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Lactose/Galactose Assay Kit (Rapid)

Product code: K-LACGAR
€313.00

115 assays per kit

Prices exclude VAT

Available for shipping

Content: 115 assays per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: D-Galactose, Lactose
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 340
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 4 to 80 µg of D-galactose (or 8 to 160 µg of lactose) per assay
Limit of Detection: 2.96 mg/L
Reaction Time (min): ~ 15 min
Application examples: Milk, dairy products (e.g. cream, milk / whey powder, cheese, condensed milk and yogurt), foods containing milk (e.g. dietetic foods, bakery products, baby food, chocolate, sweets and ice-cream), food additives, feed, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and other materials (e.g. biological cultures, samples, etc.).
Method recognition: Methods based on this principle have been accepted by AOAC 2006.06, NBN, DIN, GOST and IDF

The Lactose/Galactose (Rapid) test kit is used for the rapid test of lactose, D-galactose and L-arabinose in food and plant products. Galactose dehydrogenase can be used the measurement and analysis of both D-galactose and L-arabinose. Suitable for the analysis of lactose in “low-lactose” or “lactose-free” samples which contain high levels of monosaccharides. The reagents provided in this kit are also suitable for use with AOAC method 2006.06 – Lactose in milk.

Note for Content: The number of manual tests per kit can be doubled if all volumes are halved.  This can be readily accommodated using the MegaQuantTM  Wave Spectrophotometer (D-MQWAVE).

View our full range of mono/disaccharide test kits.

Scheme-K-LACGAR LACGAR Megazyme

Advantages
  • Very rapid reaction due to inclusion of galactose mutarotase (patented technology PCT / IE2004 / 00170) 
  • Very competitive price (cost per test) 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included
Validation of Methods
Publications
Publication

Ligustilide inhibits the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer via glycolytic metabolism.

Jiang, X., Zhao, W., Zhu, F., Wu, H., Ding, X., Bai, J., Zhang, X. & Qian, M. (2020). Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 410, 115336.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. The abnormal activation of glycolytic metabolism and PTEN/AKT signaling in NSCLC cells are highly correlated with their proliferation abilities and viability. Ligustilide is one of the major bioactive components of multiple Chinese traditional medicine including Angelica sinensis and Ligusticum. Ligustilide exposure inhibits the proliferation and viability of multiple cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the impact of ligustilide to the progression of NSCLC and its detailed pharmacological mechanisms remain unclear. In this research, CCK-8 and colony formation assay were performed to demonstrate ligustilide treatment inhibited the viability and proliferation ability of NSCLC cells in vitro. Caspase-3/-7 activity assay and nucleosome ELISA assay were utilized to show ligustilide promoted the apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Metabolic analysis and qRT-PCR assay were used to demonstrated that ligustilide dampened aerobic glycolysis of NSCLC cells. Nude mice were exposed to 5 mg/kg ligustilide and ligustilide inhibited orthotopic NSCLC growth in vivo. qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to substantiate the regulatory function of ligustilide to PTEN/AKT signaling in NSCLC cells. Overall, this study revealed that ligustilide regulated the proliferation, apoptosis and aerobic glycolysis of NSCLC cells through PTEN/AKT signaling pathway.

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Nutritional Quality, Sensory Analysis and Shelf Life Stability of Yogurts Containing Inulin-Type Fructans and Winery Byproducts for Sustainable Health.

Iriondo-DeHond, M., Blázquez-Duff, J. M., Del Castillo, M. D. & Miguel, E. (2020). Foods, 9(9), 1199.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of winery byproduct extracts (grape pomace, seed and skin) and a mixture of inulin-type fructans (inulin and FOS) as suitable ingredients for the development of yogurts with antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. Their effect on the physicochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory parameters of yogurts was evaluated during 21 days of refrigerated storage. The incorporation of winery byproduct extracts in yogurt resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, compared to the controls. The grape skin yogurt showed the highest (p < 0.05) TPC (0.09 ± 0.00 mg GAE/g yogurt) and antioxidant capacity (7.69 ± 1.15 mmol TE/g yogurt). Moreover, the grape skin yogurt presented the highest (p < 0.05) inhibition of the activity of the enzyme α-glucosidase (56.46 ± 2.31%). The addition of inulin-type fructans did not significantly (p > 0.05) modify the overall antioxidant capacity or inhibition of the enzyme α-glucosidase of control and winery byproduct extract yogurts. Yogurts containing winery byproduct extracts and dietary fiber achieved high overall acceptance scores (6.33–6.67) and showed stable physicochemical, textural and microbiological characteristics during storage, assuring an optimal 21-day shelf life. According to their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, we propose the yogurt containing grape skin extract, together with inulin and FOS, as a novel food product for the promotion of sustainable health.

