Mannotriose

Content: 50 mg
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Ambient
Physical Form: Powder
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
CAS Number: 94799-74-3
Molecular Formula: C18H32O16
Molecular Weight: 504.4
Purity: > 95%
Substrate For (Enzyme): endo-1,4-β-Mannanase

High purity Mannotriose for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.

Documents
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
Data Sheet
Publications
Megazyme publication

Versatile high resolution oligosaccharide microarrays for plant glycobiology and cell wall research.

Pedersen, H. L., Fangel, J. U., McCleary, B., Ruzanski, C., Rydahl, M. G., Ralet, M. C., Farkas, V., Von Schantz, L., Marcus, S. E., Andersen, M.C. F., Field, R., Ohlin, M., Knox, J. P., Clausen, M. H. & Willats, W. G. T. (2012). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(47), 39429-39438.

Microarrays are powerful tools for high throughput analysis, and hundreds or thousands of molecular interactions can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Nucleotide microarrays are well established in plant research, but carbohydrate microarrays are much less established, and one reason for this is a lack of suitable glycans with which to populate arrays. Polysaccharide microarrays are relatively easy to produce because of the ease of immobilizing large polymers noncovalently onto a variety of microarray surfaces, but they lack analytical resolution because polysaccharides often contain multiple distinct carbohydrate substructures. Microarrays of defined oligosaccharides potentially overcome this problem but are harder to produce because oligosaccharides usually require coupling prior to immobilization. We have assembled a library of well characterized plant oligosaccharides produced either by partial hydrolysis from polysaccharides or by de novo chemical synthesis. Once coupled to protein, these neoglycoconjugates are versatile reagents that can be printed as microarrays onto a variety of slide types and membranes. We show that these microarrays are suitable for the high throughput characterization of the recognition capabilities of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and other oligosaccharide-binding proteins of biological significance and also that they have potential for the characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes.

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Microcapsules loaded with date seed extract and its inhibitory potential to modulate the toxic effects of mycotoxins in mice received mold-contaminated diet.

Sanei, S., Kasgari, M. B., Abedinzadeh, F., Sasan, A. P., Hassani, S., Karimi, E., Oskoueian, E. & Jahromi, M. F. (2023). Europe PMC, In Press.

Mycotoxins are the secondary fungal metabolites generally produced by wide range of fungi including aflatoxins (AF), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FB), zearalenone (ZEN), and deoxynivalenol (DON). Nowadays, they are main concern to food and agricultural commodities due to undesirable health and socio-economic effect. This investigation was designed to synthesized microcapsules loaded the bioactive compounds of date seed and evaluated its inhibitory activities in mice received mold-contaminated diet. The finding revealed that the developed microcapsule is homogenous and mostly spherical with size of 2.58 µm with acceptable PDI of 0.21. The main phytochemical has been confirmed by HPLC analysis were xylose, fructose, mannose, glucose and galactose with the respective values of 41.95, 2.24, 5.27 and 0.169 percent. The invivo analyses manifested that the mice received date seed microcapsules significantly (p < 0.05) improved the average daily weight gain, feed intake, liver enzymes (ALT, ALP and AST) and lipid peroxidation values compare to mice group received mycotoxin-contaminated diet. Furthermore, encapsulation date seed bioactive compounds notably up-regulated the expression of GPx, SOD, IFN-γ and IL-2 genes while down-regulated the iNOS gene. Consequently, the novel microcapsules loaded date seed is suggested to considered as a promising mycotoxin inhibitor.

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Cross-Feeding and Enzymatic Catabolism for Mannan-Oligosaccharide Utilization by the Butyrate-Producing Gut Bacterium Roseburia hominis A2-183.

Bhattacharya, A., Majtorp, L., Birgersson, S., Wiemann, M., Sreenivas, K., Verbrugghe, P., Van Aken, O., Van Niel, E. W. J. & Stålbrand, H. (2022). Microorganisms, 10(12), 2496.

β-Mannan is abundant in the human diet and in hemicellulose derived from softwood. Linear or galactose-substituted β-mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS/GMOSs) derived from β-mannan are considered emerging prebiotics that could stimulate health-associated gut microbiota. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet resolved. Therefore, this study investigated the cross-feeding and metabolic interactions between Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15703, an acetate producer, and Roseburia hominis A2-183 DSMZ 16839, a butyrate producer, during utilization of MOS/GMOSs. Cocultivation studies suggest that both strains coexist due to differential MOS/GMOS utilization, along with the cross-feeding of acetate from B. adolescentis E194a to R. hominis A2-183. The data suggest that R. hominis A2-183 efficiently utilizes MOS/GMOS in mono- and cocultivation. Notably, we observed the transcriptional upregulation of certain genes within a dedicated MOS/GMOS utilization locus (RhMosUL), and an exo-oligomannosidase (RhMan113A) gene located distally in the R. hominis A2-183 genome. Significantly, biochemical analysis of β-1,4 mannan-oligosaccharide phosphorylase (RhMOP130A), α-galactosidase (RhGal36A), and exo-oligomannosidase (RhMan113A) suggested their potential synergistic role in the initial utilization of MOS/GMOSs. Thus, our results enhance the understanding of MOS/GMOS utilization by potential health-promoting human gut microbiota and highlight the role of cross-feeding and metabolic interactions between two secondary mannan degraders inhabiting the same ecological niche in the gut.

