1,1,1-Kestopentaose

Content: 40 mg
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Ambient
Physical Form: Powder
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
CAS Number: 59432-60-9
Molecular Formula: C30H52O26
Molecular Weight: 828.7
Purity: > 80%
Substrate For (Enzyme): endo-Inulinase

High purity 1,1,1-Kestopentaose for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.

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Publications
Megazyme publication

Versatile high resolution oligosaccharide microarrays for plant glycobiology and cell wall research.

Pedersen, H. L., Fangel, J. U., McCleary, B., Ruzanski, C., Rydahl, M. G., Ralet, M. C., Farkas, V., Von Schantz, L., Marcus, S. E., Andersen, M.C. F., Field, R., Ohlin, M., Knox, J. P., Clausen, M. H. & Willats, W. G. T. (2012). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(47), 39429-39438.

Microarrays are powerful tools for high throughput analysis, and hundreds or thousands of molecular interactions can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Nucleotide microarrays are well established in plant research, but carbohydrate microarrays are much less established, and one reason for this is a lack of suitable glycans with which to populate arrays. Polysaccharide microarrays are relatively easy to produce because of the ease of immobilizing large polymers noncovalently onto a variety of microarray surfaces, but they lack analytical resolution because polysaccharides often contain multiple distinct carbohydrate substructures. Microarrays of defined oligosaccharides potentially overcome this problem but are harder to produce because oligosaccharides usually require coupling prior to immobilization. We have assembled a library of well characterized plant oligosaccharides produced either by partial hydrolysis from polysaccharides or by de novo chemical synthesis. Once coupled to protein, these neoglycoconjugates are versatile reagents that can be printed as microarrays onto a variety of slide types and membranes. We show that these microarrays are suitable for the high throughput characterization of the recognition capabilities of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and other oligosaccharide-binding proteins of biological significance and also that they have potential for the characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes.

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Sonochemical application reduces monosaccharide levels and improves cryoprotective effect of Jerusalem artichoke extract on Leuconostoc mesenteroides WiKim33 during freeze-drying.

Kim, Y. Y., Kim, H. M., Jeong, S. G., Yang, J. E., Kim, S. & Park, H. W. (2023). Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 95, 106413.

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are being used for probiotic and starter cultures to prevent global damage to microbial cells. To retain the benefits of LAB in the commercially used powdered form, highly efficient cryoprotective agents are required during the manufacturing process. This study suggests a novel cryoprotective agent derived from Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberous L.) and describes the mechanism of cryoprotective effect improvement by sonication treatment. The cryoprotective effect of JA extract was verified by examining the viability of Leuconostoc mesenteroides WiKim33 after freeze-drying (FD). Sonication of JA extract improved the cryoprotective effect. Sonication reduced fructose and glucose contents, which increased the induction of critical damage during FD by 15.84% and 46.81%, respectively. The cryoprotective effects of JA and sonication-treated JA extracts were determined using the viable cell count of Leu. mesenteroides WiKim33. Immediately after FD and storage for 24 weeks, the viability of Leu. mesenteroides WiKim33 with JA extract was 82.8% and 76.3%, respectively, while that of the sonication-treated JA extract was 95.2% and 88.8%, respectively. Our results show that reduction in specific monosaccharides was correlated with improved cryoprotective effect. This study adopted sonication as a novel treatment for improving the cryoprotective effect and verified its efficiency.

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High-yield production and purification of prebiotic inulin-type fructooligosaccharides.

Wienberg, F., Hövels, M. & Deppenmeier, U. (2022). AMB Express, 12(1), 1-16.

