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AZCL-Arabinoxylan (Wheat)

AZCL-Arabinoxylan Wheat I-AZWAX
Product code: I-AZWAX
€0.00

3 g

Prices exclude VAT

This product has been discontinued

Content: 3 g
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Ambient
Physical Form: Powder
Stability: > 9 years under recommended storage conditions
Substrate For (Enzyme): endo-1,4-β-Xylanase
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer (Semi-quantitative), Petri-dish (Qualitative)
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 590

This product has been discontinued (read more).

High purity dyed and crosslinked insoluble AZCL-Arabinoxylan (Wheat) for identification of enzyme activities in research, microbiological enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.

Dyed and crosslinked wheat arabinoxylan. Substrate for the assay of endo-1,4-β-D-xylanase.

More insoluble chromogenic substrates available.

Documents
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
Application Note Assay Protocol
Publications
Publication

Biochemical and synergistic properties of a novel alpha‐amylase from Chinese nong‐flavor Daqu.

Chen, L., Yi, Z., Fang, Y., Jin, Y., He, K., Xiao, Y., Zhao, D., Luo, H., He, H., Sun, Q. & Zhao, H. (2021). Microbial Cell Factories, 20(1), 1-15.

Background: Daqu is the most important fermentation starter for Chinese liquor, with large number of microbes and enzymes being openly enriched in the Daqu system over thousands of years. However, only a few enzymes have been analyzed with crude protein for total liquefying power and saccharifying power of Daqu. Therefore, the complex enzymatic system present in Daqu has not been completely characterized. Moreover, their pivotal and complicated functions in Daqu are completely unknown. Results: In this study, a novel α-amylase NFAmy13B, from GH13_5 subfamily (according to the Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes Database, CAZy) was successfully heterologous expressed by Escherichia coli from Chinese Nong-flavor (NF) Daqu. It exhibited high stability ranging from pH 5.5 to 12.5, and higher specific activity, compared to other GH13_5 fungal α-amylases. Moreover, NFAmy13B did not show activity loss and retained 96% residual activity after pre-incubation at pH 11 for 21 h and pH 12 for 10 h, respectively. Additionally, 1.25 mM Ca2+ significantly improved its thermostability. NFAmy13B showed a synergistic effect on degrading wheat starch with NFAmy13A (GH13_1), another α-amylase from Daqu. Both enzymes could cleave maltotetraose and maltopentaose in same degradation pattern, and only NFAmy13A could efficiently degrade maltotriose. Moreover, NFAmy13B showed higher catalytic efficiency on long-chain starch, while NFAmy13A had higher catalytic efficiency on short-chain maltooligosaccharides. Their different catalytic efficiencies on starch and maltooligosaccharides may be caused by their discrepant substrate-binding region. Conclusions: This study mined a novel GH13_5 fungal α-amylase (NFAmy13B) with outstanding alkali resistance from Nong-flavor (NF) Daqu. Furthermore, its synergistic effect with NFAmy13A (GH13_1) on hydrolyzing wheat starch was confirmed, and their possible contribution in NF Daqu was also speculated. Thus, we not only provide a candidate α-amylase for industry, but also a useful strategy for further studying the interactions in the complex enzyme system of Daqu.

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Publication

Evaluating Feruloyl Esterase-Xylanase Synergism for Hydroxycinnamic Acid and Xylo-Oligosaccharide Production from Untreated, Hydrothermally Pre-Treated and Dilute-Acid Pre-Treated Corn Cobs.

Mkabayi, L., Malgas, S., Wilhelmi, B. S. & Pletschke, B. I. (2020).  Agronomy, 10(5), 688.

Agricultural residues are considered the most promising option as a renewable feedstock for biofuel and high valued-added chemical production due to their availability and low cost. The efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of agricultural residues into value-added products such as sugars and hydroxycinnamic acids is a challenge because of the recalcitrant properties of the native biomass. Development of synergistic enzyme cocktails is required to overcome biomass residue recalcitrance, and achieve high yields of potential value-added products. In this study, the synergistic action of two termite metagenome-derived feruloyl esterases (FAE5 and FAE6), and an endo-xylanase (Xyn11) from Thermomyces lanuginosus, was optimized using 0.5% (w/v) insoluble wheat arabinoxylan (a model substrate) and then applied to 1% (w/v) corn cobs for the efficient production of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) and hydroxycinnamic acids. The enzyme combination of 66% Xyn11 and 33% FAE5 or FAE6 (protein loading) produced the highest amounts of XOS, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid from untreated, hydrothermal, and acid pre-treated corn cobs. The combination of 66% Xyn11 and 33% FAE6 displayed an improvement in reducing sugars of approximately 1.9-fold and 3.4-fold for hydrothermal and acid pre-treated corn cobs (compared to Xyn11 alone), respectively. The hydrolysis product profiles revealed that xylobiose was the dominant XOS produced from untreated and pre-treated corn cobs. These results demonstrated that the efficient production of hydroxycinnamic acids and XOS from agricultural residues for industrial applications can be achieved through the synergistic action of FAE5 or FAE6 and Xyn11.