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Excessive supply of glucose elicits an NF‐κB2‐dependent glycolysis in lactating goat mammary glands.

Cai, J., Wang, D., Liang, S., Peng, J., Zhao, F. & Liu, J. (2020). The FASEB Journal, 34(6), 8671-8685.

During lactation, an improper glucose supply often threatens mammary gland (MG) health. However, information is limited on the metabolic trajectories and molecules that regulate lactating MGs with an excessive glucose supply. Based on the network analysis of transcriptome and microRNAs, we found that the oversupply of glucose‐induced severe glucose metabolic disorders in MGs of lactating goats, shifting lactose synthesis to acute fermentative glycolysis which caused increased flux of glucose metabolism into lactate. Moreover, NF‐κB2 played a key role in regulating glycolysis, exhibiting a metabolic shift when MGs had an excessive supply of glucose. In primary mammary epithelial cells, fermentative glycolysis, and intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were reduced by ganoderic acid A through blocking NF‐κB2, while activation of NF‐κB2 with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) upregulated fermentative glycolysis and increased cellular ROS accumulation under excessive glucose. Thus, we established an NF‐κB2‐targeting method to reform the metabolic shift toward glycolysis caused by glucose oversupply by integrating NF‐κB2 blockade and intracellular ROS scavenging.

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Publication

A comparison of macronutrient-based methods for deriving energy values in human milk.

Perrin, M. T., Spence, E. H., Belfort, M. B., Parker, M. G. & Bode, L. (2020). Journal of Perinatology, 40(11), 1688-1693.

Objective: Energy values for human milk are increasingly available clinically, though there are no standards for deriving these values. We compared published calorie methods using a common set of samples. Study design: Ten human milk samples were measured for gross and digestible macronutrients using laboratory methods. Four calorie conversion factors were used: Atwater general (ATW-GEN); Atwater milk specific (ATW-MILK), human milk specific (HUM-MILK), and combustible conversions (COMBUST). Differences in derived calories were assessed using ANOVA. Results: There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) in calorie values between methods. Gross macronutrients with COMBUST conversion factors produced the highest calorie values (19.4 ± 1.4 kcal/ounce) whereas digestible macronutrients with HUM-MILK conversion factors produced the lowest calorie values (16.3 ± 1.3 kcal/ounce). Mean difference between these values was 3.1 kcal/ounce (95% CI 2.5, 3.7). Conclusion: Mean calorie difference of 3.1 kcal/ounce is clinically important for preterm infants, suggesting the need for standardization.

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A thermophilic fungal GH36 α-galactosidase from Lichtheimia ramosa and its synergistic hydrolysis of locust bean gum.

Xie, J., Wang, B., He, Z. & Pan, L. (2020). Carbohydrate Research, 491, 107911.

A novel GH36 α-galactosidase gene (LrAgal36A) from Lichtheimia ramose was synthesized and highly expressed in Pichia pastoris. The enzyme titer and protein yield for high-density fermentation in a   L fermentor were up to 953.6 U mL−1 and 4.36 g L−1. Purified recombinant LrAgal36A showed the maximum activity at pH 6.0 and 65°C and was thermostable with a half-life of 70 min at 60°C. LrAgal36A displayed the highest specific activity (353.17 ± 4.19 U mg−1) toward p-nitrophenyl-α-d-galactopyranoside (pNPGal) followed by galacto-oligosaccharides and could act slightly on galactomannans. The Km and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of LrAgal36A for pNPGal were 0.33 mM and 1569.50 mM−1 s−1, respectively. LrAgal36A and GH5 β-mannanase from L. ramose showed a significant synergistic effect on the degradation of locust bean gum (LBG), resulting in release more reducing sugars (1.56 folds) and galactose (7.6 folds) by simultaneous or sequential reactions. Due to its hydrolysis properties, LrAgal36A might have potential applications in the area of pulp biobleaching, feed and food processing.

