2,000 Units at 70oC
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|Content:||2,000 Units at 70oC|
|Formulation:||In 3.2 M ammonium sulphate|
|Stability:||Minimum 1 year at 4oC. Check vial for details.|
|Synonyms:||endo-1,4-beta-xylanase; 4-beta-D-xylan xylanohydrolase|
|Source:||Bacillus stearothermophilus T6|
|Concentration:||Supplied at ~ 1,000 U/mL|
|Expression:||Recombinant from Bacillus stearothermophilus T6|
|Specificity:||endo-hydrolysis of (1,4)-β-D-xylosidic linkages in xylans.|
|Specific Activity:|| ~ 65 U/mg (70oC, pH 6.5 on wheat arabinoxylan); |
~ 12 U/mg (40oC, pH 6.5 on wheat arabinoxylan)
|Unit Definition:||One Unit of xylanase activity is defined as the amount of enzyme required to release one µmole of xylose reducing-sugar equivalents per minute from wheat arabinoxylan (5 mg/mL) in MES buffer (100 mM), pH 6.5.|
|Application examples:||Applications in carbohydrate and biofuels research and in the food and feeds and paper pulping industries.|
Mangan, D., Cornaggia, C., Liadova, A., McCormack, N., Ivory, R., McKie, V. A., Ormerod, A. & McCleary, D. V. (2017). Carbohydrate Research, 445, 14-22.
endo-1,4-β-Xylanase (EC 188.8.131.52) is employed across a broad range of industries including animal feed, brewing, baking, biofuels, detergents and pulp (paper). Despite its importance, a rapid, reliable, reproducible, automatable assay for this enzyme that is based on the use of a chemically defined substrate has not been described to date. Reported herein is a new enzyme coupled assay procedure, termed the XylX6 assay, that employs a novel substrate, namely 4,6-O-(3-ketobutylidene)-4-nitrophenyl-β-45-O-glucosyl-xylopentaoside. The development of the substrate and associated assay is discussed here and the relationship between the activity values obtained with the XylX6 assay versus traditional reducing sugar assays and its specificity and reproducibility were thoroughly investigated.Hide Abstract
McCleary, B. V., McKie, V. A., Draga, A., Rooney, E., Mangan, D. & Larkin, J. (2015). Carbohydrate Research, 407, 79-96.
A range of α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-xylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) were produced by hydrolysis of wheat flour arabinoxylan (WAX) and acid debranched arabinoxylan (ADWAX), in the presence and absence of an AXH-d3 α-L-arabinofuranosidase, by several GH10 and GH11 β-xylanases. The structures of the oligosaccharides were characterised by GC-MS and NMR and by hydrolysis by a range of α-L-arabinofuranosidases and β-xylosidase. The AXOS were purified and used to characterise the action patterns of the specific α-L-arabinofuranosidases. These enzymes, in combination with either Cellvibrio mixtus or Neocallimastix patriciarum β -xylanase, were used to produce elevated levels of specific AXOS on hydrolysis of WAX, such as 32-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylobiose (A3X), 23-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A2XX), 33-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A3XX), 22-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (XA2X), 32-α-L-Araf (1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (XA3X), 23-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA2XX), 33-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA3XX), 23 ,33-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A2+3XX), 23,33-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA2+3XX), 24,34-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylopentaose (XA2+3XXX) and 33,34-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylopentaose (XA3A3XX), many of which have not previously been produced in sufficient quantities to allow their use as substrates in further enzymic studies. For A2,3XX, yields of approximately 16% of the starting material (wheat arabinoxylan) have been achieved. Mixtures of the α-L-arabinofuranosidases, with specific action on AXOS, have been combined with β-xylosidase and β-xylanase to obtain an optimal mixture for hydrolysis of arabinoxylan to L-arabinose and D-xylose.Hide Abstract
Lignocellulose degradation for the bioeconomy: the potential of enzyme synergies between xylanases, ferulic acid esterase and laccase for the production of arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides.