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Publication

Efficient expression and secretion of endo-1, 4-β-xylanase from Penicillium citrinum in non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica directed by the native and the preproLIP2 signal peptides.

Ouephanit, C., Boonvitthya, N., Theerachat, M., Bozonnet, S. & Chulalaksananukul, W. (2019). Protein Expression and Purification, 160, 1-6.

Filamentous fungi are the most common industrial xylanase producers. In this study, the xynA gene encoding xylanase A of Penicilium citrinum was successfully synthesized and expressed in Yarrowia lipolytica under the control of the strong constitutive TEF promoter. Native and preproLIP2 secretion signals were used for comparison of the expression and secretion level. The recombinant xylanase was produced as a soluble protein, and the total activity production reached 11 and 52 times higher than the level of activity produced by the fungus P. citrinum native strain, respectively. Maximum activity was observed with the preproLIP2 secretion signal at 180 U/mL. Post translational glycosylation affected the molecular mass of the recombinant xylanase, resulting in an apparent molecular weight larger than 60 kDa, whereas after deglycosylation, the recombinant XynA displayed a molecular mass of 20 kDa. The deglycosylated xylanase was purified by ion exchange chromatography and reached 185-fold of purification. The enzyme was optimally active at 55°C and pH 5 and stable over a broad pH range (3-9). It retained more than 80% of the original activity after 24 h. It conserved around 80% of the original activity after pre-incubation at 40°C for 6 h. With birchwood xylan as substrate, the enzyme showed a Km of 5.2 mg/mL, and kcat of 245 per s. The high level of secretion and the stability over a wide range of pH and at moderate temperatures of the re-XynA could be useful for variety of biotechnological applications.

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Publication

Novel xylanolytic triple domain enzyme targeted at feruloylated arabinoxylan degradation.

Holck, J., Djajadi, D. T., Brask, J., Pilgaard, B., Krogh, K. B., Meyer, A. S., Lange, L. & Wilkens, C. (2019). Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 129, 109353.

A three catalytic domain multi-enzyme; a CE1 ferulic acid esterase, a GH62 α-l-arabinofuranosidase and a GH10 β-d-1,4-xylanase was identified in a metagenome obtained from wastewater treatment sludge. The capability of the CE1-GH62-GH10 multi-enzyme to degrade arabinoxylan was investigated to examine the hypothesis that CE1-GH62-GH10 would degrade arabinoxylan more efficiently than the corresponding equimolar mix of the individual enzymes. CE1-GH62-GH10 efficiently catalyzed the production of xylopyranose, xylobiose, xylotriose, arabinofuranose and ferulic acid (FA) when incubated with insoluble wheat arabinoxylan (WAX-I) (kcat = 20.8 ± 2.6 s−1). Surprisingly, in an equimolar mix of the individual enzymes a similar kcat towards WAX-I was observed (kcat = 17.3 ± 3.8 s−1). Similarly, when assayed on complex plant biomass the activity was comparable between CE1-GH62-GH10 and an equimolar mix of the individual enzymes. This suggests that from a hydrolytic point of view a CE1-GH62-GH10 multi-enzyme is not an advantage. Determination of the melting temperatures for CE1-GH62-GH10 (71.0 ± 0.05 °C) and CE1 (69.9 ± 0.02), GH62 (65.7 ± 0.06) and GH10 (71 ± 0.05 °C) indicates that CE1 and GH62 are less stable as single domain enzymes. This conclusion was corroborated by the findings that CE1 lost ˜50% activity within 2 h, while GH62 retained ˜50% activity after 24 h, whereas CE1-GH62-GH10 and GH10 retained ˜50% activity for 72 h. GH62-GH10, when appended to each other, displayed a higher specificity constant (kcat/Km = 0.3 s−1 mg−1 ml) than the individual GH10 (kcat/Km = 0.12 s−1 ± 0.02 mg−1 ml) indicating a synergistic action between the two. Surprisingly, CE1-GH62, displayed a 2-fold lower kcat towards WAX-I than GH62, which might be due to the presence of a putative carbohydrate binding module appended to CE1 at the N-terminal. Both CE1 and CE1-GH62 released insignificant amounts of FA from WAX-I, but FA was released from WAX-I when both CE1 and GH10 were present, which might be due to GH10 releasing soluble oligosaccharides that CE1 can utilize as substrate. CE1 also displayed activity towards solubilized 5-O-trans-feruloyl-α-l-Araf (kcat = 36.35 s−1). This suggests that CE1 preferably acts on soluble oligosaccharides.