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Publication

High Sensitivity Analysis and Food Processing Stability of Rare Sugars.

Miyoshi, M., Kimura, I., Inazu, T. & Izumori, K. (2019). Food Science and Technology Research, 25(6), 891-901.

To evaluate the stability of rare sugars, i.e., sorbose, allose, tagatose and allulose, in food products containing rare sugar syrup (RSS) during cooking, we developed a highly sensitive analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with corona charged aerosol detector (CAD) and analyzed the rare sugars in a Maillard reaction mixture and in food products available at market. In the Maillard reaction, the amounts of each rare sugar decreased at the initial pH of 6.0. Further, the increase in allulose was accelerated in reaction mixtures at pH 7.5. The stability of rare sugars, which are added to improve food functions during food processing, was greatly influenced by the pH, temperature and heating time. Surprisingly, allulose was retained at the highest level (86.0%–88.5%) under the various cooking conditions, while the other rare sugars were obviously decreased. Therefore, it was suggested that allulose can be maintained under various manufacturing conditions, including under weakly alkaline treatment.

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Identification of the bacteria and their metabolic activities associated with the microbial spoilage of custard cream desserts.

Techer, C., Jan, S., Thierry, A., Maillard, M. B., Grosset, N., Galet, O., Breton, V., Gautier, M. & Baron, F. (2020). Food Microbiology, 86, 103317.

The famous French dessert “ile flottante” consists of a sweet egg white foam floating on a vanilla custard cream, which contains highly nutritive raw materials, including milk, sugar and egg. Spoilage issues are therefore a key concern for the manufacturers. This study explored the bacterial diversity of 64 spoiled custard cream desserts manufactured by 2 French companies. B. cereus group bacteria, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Leuconostoc spp. were isolated from spoiled products. Thirty-one bacterial isolates representative of the main spoilage species were tested for their spoilage abilities. Significant growth and pH decrease were observed regardless of species. While off-odours were detected with B. cereus group and staphylococci, yoghurt odours were detected with Enterococcus spp. And Leuconostoc spp. B. cereus group bacteria produced various esters and several compounds derived from amino acid and sugar metabolism. Most Staphylococci produced phenolic compounds. Enterococcus spp. And Leuconostoc spp. isolates produced high levels of compounds derived from sugar metabolism. Each type of spoilage bacteria was associated with a specific volatile profile and lactic acid was identified as a potential marker of spoilage of custard cream-based desserts. These findings provide valuable information for manufacturers to improve food spoilage detection and prevention of chilled desserts made with milk and egg.

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Fortified blended food base: effect of co-fermentation time on composition, phytic acid content and reconstitution properties.

Shevade, A. V., O’Callaghan, Y. C., O’Brien, N. M., O’Connor, T. P. & Guinee, T. P. (2019). Foods, 8(9), 388.

Dehydrated blends of dairy-cereal combine the functional and nutritional properties of two major food groups. Fortified blended food base (FBFB) was prepared by blending fermented milk with parboiled wheat, co-fermenting the blend at 35°C, shelf-drying and milling. Increasing co-fermentation time from 0 to 72 h resulted in powder with lower lactose, phytic acid and pH, and higher contents of lactic acid and galactose. Simultaneously, the pasting viscosity of the reconstituted base (16.7%, w/w, total solids) and its yield stress (σ0), consistency index (K) and viscosity on shearing decreased significantly. The changes in some characteristics (pH, phytic acid, η120) were essentially complete after 24 h co-fermentation while others (lactose, galactose and lactic acid, pasting viscosities, flowability) proceeded more gradually over 72 h. The reduction in phytic acid varied from 40 to 58% depending on the pH of the fermented milk prior to blending with the parboiled cereal. The reduction in phytic acid content of milk (fermented milk)-cereal blends with co-fermentation time is nutritionally desirable as it is conducive to an enhanced bioavailability of elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn in milk-cereal blends, and is especially important where such blends serve as a base for fortified-blended foods supplied to food-insecure regions.