Due to the health-promoting effects and functional properties of inulin-type fructooligosaccharides (I-FOS), the global market for I-FOS is constantly growing. Hence, there is a continuing demand for new, efficient biotechnological approaches for I-FOS production. In this work, crude inulosucrase InuGB-V3 from Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 20604 was used to synthesize I-FOS from sucrose. Supplementation with 1 mM CaCl2, a pH of 3.5-5.5, and an incubation temperature of 40°C were found to be optimal production parameters at which crude inulosucrase showed high conversion rates, low sucrose hydrolysis, and excellent stability over 4 days. The optimal process conditions were employed in cell-free bioconversion reactions. By elevating the substrate concentration from 570 to 800 g L−1, the I-FOS concentration and the synthesis of products with a low degree of polymerization (DP) could be increased, while sucrose hydrolysis was decreased. Bioconversion of 800 g L−1 sucrose for 20 h resulted in an I-FOS-rich syrup with an I-FOS concentration of 401 ± 7 g L−1 and an I-FOS purity of 53 ± 1% [w/w]. I-FOS with a DP of 3-11 were synthesized, with 1,1-kestotetraose (DP4) being the predominant transfructosylation product. The high-calorie sugars glucose, sucrose, and fructose were removed from the generated I-FOS-rich syrup using activated charcoal. Thus, 81 ± 5% of the initially applied I-FOS were recovered with a purity of 89 ± 1%.

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Transformation of sugarcane molasses into fructooligosaccharides with enhanced prebiotic activity using whole-cell biocatalysts from Aureobasidium pullulans FRR 5284 and an invertase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1403-7A.

Khatun, M. S., Hassanpour, M., Mussatto, S. I., Harrison, M. D., Speight, R. E., O’Hara, I. M. & Zhang, Z. (2021). Bioresources and Bioprocessing, 8(1), 1-12.

Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can be used as feed prebiotics, but are limited by high production costs. In this study, low-cost sugarcane molasses was used to produce whole-cell biocatalysts containing transfructosylating enzymes by Aureobasidium pullulans FRR 5284, followed by FOS production from molasses using the whole-cells of A. pullulans. A. pullulans in molasses-based medium produced cells and broth with a total transfructosylating activity of 123.6 U/mL compared to 61.0 and 85.8 U/mL in synthetic molasses-based and sucrose-based media, respectively. It was found that inclusion of glucose in sucrose medium reduced both transfructosylating and hydrolytic activities of the produced cells and broth. With the use of pure glucose medium, cells and broth had very low levels of transfructosylating activities and hydrolytic activities were not detected. These results indicated that A. pullulans FRR 5284 produced both constitutive and inducible enzymes in sucrose-rich media, such as molasses while it only produced constitutive enzymes in the glucose media. Furthermore, treatment of FOS solutions generated from sucrose-rich solutions using an invertase-deficient Saccharomyces yeast converted glucose to ethanol and acetic acid and improved FOS content in total sugars by 20–30%. Treated FOS derived from molasses improved the in vitro growth of nine probiotic strains by 9-63% compared to a commercial FOS in 12 h incubation. This study demonstrated the potential of using molasses to produce FOS for feed application.

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Efficient production of fructo-oligosaccharides from sucrose and molasses by a novel Aureobasidium pullulan strain.

Khatun, M. S., Harrison, M. D., Speight, R. E., O’Hara, I. M. & Zhang, Z. (2020). Biochemical Engineering Journal, 163, 107747.

The use of whole-cell biocatalyst for production of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) eliminates the need for costly enzyme recovery and purification. In this study, a novel Aureobasidium pullulans strain (FRR 5284) was identified from seven A. pulllulans strains as an efficient whole-cell biocatalyst for FOS production. The strain had a specific intracellular transfructosylating activity of 4.44 ± 0.18 U/mg dry cells, one of the highest transfructosylating activities thus far reported for whole-cell biocatalyst. Under optimal conditions (pH 5.5 and 55°C), only 5 g/L of dry cells and 3 h reaction time were required to achieve a FOS yield of 61 % from 50 % (w/v) sucrose. Incubation of sugarcane molasses with an invertase-free Saccharomyces cerevisiae prior to addition of A. pullulans whole-cell biocatalyst eliminated glucose inhibition and increased FOS yield from 44 % to 56 % in 1 h. This study has demonstrated that the novel A. pullulans FRR 5284 was an efficient source of whole-cell biocatalyst for FOS production and a promising strategy for transformation of sucrose and sugarcane molasses into a higher-value prebiotic.