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Publication

Identification of enzymes from genus Trichoderma that can accelerate formation of ferulic acid and ethyl ferulate in collaboration with rice koji enzyme in sake mash.

Ito, T., Sato, A., Takahashi, I., Ito, T., Takano, K., Noge, K., Okuda, M. & Hashizume, K. (2019). Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 128(2), 177-182.

The enzymes responsible for acceleration of ferulic acid and ethyl ferulate formation in sake mash were studied. Ferulic acid and ethyl ferulate are formed during the sake brewing process from feruloylated glucuronoarabinoxylan. Cellulase reagent from genus Trichoderma was used instead of rice koji, because rice koji for sake brewing produces extremely low levels of xylan-degrading enzymes. A combination of the reagent with rice koji enzymes accelerated the formation of ferulic acid from α-rice powder. Addition of the reagent to sake mash increased ferulic acid and ethyl ferulate formation. The enzyme responsible for the accelerated formation was purified using a newly developed assay method and α-rice powder as a substrate. During the assay procedure, feruloylated oligosaccharide was converted to ferulic acid by feruloylesterase for HPLC analysis. Analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified samples was successfully conducted after pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase de-blocking. Purified enzymes were identified as members of the glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) and family 11 (GH11) xylanases by BLASTP database research. The GH10 xylanase showed higher specific activity for α-rice powder and insoluble wheat arabinoxylan compared with GH11 xylanase; the GH11 xylanase showed higher specific activity for the other xylan substrates, especially glucuronoarabinoxylan. The GH10 xylanase showed higher accelerating activity than the GH11 xylanase in the sake mash. The results of this study provides useful knowledge on ferulic acid and ethyl ferulate formation in sake mash, the relative levels of these compounds and their influence on the sensory quality of sake.

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Publication
Influence of hydrothermal treatment on the structural modification of spent grain specific carbohydrates and the formation of degradation products using model compounds.

Steiner, J., Franke, K., Kießling, M., Fischer, S., Töpfl, S., Heinz, V. & Becker, T. (2018). Carbohydrate Polymers, 184, 315-322.

Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) constitutes various valuable carbohydrates that may contribute to a healthy diet. These components may be obtained from BSG via hydrothermal treatment (HT), a procedure for dissolving water-inextricable carbohydrates. The objective of this study was to investigate HT as an environmentally friendly technology for extracting high-molecular-weight fiber with proven beneficial effects on human health. Cellulose, β-glucan, and arabinoxylan (AX) served as model substances and were subjected to auto-hydrolysis at different temperatures and reaction times. The results were evaluated in terms of structural and chemical characteristics. When the treatment temperature was increased, the original weight-average molar mass of AX (370 kDa) and β-glucan (248 kDa) decreased gradually (<10 kDa), and the molar mass distribution narrowed. Further investigations focused on the heat-induced formation and elimination of monosaccharides and undesirable by-products. The concentrations of by-products were successfully described by kinetic models that can be used to optimize the hydrolysis process.

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Publication
In vitro fermentation gas kinetics and end-products of soluble and insoluble cereal flour dietary fibres are similar.

Comino, P., Williams, B. A. & Gidley, M. J. (2018). Food & Function, In Press.

Insoluble dietary fibre is often considered to be fermented slower and to a lesser extent in (models for) the colon than soluble dietary fibre. However these comparisons are typically made for fibre components of different composition. In the case of fibre from refined cereal flours, there is little difference in fibre composition between soluble and insoluble forms, so effects of solubility on fermentation can be tested without this confounding factor. For each of wheat, rye, and hull-less barley, soluble and insoluble fibre fractions from refined flour and models for baking and extrusion had comparable in vitro fermentation rates and extents, with similar levels of short chain fatty acid metabolites. This study suggests that there should be little difference in the large intestinal nutritional functionality of the soluble and insoluble fibre fractions from cereal grain flours, either unprocessed or after baking or extrusion processing.

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Publication
Expanding the feruloyl esterase gene family of Aspergillus niger by characterization of a feruloyl esterase, FaeC.

Dilokpimol, A., Mäkelä, M. R., Mansouri, S., Belova, O., Waterstraat, M., Bunzel, M., de Vries, R. P. & Hildén, K. S. (2017). New Biotechnology, 37, 200-209.

