one putative GH5 endo-β-mannanase (GH5-7) and two putative GH2 mannan-degrading enzymes (GH2-1 and GH2-4) in Neurospora crassa. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that the expression levels of these genes were significantly up-regulated when the cells were grown in mannan-containing media where the induction level of gh5-7 was the highest. All three proteins were heterologously expressed and purified. GH5-7 displayed a substrate preference toward galactomannan by showing 10-times higher catalytic efficiency than to linear β-mannan. In contrast, GH2-1 preferred short manno-oligosaccharides or β-mannan as substrates. Compared to the wild type strain, the growth of Δgh5-7 and Δgh5-7Δgh2-4 mutants, but not Δgh2-1, Δgh2-4, and Δgh2-1Δgh2-4 mutants, was poor in the cultures containing glucomannan or galactomannan as the sole carbon source, suggesting that GH5-7 plays a critical role in the utilization of heteromannans in vivo. On the other hand, all the mutants showed significantly slow growth when grown in the medium containing linear β-mannan. Collectively, these results indicate that N. crassa can utilize glucomannan and galactomannan without GH2-1 and GH2-4, but efficient degradation of β-mannan requires a concerted action of three enzymes, GH5-7, GH2-1, and GH2-4.Hide Abstract
Accelerated wound healing in diabetes by reprogramming the macrophages with particle-induced clustering of the mannose receptors.
Gan, J., Liu, C., Li, H., Wang, S., Wang, Z., Kang, Z., et al. (2019). Biomaterials, 219, 119340
The rate-limiting step in cutaneous wound healing, namely, the transition from inflammation to cell proliferation, depends on the high plasticity of macrophages to prevent inflammation in the wound tissues in a timely manner. Thus, strategies that reprogram inflammatory macrophages may improve the healing of poor wounds, particularly in the aged skin of individuals with diabetes or other chronic diseases. As shown in our previous study, KGM-modified SiO2 nanoparticles (KSiNPs) effectively activate macrophages to differentiate into the M2-type phenotype by inducing mannose receptor (MR) clustering on the cell surface. Here, we assess whether KSiNPs accelerate wound healing following acute or chronic skin injury. Using a full-thickness excision model in either diabetic mice or healthy mice, the wounds treated with KSiNPs displayed a dramatically increased closure rate and collagen production, along with decreased inflammation and increased angiogenesis in the regenerating tissues. Furthermore, KSiNPs induced the formation of M2-like macrophages by clustering MR on the cells. Accordingly, the cytokines produced by the KSiNP-treated macrophages were capable of inducing fibroblast proliferation and subsequent secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM). Based on these results, KSiNPs display great potential as an effective therapeutic approach for cutaneous wounds by effectively suppressing excessive or persistent inflammation and fibrosis.Hide Abstract
Adaptation of syntenic xyloglucan utilization loci of human gut Bacteroidetes to polysaccharide side chain diversity.
Déjean, G., Tauzin, A. S., Bennett, S. W., Creagh, A. L. & Brumer, H. (2019). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 85(20), e01491-19.
Genome sequencing has revealed substantial variation in the predicted abilities of individual species within animal gut microbiota to metabolize the complex carbohydrates comprising dietary fiber. At the same time, a currently limited body of functional studies precludes a richer understanding of how dietary glycan structures affect the gut microbiota composition and community dynamics. Here, using biochemical and biophysical techniques, we identified and characterized differences among recombinant proteins from syntenic xyloglucan utilization loci (XyGUL) of three Bacteroides and one Dysgonomona species from the human gut, which drive substrate specificity and access to distinct polysaccharide side chains. Enzymology of four syntenic glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 4 (GH5_4) endo-xyloglucanases revealed surprising differences in xyloglucan (XyG) backbone cleavage specificity, including the ability of some homologs to hydrolyze congested branched positions. Further, differences in the complement of GH43 alpha-L-arabinofuranosidases and GH95 alpha-L-fucosidases among syntenic XyGUL confer distinct abilities to fully saccharify plant species-specific arabinogalactoxyloglucan and/or fucogalactoxyloglucan. Finally, characterization of highly sequence-divergent cell surface glycan-binding proteins (SGBPs) across syntenic XyGUL revealed a novel group of XyG oligosaccharide-specific SGBPs encoded within select Bacteroides.Hide Abstract
A novel fungal GH30 xylanase with xylobiohydrolase auxiliary activity.