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Enzymatic degradation of FODMAPS via application of β-fructofuranosidases and α-galactosidases-A fundamental study.

Atzler, J. J., Ispiryan, L., Gallager, E., Sahin, A. W., Zannini, E. & Arendt, E. K. (2020).  Journal of Cereal Science, 102993.

Cereals and pulses often contribute to the intake of Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides, and Polyols (FODMAPs) due to high amounts of fructans or galactooligosaccharides (GOS). FODMAPs can trigger symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and therefore, the development of foods and beverages with a lower FODMAP-content are favourable for IBS patients. Enzyme technology is a promising tool to reduce the FODMAP-content in foods and to maintain product quality. This fundamental study investigates the efficiency of invertase, inulinase, and α-galactosidase as potential food additives to reduce the total FODMAP content of food ingredients. Extracts of high FODMAP ingredients, such as wheat and lentil, and standard solutions of various fructans and GOS were incubated with invertase, inulinase and α-galactosidase for 1 h and 2 h. Contents of oligosaccharides before and after treatment and related IBS-triggering reaction products were quantified using ion chromatography. Inulinase showed a high degradation yield (over 90% of degradation) for both GOS and fructans. For invertase only low degradation yields were measured. α-Galactosidase showed the highest efficiency in decomposing GOS (100% of degradation) and led to non-IBS triggering degradation products. This indicates a high potential for a combined inulinase/α-galactosidase treatment for products containing both fructans and GOS.

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Engineered thermostable β-fructosidase from Thermotoga maritima with enhanced fructooligosaccharides synthesis.

Menéndez, C., Martínez, D., Pérez, E. R., Musacchio, A., Ramírez, R., López-Munguía, A. & Hernández, L. (2019). Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 125, 53-62.

The thermostable β-fructosidase (BfrA) from the bacterium Thermotoga maritima converts sucrose into glucose, fructose, and low levels of short–chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS) at high substrate concentration (1.75 M) and elevated temperatures (60-70°C). In this research, FOS produced by BfrA were characterized by HPAE-PAD analysis as a mixture of 1–kestotriose, 6G-kestotriose (neokestose), and to a major extent 6-kestotriose. In order to increase the FOS yield, three BfrA mutants (W14Y, W14Y-N16S and W14Y-W256Y), designed from sequence divergence between hydrolases and transferases, were constructed and constitutively expressed in the non-saccharolytic yeast Pichia pastoris. The secreted recombinant glycoproteins were purified and characterized. The three mutants synthesized -kestotriose as the major component of a FOS mixture that includes minor amounts of tetra- and pentasaccharides. In all cases, sucrose hydrolysis was the predominant reaction. All mutants reached a similar overall FOS yield, with the average value 37.6% (w/w) being 3–fold higher than that of the wild–type enzyme (12.6%, w/w). None of the mutations altered the enzyme thermophilicity and thermostability. The single mutant W14Y, with specific activity of 841 U mg−1, represents an attractive candidate for the continuous production of FOS–containing invert syrup at pasteurization temperatures.

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Impact of grain sorghum polyphenols on microbiota of normal weight and overweight/obese subjects during in vitro fecal fermentation.

Ashley, D., Marasini, D., Brownmiller, C., Lee, J., Carbonero, F. & Lee, S. O. (2019). Nutrients, 11(2), 217.