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Transcription factor E2F4 is a positive regulator of milk biosynthesis and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells.

Zhen, Z., Zhang, M., Yuan, X. & Li, M. (2020). Cell Biology International, 44(1), 229-241.

The transcription factor E2F4 is a key determinant of cell differentiation and cell‐cycle progression, but its function and regulatory mechanism are not completely understood. Here, we report that E2F4 acts as a positive regulator of the biosynthesis of milk components and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Overexpression of E2F4 in BMECs resulted in the upregulation of β‐casein, triglyceride, and lactose levels and increased cell proliferation, whereas E2F4 knockdown by small interfering RNA had the opposite effects. We further detected that overexpression of E2F4 significantly increased the messenger RNA expression of mTOR, SREBP‐1c, and Cyclin D1, and increased protein levels of SREBP‐1c, and Cyclin D1, and the ratio of p‐mTOR/mTOR, whereas E2F4 knockdown had the opposite effects. E2F4 was almost entirely located in the nucleus, and we further identified, via ChIP‐qPCR analysis, that mTOR, SREBP‐1c, and Cyclin D1 were E2F4 target genes, and exogenous administration of methionine, leucine, β‐estradiol, and prolactin markedly increased the protein levels of E2F4 and its binding to the promoters of these three genes. In summary, our data reveal that E2F4 responds to extracellular stimuli and regulates the expression of mTOR, SREBP‐1c, and Cyclin D1 for milk biosynthesis and proliferation of BMECs.

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Accuracy and reliability of infrared analyzers for measuring human milk macronutrients in a milk bank setting.

Perrin, M. T., Festival, J., Starks, S., Mondeaux, L., Brownell, E. A. & Vickers, A. (2019). Current Developments in Nutrition3(11), nzz116.

Background: Infrared (IR) analysis is an emerging technology that may be a useful tool for milk banks to manage the nutrient variability in donor human milk. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy, reliability, and comparability of commercial infrared analyzers for measuring human milk macronutrients in a milk bank setting. Methods: Three nonprofit milk banks received blinded test kits of human milk that had been assessed using reference methods. Four infrared instruments were used to measure macronutrients as follows: 1 filtered mid-IR, 2 Fourier-transformed full-spectra mid-IR, and 1 near-IR. Twenty-five unique samples were read concurrently for the accuracy arm. An identical sample was read daily for 1 mo for the reliability arm.Results: Values for R2 describing relationships with reference methods for total fat, crude protein, and lactose, were as follows: filtered mid-IR, 0.98, 0.94, and 0.48; Fourier-transformed full-spectra mid-IR, 0.97, 0.93, and 0.36 for instrument 1 and 0.98, 0.98, and 0.31 for instrument 2; and near-IR 0.93, 0.93, and 0.12. There was no significant difference between instruments for crude protein and total fat measurements. There were significant differences in carbohydrate measurements between instruments. For 1 mo of daily measurements in the reliability arm, CVs for filtered mid-IR were ≤4.6%, for Fourier-transformed full spectra mid-IR were ≤1.7%, and for near-IR were ≤5.1%. Conclusions: Infrared analysis is an accurate and reliable method for measuring crude protein and total fat in a milk bank setting. Carbohydrate measurements are less accurate and are significantly different between instruments, which will likely lead to differences in derived calorie values.

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Development of a dehydrated fortified food base from fermented milk and parboiled wheat, and comparison of its composition and reconstitution behavior with those of commercial dried dairy‐cereal blends.

Shevade, A. V., O'Callaghan, Y. C., O'Brien, N. M., O'Connor, T. P. & Guinee, T. P. (2019). Food science & Nutrition, 7(11), 3681-3691.