A feruloyl esterase (FAE) from Aspergillus niger N402, FaeC was heterologously produced in Pichia pastoris X-33 in a yield of 10 mg/L. FaeC was most active at pH 7.0 and 50°C, and showed broad substrate specificity and catalyzed the hydrolysis of methyl 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate, ethyl ferulate, methyl ferulate, methyl p-coumarate, ethyl coumarate, methyl sinapate, and methyl caffeate. The enzyme released both ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid from wheat arabinoxylan and sugar beet pectin (up to 3 mg/g polysaccharide), and acted synergistically with a commercial xylanase increasing the release of ferulic acid up to six-fold. The expression of faeC increased over time in the presence of feruloylated polysaccharides. Cinnamic, syringic, caffeic, vanillic and ferulic acid induced the expression of faeC. Overall expression of faeC was very low in all tested conditions, compared to two other A. niger FAE encoding genes, faeA and faeB. Our data showed that the fae genes responded differently towards the feruloylated polysaccharides and tested monomeric phenolic compounds suggesting that the corresponding FAE isoenzymes may target different substrates in a complementary manner. This may increase the efficiency of the degradation of diverse plant biomass.

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Publication
Aspergillus hancockii sp. nov., a biosynthetically talented fungus endemic to southeastern Australian soils.

Pitt, J. I., Lange, L., Lacey, A. E., Vuong, D., Midgley, D. J., Greenfield, P., Bradbury, M. I., Lacey, E., Busk, P. K., Pilgaard, B., Chooi, Y. H. & Piggott, A. M. (2017). PloS One, 12(4), e0170254.

Aspergillus hancockii sp. nov., classified in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi, was originally isolated from soil in peanut fields near Kumbia, in the South Burnett region of southeast Queensland, Australia, and has since been found occasionally from other substrates and locations in southeast Australia. It is phylogenetically and phenotypically related most closely to A. leporis States and M. Chr., but differs in conidial colour, other minor features and particularly in metabolite profile. When cultivated on rice as an optimal substrate, A. hancockii produced an extensive array of 69 secondary metabolites. Eleven of the 15 most abundant secondary metabolites, constituting 90% of the total area under the curve of the HPLC trace of the crude extract, were novel. The genome of A. hancockii, approximately 40 Mbp, was sequenced and mined for genes encoding carbohydrate degrading enzymes identified the presence of more than 370 genes in 114 gene clusters, demonstrating that A. hancockii has the capacity to degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, chitin, cutin and fructan as nutrient sources. Like most Aspergillus species, A. hancockii exhibited a diverse secondary metabolite gene profile, encoding 26 polyketide synthase, 16 nonribosomal peptide synthase and 15 nonribosomal peptide synthase-like enzymes.

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Diversity of microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes in Danish anaerobic digesters fed with wastewater treatment sludge.

Wilkens, C., Busk, P. K., Pilgaard, B., Zhang, W. J., Nielsen, K. L., Nielsen, P. H. & Lange, L. (2017). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 10(1), 158

Background: Improved carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are needed to fulfill the goal of producing food, feed, fuel, chemicals, and materials from biomass. Little is known about how the diverse microbial communities in anaerobic digesters (ADs) metabolize carbohydrates or which CAZymes that are present, making the ADs a unique niche to look for CAZymes that can potentiate the enzyme blends currently used in industry. Results: Enzymatic assays showed that functional CAZymes were secreted into the AD environments in four full-scale mesophilic Danish ADs fed with primary and surplus sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Metagenomes from the ADs were mined for CAZymes with Homology to Peptide Patterns (HotPep). 19,335 CAZymes were identified of which 30% showed 50% or lower identity to known proteins demonstrating that ADs make up a promising pool for discovery of novel CAZymes. A function was assigned to 54% of all CAZymes identified by HotPep. Many different α-glucan-acting CAZymes were identified in the four metagenomes, and the most abundant family was glycoside hydrolase family 13, which contains α-glucan-acting CAZymes. Cellulytic and xylanolytic CAZymes were also abundant in the four metagenomes. The cellulytic enzymes were limited almost to endoglucanases and β-glucosidases, which reflect the large amount of partly degraded cellulose in the sludge. No dockerin domains were identified suggesting that the cellulytic enzymes in the ADs studied operate independently. Of xylanolytic CAZymes, especially xylanases and β-xylosidase, but also a battery of accessory enzymes, were present in the four ADs. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the ADs are a good place to look for novel plant biomass degrading and modifying enzymes that can potentiate biological processes and provide basis for production of a range of added-value products from biorefineries.

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Safety Data Sheet
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