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Technical pipeline for screening microbial communities as a function of substrate specificity through fluorescent labelling.

Leivers, S., Lagos, L., Garbers, P., La Rosa, S. L. & Westereng, B. (2022). Communications biology, 5(1), 1-12.

The study of specific glycan uptake and metabolism is an effective tool in aiding with the continued unravelling of the complexities in the human gut microbiome. To this aim fluorescent labelling of glycans may provide a powerful route towards this target. Here, we successfully used the fluorescent label 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB) to monitor and study microbial degradation of labelled glycans. Both single strain and co-cultured fermentations of microbes from the common human-gut derived Bacteroides genus, are able to grow when supplemented with 2-AB labelled glycans of different monosaccharide composition, degrees of acetylation and polymerization. Utilizing a multifaceted approach that combines chromatography, mass spectrometry, microscopy and flow cytometry techniques, it is possible to better understand the metabolism of labelled glycans in both supernatants and at a single cell level. We envisage this combination of complementary techniques will help further the understanding of substrate specificity and the role it plays within microbial communities.

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Analysis of the galactomannan binding ability of β-mannosidases, BtMan2A and CmMan5A, regarding their activity and synergism with a β-mannanase.

Malgas, S., Thoresen, M., Moses, V., Prinsloo, E., van Dyk, J. S. & Pletschke, B. I. (2022). Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 20, 3140-3150.

Both β-mannanases and β-mannosidases are required for mannan-backbone degradation into mannose. In this study, two β-mannosidases of glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 2 (BtMan2A) and 5 (CmMan5A) were evaluated for their substrate specificities and galactomannan binding ability. BtMan2A preferred short manno-oligomers, while CmMan5A preferred longer ones; DP >2, and galactomannans. BtMan2A displayed irreversible galactomannan binding, which was pH-dependent, with higher binding observed at low pH, while CmMan5A had limited binding. Docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that BtMan2A galactomannan binding was stronger under acidic conditions (-8.4 kcal/mol) than in a neutral environment (-7.6 kcal/mol), and the galactomannan ligand was more unstable under neutral conditions than acidic conditions. Qualitative surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experimentally confirmed the reduced binding capacity of BtMan2A at pH 7. Finally, synergistic β-mannanase to β-mannosidase (BtMan2A or CmMan5A) ratios required for maximal galactomannan hydrolysis were determined. All CcManA to CmMan5A combinations were synergistic (≈1.2-fold), while combinations of CcManA with BtMan2A (≈1.0-fold) yielded no hydrolysis improvement. In conclusion, the low specific activity of BtMan2A towards long and galactose-containing oligomers and its non-catalytic galactomannan binding ability led to no synergy with the mannanase, making GH2 mannosidases ineffective for use in cocktails for mannan degradation.

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Efficient and green production of manno-oligosaccharides from Gleditsia microphylla galactomannans using CO2 and solid acid in subcritical water.

Xu, W., Han, M., Zhang, W., Tang, M., Zhang, F. & Jiang, J. (2022). LWT, 156, 113019.

This study aimed to produce manno-oligosaccharides (MOS) from Gleditsia microphylla galactomannans (GMG) using CO2 and solid acid (Amberlyst-35) in subcritical water. The optimal condition for MOS preparation was 3 MPa CO2, 0.1 g/g solid acid (relative to GMG) at 150°C for 40 min. The maximum MOS yield with a degree of polymerization from 2 to 4 (M2-M4) was 52.19%, which doubled the yield of MOS compared to either using solely CO2 or solid acid. Solid acid showed excellent performance in producing MOS under subcritical H2O-CO2 condition, due to the enhanced mass transfer efficiency and increased H+ concentration in the reaction system. The solid acid can be easily separated and reused. Comparing with traditional methods used to produce MOS, this approach has many merits such as higher galactomannan hydrolysis efficiency (largely reduced time and higher MOS yield), purer M2-M4 product, lower costs, and more environmental-friendly.

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Transglycosylation by β-mannanase TrMan5A variants and enzyme synergy for synthesis of allyl glycosides from galactomannan.

Butler, S. J., Birgersson, S., Wiemann, M., Arcos-Hernandez, M. & Stålbrand, H. (2021). Process Biochemistry, 112, 154-166.