Dehydrated blends of milk and cereal are reconstituted and consumed as a nutritious soup or porridge in many regions; the composition and reconstitution behavior of the blends are likely to impact on nutritional quality and consumer acceptability of the soup/porridge. Experimental samples of dried fermented milk‐bulgur wheat blend (FMBW) and commercial samples of dried dairy‐cereal blends, namely kishk, tarhana, and super cereal plus corn–soy blend (SCpCSB) were compared for composition, color, water sorption, and reconstitution characteristics. FMBW blends had higher contents of protein, Ca, lactose and lactic acid, lower levels of salt (NaCl) and Fe, and a lighter, more‐yellow color (higher L* and b*‐color co‐ordinates) than tarhana or kishk. Compared with SCpCSB, FMBW had numerically higher levels of protein, lactose, and lactic acid, lower levels of Ca, Fe, Zn, and Mg, and lower pH. Tarhana had highest mean levels of starch, and on reconstitution (133 g/kg) had highest water holding capacity, viscosity during pasting and cooling, yield stress (σ0), consistency coefficient (K), and viscosity on shearing from 20 to 120 s−1 at 60°C. Reconstituted FMBW, kishk, and SCpCSB had similar pasting and flow behavior properties. Overall, the composition (starch, protein, Ca, Mg), pasting and flow behavior characteristics of FMBW were closer to those SCpCSB and kishk than to tarhana. The results suggest that the FMBW powder, on appropriate supplementation with Ca, Fe, Zn and Mg, could be used for the development of customized fortified blended foods for specific groups.

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Fermentability of a Novel Galacto-Oligosaccharide Mixture by Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.

Kittibunchakul, S., Maischberger, T., Domig, K. J., Kneifel, W., Nguyen, H. M., Haltrich, D. & Nguyen, T. H. (2018). Molecules, 23(12), 3352.

This study aimed to investigate the specific growth stimulation of certain desired intestinal bacteria by a novel galacto-oligosaccharide mixture, which was produced with a β-galactosidase from a potential probiotic Lactobacillus isolate that contained mainly oligosaccharides of β-1,3 and β-1,6 glycosidic linkages (termed Lb-GOS) using single-strain fermentations. The composition of this Lb-GOS mixture was 33.5% disaccharides, 60.5% trisaccharides, 4.8% tetrasaccharides, and 1.0% pentasaccharides with a negligible amount of monosaccharides, lactose, and lactobionic acid (0.3%). Eight Lactobacillus spp. strains and three Bifidobacterium spp. strains were used in single-strain fermentations to determine the fermentation activity scores of this Lb-GOS preparation compared to two commercially available prebiotic mixtures, 4′GOS-P and Vivinal GOS (V-GOS). The highest scores were obtained when L. reuteri Lb46 and the two Bifidobacterium strains, B. animalis subsp. Lactis Bif1 and Bif3, were grown on these galacto-oligosaccharide mixtures. In addition, the Lb-GOS mixture was found to have higher fermentation activity scores; hence, it stimulated the growth of these probiotic strains more than 4′GOS-P and V-GOS, which may be attributed to the different glycosidic linkage types that are found in the Lb-GOS mixture compared to the other two commercial preparations. These findings suggested that the Lb-GOS mixture that is described in this work should be of interest for the formulations of new carbohydrate-based functional food ingredients.

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Insignificance of lactose impurities on generation and structural characteristics of thermally stabilised whey protein-pectin complexes.

Protte, K., Weiss, J. & Hinrichs, J. (2018). International Dairy Journal, In Press.

We studied the impact of lactose impurities (0, 130, 150 mm) on micro- and macrostructural characteristics of thermally stabilised whey protein-pectin complexes (WPPC) by varying biopolymer concentration (chigh = 5.0% WPI + 1.0% pectin; cmed= 2.75% WPI + 0.55% pectin; cllow = 0.5% WPI + 0.1% pectin), shear rate (0, 150, 500 s-1) and scale (lab/pilot plant). We demonstrated that ≤ 150 mm lactose had no significant effect on the microstructure of WPPC, as investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and browning measurements. Unfolding of β-lactoglobulin within WPPC depended on the biopolymer concentration, being strongest at chigh. Measured browning was attributed to reactions between whey proteins and neutral sugars in pectin side chains. Particle size was unaffected by lactose, but showed an increase with biopolymer concentration and a decrease with shear rate. Thus, WPPC can likely be generated using whey powders with lactose impurities or other protein sources of lower purity.

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Kinetics of lactose fermentation in milk with kombucha starter.

Kanurić, K. G., Milanović, S. D., Ikonić, B. B., Lončar, E. S., Iličić, M. D., Vukić, V. R. & Vukić, D. V. (2018). Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, In Press.