Katsimpouras, C., Dedes, G., Thomaidis, N. S. & Topakas, E. (2019). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 12(1), 120.
Background: The main representatives of hemicellulose are xylans, usually decorated β-1,4-linked D-xylose polymers, which are hydrolyzed by xylanases. The efficient utilization and complete hydrolysis of xylans necessitate the understanding of the mode of action of xylan degrading enzymes. The glycoside hydrolase family 30 (GH30) xylanases comprise a less studied group of such enzymes, and differences regarding the substrate recognition have been reported between fungal and bacterial GH30 xylanases. Besides their role in the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy, such enzymes could be used for the tailored production of prebiotic xylooligosaccharides (XOS) due to their substrate specificity. Results: The expression of a putative GH30_7 xylanase from the fungus Thermothelomyces thermophila (synonyms Myceliophthora thermophila, Sporotrichum thermophile) in Pichia pastoris resulted in the production and isolation of a novel xylanase with unique catalytic properties. The novel enzyme designated TtXyn30A, exhibited an endo- mode of action similar to that of bacterial GH30 xylanases that require 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) decorations, in contrast to most characterized fungal ones. However, TtXyn30A also exhibited an exo-acting catalytic behavior by releasing the disaccharide xylobiose from the non-reducing end of XOS. The hydrolysis products from beechwood glucuronoxylan were MeGlcA substituted XOS, and xylobiose. The major uronic XOS (UXOS) were the aldotriuronic and aldotetrauronic acid after longer incubation indicating the ability of TtXyn30A to cleave linear parts of xylan and UXOS as well. Conclusions: Hereby, we reported the heterologous production and biochemical characterization of a novel fungal GH30 xylanase exhibiting endo- and exo-xylanase activity. To date, considering its novel catalytic properties, TtXyn30A shows differences with most characterized fungal and bacterial GH30 xylanases. The discovered xylobiohydrolase mode of action offers new insights into fungal enzymatic systems that are employed for the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. The recombinant xylanase could be used for the production of X2 and UXOS from glucuronoxylan, which in turn would be utilized as prebiotics carrying manifold health benefits.Hide Abstract
A novel thermostable GH10 xylanase with activities on a wide variety of cellulosic substrates from a xylanolytic Bacillus strain exhibiting significant synergy with commercial Celluclast 1.5 L in pretreated corn stover hydrolysis.
Wang, K., Cao, R., Wang, M., Lin, Q., Zhan, R., Xu, H. & Wang, S. (2019). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 12(1), 48.
Background: Cellulose and hemicellulose are the two largest components in lignocellulosic biomass. Enzymes with activities towards cellulose and xylan have attracted great interest in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass, since they have potential in improving the hydrolytic performance and reducing the enzyme costs. Exploring glycoside hydrolases (GHs) with good thermostability and activities on xylan and cellulose would be beneficial to the industrial production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Results: A novel GH10 enzyme (XynA) identified from a xylanolytic strain Bacillus sp. KW1 was cloned and expressed. Its optimal pH and temperature were determined to be pH 6.0 and 65°C. Stability analyses revealed that XynA was stable over a broad pH range (pH 6.0-11.0) after being incubated at 25°C for 24 h. Moreover, XynA retained over 95% activity after heat treatment at 60°C for 60 h, and its half-lives at 65°C and 70°C were about 12 h and 1.5 h, respectively. More importantly, in terms of substrate specificity, XynA exhibits hydrolytic activities towards xylans, microcrystalline cellulose (filter paper and Avicel), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), cellobiose, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG). Furthermore, the addition of XynA into commercial cellulase in the hydrolysis of pretreated corn stover resulted in remarkable increases (the relative increases may up to 90%) in the release of reducing sugars. Finally, it is worth mentioning that XynA only shows high amino acid sequence identity (88%) with rXynAHJ14, a GH10 xylanase with no activity on CMC. The similarities with other characterized GH10 enzymes, including xylanases and bifunctional xylanase/cellulase enzymes, are no more than 30%. Conclusions: XynA is a novel thermostable GH10 xylanase with a wide substrate spectrum. It displays good stability in a broad range of pH and high temperatures, and exhibits activities towards xylans and a wide variety of cellulosic substrates, which are not found in other GH10 enzymes. The enzyme also has high capacity in saccharification of pretreated corn stover. These characteristics make XynA a good candidate not only for assisting cellulase in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis, but also for the research on structure-function relationship of bifunctional xylanase/cellulase.Hide Abstract
Optimization on production of konjac oligo‐glucomannan and their effect on the gut microbiota.