Schmitz, E., Leontakianakou, S., Norlander, S., Karlsson, E. N. & Adlercreutz, P. (2021). Bioresource Technology, 343, 126114.
The success of establishing bioeconomies replacing current economies based on fossil resources largely depends on our ability to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. This study explores the potential of employing various enzymes acting synergistically on previously pretreated agricultural side streams (corn bran, oat hull, soluble and insoluble oat bran). Degrees of synergy (oligosaccharide yield obtained with the enzyme combination divided by the sum of yields obtained with individual enzymes) of up to 88 were obtained. Combinations of a ferulic acid esterase and xylanases resulted in synergy on all substrates, while a laccase and xylanases only acted synergistically on the more recalcitrant substrates. Synergy between different xylanases (glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 5 and 11) was observed particularly on oat hulls, producing a yield of 57%. The synergistic ability of the enzymes was found to be partly due to the increased enzyme stability when in combination with the substrates.Hide Abstract
Cürten, C., Anders, N., Juchem, N., Ihling, N., Volkenborn, K., Knapp, A., Jaeger, K. E., Büchs, J. & Spiess, A. C. (2017). Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 410(1), 57-69.
In contrast to biochemical reactions, which are often carried out under automatic control and maintained overnight, the automation of chemical analysis is usually neglected. Samples are either analyzed in a rudimentary fashion using in situ techniques, or aliquots are withdrawn and stored to facilitate more precise offline measurements, which can result in sampling and storage errors. Therefore, in this study, we implemented automated reaction control, sampling, and analysis. As an example, the activities of xylanases on xylotetraose and soluble xylan were examined using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The reaction was performed in HPLC vials inside a temperature-controlled Dionex™ AS-AP autosampler. It was started automatically when the autosampler pipetted substrate and enzyme solution into the reaction vial. Afterwards, samples from the reaction vial were injected repeatedly for 60 min onto a CarboPac™ PA100 column for analysis. Due to the rapidity of the reaction, the analytical method and the gradient elution of 200 mM sodium hydroxide solution and 100 mM sodium hydroxide with 500 mM sodium acetate were adapted to allow for an overall separation time of 13 min and a detection limit of 0.35-1.83 mg/L (depending on the xylooligomer). This analytical method was applied to measure the soluble short-chain products (xylose, xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose, and longer xylooligomers) that arise during enzymatic hydrolysis. Based on that, the activities of three endoxylanases (EX) were determined as 294 U/mg for EX from Aspergillus niger, 1.69 U/mg for EX from Bacillus stearothermophilus, and 0.36 U/mg for EX from Bacillus subtilis.Hide Abstract
Najah, M., Mayot, E., Mahendra-Wijaya, I. P., Griffiths, A. D., Ladame, S. & Drevelle, A. (2013). Analytical Chemistry, 85(20), 9807-9814.
Droplet-based microfluidics is a powerful technique allowing ultra-high-throughput screening of large libraries of enzymes or microorganisms for the selection of the most efficient variants. Most applications in droplet microfluidic screening systems use fluorogenic substrates to measure enzymatic activities with fluorescence readout. It is important, however, that there is little or no fluorophore exchange between droplets, a condition not met with most commonly employed substrates. Here we report the synthesis of fluorogenic substrates for glycosidases based on a sulfonated 7-hydroxycoumarin scaffold. We found that the presence of the sulfonate group effectively prevents leakage of the coumarin from droplets, no exchange of the sulfonated coumarins being detected over 24 h at 30°C. The fluorescence properties of these substrates were characterized over a wide pH range, and their specificity was studied on a panel of relevant glycosidases (cellulases and xylanases) in microtiter plates. Finally, the β-D-cellobioside-6,8-difluoro-7-hydroxycoumarin-4-methanesulfonate substrate was used to assay cellobiohydrolase activity on model bacterial strains (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) in a droplet-based microfluidic format. These new substrates can be used to assay glycosidase activities in a wide pH range (4–11) and with incubation times of up to 24 h in droplet-based microfluidic systems.Hide Abstract