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of new, non-conventional starter culture on the kinetics of the lactose transformation during milk fermentation by kombucha, at pH 5.8; 5.4; 5.1; 4.8; and 4.6, at two different temperatures 37°C and 42°C. Milk fermentation at 42°C lasted significantly shorter (about 5 h, 30 min) compared to the fermentation at 37°C. Changes of lactose concentration at the both temperatures are consisting of two retaining stages and very steep decline in-between. The analysis of the rate curves showed that the reaction rate passes through the maximum after 9 h, 30 min at 37°C and after 4 h at 42°C. The sigmoidal saturation curve indicates a complex kinetics of lactose fermentation by kombucha starter.

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Bistability and Nonmonotonic Induction of the lac Operon in the Natural Lactose Uptake System.

Zander, D., Samaga, D., Straube, R. & Bettenbrock, K. (2017). Biophysical Journal, 112(9), 1984-1996.

The Escherichia coli lac operon is regulated by a positive feedback loop whose potential to generate an all-or-none response in single cells has been a paradigm for bistable gene expression. However, so far bistable lac induction has only been observed using gratuitous inducers, raising the question about the biological relevance of bistable lac induction in the natural setting with lactose as the inducer. In fact, the existing experimental evidence points to a graded rather than an all-or-none response in the natural lactose uptake system. In contrast, predictions based on computational models of the lactose uptake pathway remain controversial. Although some argue in favor of bistability, others argue against it. Here, we reinvestigate lac operon expression in single cells using a combined experimental/modeling approach. To this end, we parameterize a well-supported mathematical model using transient measurements of LacZ activity upon induction with different amounts of lactose. The resulting model predicts a monostable induction curve for the wild-type system, but indicates that overexpression of the LacI repressor would drive the system into the bistable regime. Both predictions were confirmed experimentally supporting the view that the wild-type lac induction circuit generates a graded response rather than bistability. More interestingly, we find that the lac induction curve exhibits a pronounced maximum at intermediate lactose concentrations. Supported by our data, a model-based analysis suggests that the nonmonotonic response results from saturation of the LacI repressor at low inducer concentrations and dilution of Lac enzymes due to an increased growth rate beyond the saturation point. We speculate that the observed maximum in the lac expression level helps to save cellular resources by limiting Lac enzyme expression at high inducer concentrations.

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Effect of calcium reduction on the properties of half-fat Cheddar-style cheeses with full-salt or half-salt.

McCarthy, C. M., Wilkinson, M. G. & Guinee, T. P. (2017). International Dairy Journal, 73, 38-49.

Standard-calcium (SCa) and reduced-calcium (RCa) half-fat (16%) Cheddar-style cheeses with full-salt (1.9%) or half-salt (0.9%) were made in triplicate, ripened for 270 d, and analysed for composition and changes in lactose metabolism, pH, proteolysis, water-sorption, fracture properties and heat-induced flowability during maturation. The pressing load applied to the moulded cheese was modified to ensure equal moisture in all cheeses despite the differences in salt and calcium levels. The RCa cheeses were characterized by higher primary proteolysis (αs1-casein degradation, pH 4.6-soluble N development), lower secondary proteolysis (concentration of free amino acids), higher water-holding capacity on reducing relative humidity from 85 to 5%, lower fracture stress and strain, and more extensive flow on heating. Overall, the use calcium reduction, when used in conjunction with moisture normalization, proved an effective means of counteracting the adverse effects of fat reduction on texture and cooking properties in half-fat, half-salt cheese.

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Annexin A2 Positively Regulates Milk Synthesis and Proliferation of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells through the mTOR Signaling Pathway.

Zhang, M., Chen, D., Zhen, Z., Ao, J., Yuan, X. & Gao, X. (2017). Journal of Cellular Physiology, 233(3), 2464-2475.