Ariestanti, C. A., Seechamnanturakit, V., Harmayani, E. & Wichienchot, S. (2019). Food Science & Nutrition, 7(2), 788-796.
Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a polysaccharide extracted from Amorphophallus konjac, and its degradation product is konjac oligo-glucomannan (KOG). The aim of this study was to produce KOG from KGM and to evaluate its effect on the gut microbiota in fecal batch culture. KOG was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis using β-mannanase. The optimum conditions were as follows: reaction temperature of 48°C, reaction time of 4 hr, pH of 5.5 and E/S of 0.05% followed by purification step using 3,000 NMWC ultrafiltration (UF) membrane pore size. The effect of KOG on changes in human fecal bacterial populations and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production was evaluated. The results showed that low-molecular weight KOG (LKOG) from purification step with concentration of 9.54 mg/ml, and a prebiotic index (PI) of 0.76 was successfully produced. LKOG can enhance the production of butyric acid in the colon with the highest concentration (8.24 mM) found at 72 hr fermentation.Hide Abstract
Prediction of lignin contents from infrared spectroscopy: chemical digestion and lignin/biomass ratios of cryptomeria japonica.
Horikawa, Y., Hirano, S., Mihashi, A., Kobayashi, Y., Zhai, S. & Sugiyama, J. (2019). Applied biochemistry and Biotechnology, 188(4), 1066-1076.
A method for the high-throughput analysis of the relative lignin contents of Cryptomeria japonica samples over a wide concentration range (3-73%), independent of the type of chemical pretreatment, was developed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. First, the assignments of the infrared absorbance related to lignin were reviewed. Then, various chemical treatments, including alkaline, acid, and hydrothermal processes, and a sodium chlorite oxidation treatment, were performed to prepare samples containing a wide range of different lignin contents. Principal component analysis indicated high variability among the chemical treatments in terms of the corresponding lignin contents as well as the resulting changes in the chemical structure of hemicellulose; this conclusion was supported by the loading vectors. The intensity of the key band of lignin at 1508 cm-1 was calculated using the absorbance at 2900 cm-1 as a reference; a reliable calibration curve with an R2 of 0.968 was obtained independent of the chemical treatment performed. This simple and rapid method for determining the lignin content is expected to be widely applicable for optimizing bioethanol production, as well as monitoring biomass degradation processes.Hide Abstract
Wood-Derived Dietary Fibers Promote Beneficial Human Gut Microbiota.
Rosa, S. L. L., Vasiliki, K., Fanny, B., Pope, P. B., Pudlo, N. A., Martens, E. C., Rastall, R. A., et al. (2019). mSphere, 4(1), 1-16.