The human gut microbiota is considered as a crucial mediator between diet and gut homeostasis and body weight. The unique polyphenolic profile of sorghum bran may promote gastrointestinal health by modulating the microbiota. This study evaluated gut microbiota and modulation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) by sorghum bran polyphenols in in vitro batch fermentation derived from normal weight (NW, n = 11) and overweight/obese (OO, n = 11) subjects’ fecal samples. Six separate treatments were applied on each batch fermentation: negative control (NC), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), black sorghum bran extract (BSE), sumac sorghum bran extract (SSE), FOS + BSE, or FOS + SSE; and samples were collected before and after 24 h. No significant differences in total and individual SCFA production were observed between NW and OO subjects. Differential responses to treatment according to weight class were observed in both phyla and genera. Sorghum bran polyphenols worked with FOS to enhance Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, and independently stimulated Roseburia and Prevotella (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that sorghum bran polyphenols have differential effects on gut health and may positively impact gut ecology, with responses varying depending on weight class.

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Fructooligosaccharides production by Schedonorus arundinaceus sucrose: sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase constitutively expressed to high levels in Pichia pastoris.

Hernández, L., Menéndez, C., Pérez, E. R., Martínez, D., Alfonso, D., Trujillo, L. E., Ramírez, R., Sobrino, A., Mazola, Y., Musacchio, A. & Pimentel, E. (2017). Journal of biotechnology, 266, 59-71.

The non-saccharolytic yeast Pichia pastoris was engineered to express constitutively the mature region of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST, EC 2.4.1.99) from Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus). The increase of the transgene dosage from one to nine copies enhanced 7.9-fold the recombinant enzyme (Sa1-SSTrec) yield without causing cell toxicity. Secretion driven by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-factor signal peptide resulted in periplasmic retention (38%) and extracellular release (62%) of Sa1-SSTrec to an overall activity of 102.1 U/ml when biomass reached (106 g/l, dry weight) in fed-batch fermentation using cane sugar for cell growth. The volumetric productivity of the nine-copy clone PGFT6x-308 at the end of fermentation (72 h) was 1422.2 U/l/h. Sa1-SSTrec purified from the culture supernatant was a monomeric glycoprotein optimally active at pH 5.0-6.0 and 45-50°C. The removal of N-linked oligosaccharides by Endo Hf treatment decreased the enzyme stability but had no effect on the substrate and product specificities. Sa1-SSTrec converted sucrose (600 g/l) into 1-kestose (GF2) and nystose (GF3) in a ratio 9:1 with their sum representing 55-60% (w/w) of the total carbohydrates in the reaction mixture. Variations in the sucrose (100-800 g/l) or enzyme (1.5-15 units per gram of substrate) concentrations kept unaltered the product profile. Sa1-SSTrec is an attractive candidate enzyme for the industrial production of short-chain fructooligosaccharides, most particularly 1-kestose.

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Characterization of fructans from Agave durangensis.

Orozco-Cortes, A. D., Alvarez-Manilla, G., Gutierrez-Sanchez, G., Rutiaga-Quinones, O. M., Lopez-Miranda, J. & Soto-Cruz, N. O. (2015). African Journal of Plant Science, 9(9), 360-367.

Agave plants are members of the Agavaceae family and utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO2 fixation. Fructans are the main photosynthetic products produced by Agave plants, and are their principal source of storage carbohydrates. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical and molecular characterization of fructans from Agave durangensis. Fructans were extracted from 10 year old A. durangensis plants. Trimethylsilyl derivatization was employed to determine the monomer composition. The linkage types in these carbohydrates were determined by methylation followed by reduction and O-acetylation, and finally analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples were shown to contain t-β-D-Fruf, t-α-D-Glup, i-α-D-6-Glup and 1,6-di-β-D-Fruf linkages. The analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) was confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS, showing a wide DP ranging from 2 to 29 units. The analyses performed revealed that fructans from A. durangensis are formed of 97.11% fructose and 2.89% glucose, and are a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides of the neo-fructan type containing principally β-(2-1) and β-(2-6) linkages, with branch moieties.

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