Annexin A2 (AnxA2) has been shown to play multiple roles in growth, development and metabolism, but the functions of AnxA2 and the signaling pathways associated with AnxA2 are still not fully understood. In this study, we aim to reveal whether and how AnxA2 could be involved in milk synthesis and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Using gene function study approaches, we found that AnxA2 positively regulates PIP3 level, phosphorylation of mTOR and protein levels of SREBP-1c and Cyclin D1 leading to milk synthesis and cell proliferation. We further observed that both AnxA2-36 kD phosphorylated form and AnxA2-33 kD protein could be induced from AnxA2-36 kD protein in BMECs under methionine, leucine, estrogen or prolactin stimulation. These above results strongly demonstrate that AnxA2 functions as a critical regulator for amino acid or hormone-induced milk synthesis and cell proliferation via the PI3K-mTOR-SREBP-1c/Cyclin D1 signaling pathway.

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Evolution of free amino acids during ripening of Caciocavallo cheeses made with different milks.

Niro, S., Succi, M., Tremonte, P., Sorrentino, E., Coppola, R., Panfili, G. & Fratianni, A. (2017). Journal of Dairy Science, 100(12), 9521-9531.

The evolution of free amino acids (FAA) in Caciocavallo cheeses, made with cow milk (CC) and cow milk mixed with ewe (CE) and goat (CG) milk, was studied throughout ripening. In all Caciocavallo cheeses produced, the total free amino acid (TFAA) content increased during ripening. In general, the highest TFAA content was found in cow cheeses, and the lowest in CG cheeses, whereas CE cheeses ranged over an intermediate level. In all the analyzed samples, during ripening, the content of the individual FAA increased with the exception of arginine. Tyrosine and histidine were found only in CE samples from the middle to the end of ripening. The major FAA found throughout the whole ripening period, in all types of cheese, were leucine, phenylalanine, lysine, valine, asparagine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and ornithine. The TFAA and several AA showed significant differences in ripening time, whereas tyrosine and histidine showed significant differences in kinds of milk.

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Production of impure prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides and their effect on calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc absorption in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Maawia, K., Iqbal, S., Qamar, T. R., Rafiq, P., Ullah, A. & Ahmad, M. (2016). PharmaNutrition, 4(4), 154-160.

Prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are important “functional foods” of current scenario and used for various health benefits including improved mineral absorption. In the present study, it was hypothesized that novel GOS mixture, produced through transgalactosylation, with significant amount of mono and disaccharides may enhance mineral absorption in Sprague-Dawley rats. The non-purified GOS having β-(1 → 6) and β-(1 → 3) glycosidic linkage, were evaluated for apparent absorption of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. The rats were divided into two main groups (n = 12 per group, 6 male/6 female) fed on control and GOS (5 g/100 g) diet. The feces were collected after 7 days interval for 28 days. The weight gain, feed and water intake were statistically similar (p < 0.05) in both groups irrespective of gender. Similarly, the absorption of minerals was statistically not different in both genders during whole study. The GOS diet significantly (p < 0.05) improved absorption of Ca (34.55–39.93%), Mg (51.22–58.05%) and Fe (31.58–39.21%) as compared to control diet at the end of study. However, no impact on Zn absorption was observed during the whole study. It can be inferred that the use of non-purified GOS for 3–4 weeks may enhance Ca, Mg and Fe absorption.

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Novel Combination of Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Inulin-Inhibited Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation and Biomarkers of Colon Cancer in Wistar Rats.

Qamar, T. R., Syed, F., Nasir, M., Rehman, H., Zahid, M. N., Liu, R. H. & Iqbal, S. (2016). Nutrients, 8(8), 465.

The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin in cancer prevention. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of novel GOS and inulin against various biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rodent model. Prebiotic treatments of combined GOS and inulin (57 mg each), as well as individual doses (GOS: 76–151 mg; inulin 114 mg), were given to DMH-treated animals for 16 weeks. Our data reveal the significant preventive effect of the GOS and inulin combination against the development of CRC. It was observed that inhibition of ACF formation (55.8%) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher using the GOS and inulin combination than GOS (41.4%) and inulin (51.2%) treatments alone. This combination also rendered better results on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bacterial enzymatic activities. Dose-dependent effects of prebiotic treatments were also observed on cecum and fecal bacterial enzymes and on SCFA. Thus, this study demonstrated that novel combination of GOS and inulin exhibited stronger preventive activity than their individual treatments alone, and can be a promising strategy for CRC chemoprevention.

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