Retaining β-mannanases are glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that can potentially be applied for synthesis of glycosides by catalysis of transglycosylation reactions. A novel active-site double mutant (R171K/E205D) of the catalytic module (CM) of the family GH5 Trichoderma reesei β-mannanase (TrMan5A) was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. TrMan5A, CM and CM-variants R171K and R171K/E205D had pH optima between pH 4.0-5.3 and showed >80% remaining activity after incubation at 40°C for 48 h. The enzymes were screened for transglycosylation capacity toward oligomeric and polymeric donor substrates and alcohol acceptors using mass-spectrometry. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation products were analysed by a novel HPLC procedure using an NH2 column. R171K/E205D was superior in reactions with mannotetraose and the acceptor allyl alcohol, it had twice as high propensity for transglycosylation as wild-type TrMan5A. Wild-type TrMan5A produced the highest amounts of allyl β-mannosides (with 1-3 mannosyls) from locust bean galactomannan. Applying enzyme synergy, adding the GH27 guar α-galactosidase to the reaction (to cleave off galactomannan side-groups), gave a 2.1-fold increase of allyl mannosides and simultaneously a significant production of allyl galactopyranoside, increasing overall yield of allyl glycosides 4.4-fold, from 2.2% to 9.8%. The enzymatic synthesis of reactive allyl glycosides opens up for production of novel biomaterials and glycopolymers.

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Production and in vitro evaluation of prebiotic manno-oligosaccharides prepared with a recombinant Aspergillus niger endo-mannanase, Man26A.

Magengelele, M., Hlalukana, N., Malgas, S., Rose, S. H., van Zyl, W. H. & Pletschke, B. I. (2021). Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 150, 109893.

In this study, a GH26 endo-mannanase (Man26A) from an Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 strain, with a molecular mass of 47.8 kDa, was cloned in a yBBH1 vector and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y294 strain cells. Upon fractionation by ultra-filtration, the substrate specificity and substrate degradation pattern of the endo-mannanase (Man26A) were investigated using ivory nut linear mannan and two galactomannan substrates with varying amounts of galactosyl substitutions, guar gum and locust bean gum. Man26A exhibited substrate specificity in the order: locust bean gum ≥ ivory nut mannan > guar gum; however, the enzyme generated more manno-oligosaccharides (MOS) from the galactomannans than from linear mannan during extended periods of mannan hydrolysis. MOS with a DP of 2–4 were the major products from mannan substrate hydrolysis, while guar gum also generated higher DP length MOS. All the Man26A generated MOS significantly improved the growth (approximately 3-fold) of the probiotic bacterial strains Streptococcus thermophilus and Bacillus subtilis in M9 minimal medium. Ivory nut mannan and locust bean gum derived MOS did not influence the auto-aggregation ability of the bacteria, while the guar gum derived MOS led to a 50 % reduction in bacterial auto-aggregation. On the other hand, all the MOS significantly improved bacterial biofilm formation (approximately 3-fold). This study suggests that the prebiotic characteristics exhibited by MOS may be dependent on their primary structure, i.e. galactose substitution and DP. Furthermore, the data suggests that the enzyme-generated MOS may be useful as potent additives to dietary foods.

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Production of mannooligosaccharides producing β-Mannanase by newly isolated Penicillium aculeatum APS1 using oil seed residues under solid state fermentation.

Bangoria, P., Divecha, J. & Shah, A. R. (2021). Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 34, 102023.

The present investigation was focused on the production of extracellular β-mannanase from newly isolated Penicillium aculeatum APS1 using palm kernel cake and soyabean meal which are the residual by-products of oil extraction industry, under solid state fermentation. On supplementing palm kernel cake with 20% soyabean meal, yield of β-mannanase production was reached to 2807 U/g. Response surface methodology was used for statistical optimization of β-mannanase production. Two independent variables, namely moisture level and incubation time, were found to be significantly contributing for the production process. Under optimized condition of moisture level (52.25%) and incubation time (130 h), the yield of β-mannanase was improved by 1.6 fold and maximum activity of β-mannanase was 4696 U/g. The optimum temperature and pH for crude β-mannanase were 65°C and 6.0, respectively. Crude and partially purified β-mannanase was found to be effective in release of mannooligosachharides by hydrolysis of mannan rich substrates viz. locust bean gum, guar gum and konjac glucomannan. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of MOS was carried out by TLC and ion chromatography. β-Mannanase from Penicillium aculeatum APS1 was found to have properties suitable for applications in feed/food industry.

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High efficient degradation of glucan/glucomannan to cello-/mannan-oligosaccharide by endoglucanase via tetrasaccharide as intermediate.

Miao, T., Basit, A., Wen, J., Liu, J., Zheng, F., Cao, Y. & Jiang, W. (2021). Food Chemistry, 129175.

Here, we report an efficient endoglucanase from Aureobasidium pullulans (termed ApCel5A) was expressed in Pichia pastoris. ApCel5A shows two different enzyme activities of endoglucanase (1270 U/mg) and mannanase (31.2 U/mg). Through engineering the signal peptide and fed-batch fermentation, the enzyme activity of endoglucanase was improved to 6.63-folds, totally. Its efficient synergism with Celluclast 1.5 L, excellent tolerance to low pH (2.5), cholate and protease suggests potential application in bioresources, food and feed industries. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments present that ApCel5A residues Glu245 and Glu358 are key catalytic sites, while Asp118, Asp122, Asp198 and Asp314 play an auxiliary role. More importantly, ApCel5A display high degradation efficiency of glucan and glucomannan substrates by using tetrasaccharide contained reducing end of glucose residue as an intermediate. This study elucidated the effective methods to improve an endoglucanase expression and detailed catalytic mechanism for degradation of various substrates, which provides a new insight for endoglucanase application.

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Safety Data Sheet
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