Woody biomass is a sustainable and virtually unlimited source of hemicellulosic polysaccharides. The predominant hemicelluloses in softwood and hardwood are galactoglucomannan (GGM) and arabinoglucuronoxylan (AGX), respectively. Based on the structure similarity with common dietary fibers, GGM and AGX may be postulated to have prebiotic properties, conferring a health benefit on the host through specific modulation of the gut microbiota. In this study, we evaluated the prebiotic potential of acetylated GGM (AcGGM) and highly acetylated AGX (AcAGX) obtained from Norwegian lignocellulosic feedstocks in vitro. In pure culture, both substrates selectively promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides species in a manner consistent with the presence of genetic loci for the utilization of -manno-oligosaccharides/-mannans and xylo-oligosaccharides/ xylans. The prebiotic potential of AcGGM and AcAGX was further assessed in a pH controlled batch culture fermentation system inoculated with healthy adult human feces. Results were compared with those obtained with a commercial fructooligosaccharide (FOS) mixture. Similarly to FOS, both substrates significantly increased (P < 0.05) the Bifidobacterium population. Other bacterial groups enumerated were unaffected with the exception of an increase in the growth of members of the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and clostridial cluster IX (P < 0.05). Compared to the other substrates, AcGGM promoted butyrogenic fermentation whereas AcAGX was more propiogenic. Although further in vivo confirmation is necessary, these results demonstrate that both AcGGM and AcAGX from lignocellulosic feedstocks can be used to direct the promotion of beneficial bacteria, thus exhibiting a promising prebiotic ability to improve or restore gut health.Hide Abstract
Structural and functional characterization of a bifunctional GH30-7 xylanase B from the filamentous fungus Talaromyces cellulolyticus.
Nakamichi, Y., Fouquet, T., Ito, S., Watanabe, M., Matsushika, A. & Inoue, H. (2019). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 294(11), 4065-4078.
Glucuronoxylanases are endo-xylanases and members of the glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamilies 7 (GH30-7) and 8 (GH30-8). Unlike for the well-studied GH30-8 enzymes, the structural and functional characteristics of GH30-7 enzymes remain poorly understood. Here, we report the catalytic properties and three-dimensional structure of GH30-7 xylanase B (Xyn30B) identified from the cellulolytic fungus Talaromyces cellulolyticus. Xyn30B efficiently degraded glucuronoxylan to acidic xylooligosaccharides (XOSs), including an α-1,2-linked 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronosyl substituent (MeGlcA). Rapid analysis with negative-mode electrospray-ionization multistage MS (ESI(−)-MSn) revealed that the structures of the acidic XOS products are the same as those of the hydrolysates (MeGlcA2Xyln, n > 2) obtained with typical glucuronoxylanases. Acidic XOS products were further degraded by Xyn30B, releasing first xylobiose and then xylotetraose and xylohexaose as transglycosylation products. This hydrolase reaction was unique to Xyn30B, and the substrate was cleaved at the xylobiose unit from its nonreducing end, indicating that Xyn30B is a bifunctional enzyme possessing both endo-glucuronoxylanase and exo-xylobiohydrolase activities. The crystal structure of Xyn30B was determined as the first structure of a GH30-7 xylanase at 2.25 Å resolution, revealing that Xyn30B is composed of a pseudo-(α/β)8-catalytic domain, lacking an α6 helix, and a small β-rich domain. This structure and site-directed mutagenesis clarified that Arg46, conserved in GH30-7 glucuronoxylanases, is a critical residue for MeGlcA appendage-dependent xylan degradation. The structural comparison between Xyn30B and the GH30-8 enzymes suggests that Asn93 in the β2-α2 loop is involved in xylobiohydrolase activity. In summary, our findings indicate that Xyn30B is a bifunctional endo- and exo-xylanase.Hide Abstract
Cha, J. H., Yoon, J. J. & Cha, C. J. (2018). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 102(15), 6515-6523.
A gene encoding an endoglucanase belonging to subfamily C of glycoside hydrolase family 45 (GH45) was identified in the brown rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris and functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant protein displayed hydrolytic activities toward various substrates such as carboxymethyl cellulose, phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, glucomannan, lichenan, and β-glucan. In particular, the enzyme had a unique catalytic efficiency on β-1,4-glucans rather than mixed β-1,3/1,4-glucans as compared to other GH45 endoglucanases. The fungal enzyme was relatively thermostable, retaining more than 91.4% activity at 80°C for 1 h. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that the mutants N95D and D117N had significantly reduced enzymatic activities, indicating that both residues are essential for the catalytic reaction. Our study expands knowledge and understanding of the catalytic mechanism of GH45 subfamily C enzymes and also suggests that this thermostable endoglucanase from F. palustris has great potential in industrial applications.Hide Abstract