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|Formulation:||In 3.2 M ammonium sulphate|
|Stability:||> 4 years at 4oC|
|Synonyms:||arabinogalactan endo-beta-1,4-galactanase; arabinogalactan 4-beta-D-galactanohydrolase|
|Expression:||From Aspergillus niger|
|Specificity:||endo-hydrolysis of (1,4)-β-D-galactose linkages in (1,4)-β-galactans and type I arabinogalactans.|
|Specific Activity:||> 150 U/mg (40oC, pH 4.0 on potato galactan)|
|Unit Definition:||One Unit of galactanase activity is defined as the amount of enzyme required to release one µmole of galactose reducing-sugar equivalents per minute from potato galactan (10 mg/mL) in sodium acetate buffer (100 mM), pH 4.0 at 40oC.|
High purity endo-1,4-β-Galactanase (Aspergillus niger) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.
Guillon, F., Moïse, A., Quemener, B., Bouchet, B., Devaux, M. F., Alvarado, C. & Lahaye, M. (2017). Plant Science, 257, 48-62.
Tomato fruit texture depends on histology and cell wall architecture, both under genetic and developmental controls. If ripening related cell wall modifications have been well documented with regard to softening, little is known about cell wall construction during early fruit development. Identification of key events and their kinetics with regard to tissue architecture and cell wall development can provide new insights on early phases of texture elaboration. In this study, changes in pectin and hemicellulose chemical characteristics and location were investigated in the pericarp tissue of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon var Levovil) at four stages of development (7, 14 and 21 day after anthesis (DPA) and mature green stages). Analysis of cell wall composition and polysaccharide structure revealed that both are continuously modified during fruit development. At early stages, the relative high rhamnose content in cell walls indicates a high synthesis of rhamnogalacturonan I next to homogalacturonan. Fine tuning of rhamnogalacturonan I side chains appears to occur from the cell expansion phase until prior to the mature green stage. Cell wall polysaccharide remodelling also concerns xyloglucans and (galacto)glucomannans, the major hemicelluloses in tomato cell walls. In situ localization of cell wall polysaccharides in pericarp tissue revealed non-ramified RG-I rich pectin and XyG at cellular junctions and in the middle lamella of young fruit. Blocks of non-methyl esterified homogalacturonan are detected as soon as 14 DPA in the mesocarp and remained restricted to cell corner and middle lamella whatever the stages. These results point to new questions about the role of pectin RGI and XyG in cell adhesion and its maintenance during cell expansion.Hide Abstract
Schäfer, J., Brett, A., Trierweiler, B. & Bunzel, M. (2016). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64(45), 8625-8632.
Cell wall composition affects the texture of plant-based foods. In addition, the main components of plant cell walls are dietary fiber constituents and are responsible for potential physiological effects that are largely affected by the structural composition of the cell walls. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) is known to develop a woody and firm texture during maturation and ripening, most likely due to changes in the cell wall composition. To describe these changes chemically, radish was cultivated and harvested at different time points, followed by detailed chemical analysis of insoluble fiber polysaccharides and lignin. During maturation, changes in polysaccharide profiles were observed, with a decrease in the portion of neutral pectic side chains and an increase in the xylan portion being predominant. Radish lignin was characterized by unexpectedly high incorporation of p-coumaryl alcohol into the polymer. Maturation dependent increases in lignin contents were accompanied by compositional changes of the lignin polymers with sinapyl alcohol being preferentially incorporated.Hide Abstract
Khodaei, N., Fernandez, B., Fliss, I. & Karboune, S. (2016). Carbohydrate Polymers, 136, 1074-1084.
Galactose-rich oligosaccharides/oligomers (oligo-RG I) were produced by the enzymatic treatment of potato galactan-rich rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) with endo-β-1,4-galactanase and Depol 670L multi-enzymatic preparation. The digestibility study revealed that 81.6 and 79.3% of RG I and its corresponding oligomers remained unhydrolyzed, respectively. The prebiotic properties of RG I and its hydrolysates were investigated using a continuous culture system inoculated with immobilized fecal microbiota. Both RG I and oligo-RG I have stimulated the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp., with oligo-RG I hydrolysates being more selectively fermented by these beneficial bacteria. Furthermore, none of RG I nor its hydrolysates increased the populations of Bacteroidetes and Clostridium leptum. Total amounts of short chain fatty acids, generated upon the fermentation of oligo-RG I, were higher than those obtained with its parent RG I and the positive control (fructooligosaccharides). The overall study contributes to the understandings of the prebiotic properties of potato RG I and its corresponding oligosaccharides/oligomers.Hide Abstract
Shinohara, N., Kakegawa, K. & Fukuda, H. (2015). Journal of Plant Research, 128(6), 975-986.
Xylogenesis, a process by which woody tissues are formed, entails qualitative and quantitative changes in the cell wall. However, the molecular events that underlie these changes are not completely understood. Previously, we have isolated two monoclonal antibodies, referred to as XD3 and XD27, by subtractive screening of a phage-display library of antibodies raised against a wall fraction of Zinnia elegans xylogenic culture cells. Here we report the biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of those antibodies. The antibody XD3 recognized (1→4)-β-D-galactan in pectin fraction. During xylogenesis, the XD3 epitope was localized to the primary wall of tracheary-element precursor cells, which undergo substantial cell elongation, and was absent from mature tracheary elements. XD27 recognized an arabinogalactan protein that was bound strongly to a germin-like protein. The XD27 epitope was localized to pre-lignified secondary walls of tracheary elements. Thus these cell-wall-directed monoclonal antibodies revealed two molecular events during xylogenesis. The biological significance of these events is discussed in relation to current views of the plant cell wall.Hide Abstract