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Sucrose/D-Fructose/D-Glucose Assay Kit

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0:05  Introduction
0:52  Principle
1:21    Reagent Preparation
2:04  Procedure
6:04  Calculation

Sucrose D-Fructose D-Glucose Assay Kit K-SUFRG Scheme
Product code: K-SUFRG

300 assays (100 of each) per kit

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Content: 300 assays (100 of each) per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: D-Fructose, D-Glucose, Sucrose
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 340
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 4 to 80 µg of D-glucose, D-fructose or sucrose per assay
Limit of Detection: 1.38 mg/L
Reaction Time (min): ~ 23 min
Application examples: Beer, fruit juices, soft drinks, milk, jam, honey, dietetic foods, bread, bakery products, dairy products, candies, desserts, confectionery, sweets, ice-cream, fruit and vegetables (e.g. potato), meat products (e.g. sausage), condiments (e.g. ketchup and mustard), feed, tobacco, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paper and other materials.
Method recognition: Methods based on this principle have been accepted by NF, EN, NEN, DIN, GOST, IFU, AIJN, MEBAK and IOCCC

The Sucrose/D-Fructose/D-Glucose test kit is suitable for the measurement and analysis of sucrose, D-glucose and D-fructose in plant and food products.

Sucrose, D-glucose and D-fructose are found in most plant and food products. In plant materials, D-glucose and D-fructose occur as free sugars in sucrose, and in a range of oligosaccharides (galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides) and polysaccharides such as fructans (inulins), starch, 1,3:1,4-β-D-glucans and cellulose.

Note for Content: The number of manual tests per kit can be doubled if all volumes are halved.  This can be readily accommodated using the MegaQuantTM  Wave Spectrophotometer (D-MQWAVE).

See all of our monosaccharide and disaccharide assay kit products.

Scheme-K-SUFRG SUFRG Megazyme

  • Extended cofactors stability. Dissolved cofactors stable for > 1 year at 4oC.
  • Very competitive price (cost per test) 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation 
  • Rapid reaction 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Stabilised D-glucose / D-fructose standard solution included
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Product Performance Validation Report
Megazyme publication

Megazyme “advanced” wine test kits general characteristics and validation.

Charnock, S. J., McCleary, B. V., Daverede, C. & Gallant, P. (2006). Reveue des Oenologues, 120, 1-5.

Many of the enzymatic test kits are official methods of prestigious organisations such as the Association of Official Analytical Chemicals (AOAC) and the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) in response to the interest from oenologists. Megazyme decided to use its long history of enzymatic bio-analysis to make a significant contribution to the wine industry, by the development of a range of advanced enzymatic test kits. This task has now been successfully completed through the strategic and comprehensive process of identifying limitations of existing enzymatic bio-analysis test kits where they occurred, and then using advanced techniques, such as molecular biology (photo 1), to rapidly overcome them. Novel test kits have also been developed for analytes of emerging interest to the oenologist, such as yeast available nitrogen (YAN; see pages 2-3 of issue 117 article), or where previously enzymes were simply either not available, or were too expensive to employ, such as for D-mannitol analysis.

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Megazyme publication

Grape and wine analysis: Oenologists to exploit advanced test kits.

Charnock, S. C. & McCleary, B. V. (2005). Revue des Enology, 117, 1-5.

It is without doubt that testing plays a pivotal role throughout the whole of the vinification process. To produce the best possible quality wine and to minimise process problems such as “stuck” fermentation or troublesome infections, it is now recognised that if possible testing should begin prior to harvesting of the grapes and continue through to bottling. Traditional methods of wine analysis are often expensive, time consuming, require either elaborate equipment or specialist expertise and frequently lack accuracy. However, enzymatic bio-analysis enables the accurate measurement of the vast majority of analytes of interest to the wine maker, using just one piece of apparatus, the spectrophotometer (see previous issue No. 116 for a detailed technical review). Grape juice and wine are amenable to enzymatic testing as being liquids they are homogenous, easy to manipulate, and can generally be analysed without any sample preparation.

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Comparative phytochemical profile of the elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum var. holmense) and the common garlic (Allium sativum) from the Val di Chiana area (Tuscany, Italy) before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

Ceccanti, C., Rocchetti, G., Lucini, L., Giuberti, G., Landi, M., Biagiotti, S. & Guidi, L. (2020). Food Chemistry, 338, 128011.

This study is aimed to comparatively investigate the phytochemical profiles, focusing on the nutritional and phytochemical properties of common garlic (Allium sativum L.; CG) and elephant garlic (EG) (Allium ampeloprasum var. holmense) collected from the Val di Chiana area (Tuscany, Italy). The results showed a lower amount of fibers, demonstrating a higher digestibility of the bulb, and sulfur-containing compounds in EG rather than in CG. Untargeted metabolomic profiling followed by supervised and unsupervised statistics allowed understanding the differences in phytochemical composition among the two bulbs, both as raw bulbs, processed following the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process. Typical sulfur-containing compounds, such as alliin and N-gamma-glutamyl-S-allyl cysteine, could notably be detected in lower amounts in EG. EG maintains a distinct phytochemical signature during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Our findings support the distinct sensorial attributes of the bulbs.

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Beverage-Drug Interaction: Effects of Green Tea Beverage Consumption on Atorvastatin Metabolism and Membrane Transporters in the Small Intestine and Liver of Rats.

Yao, H. T., Hsu, Y. R. & Li, M. L. (2020). Membranes, 10(9), 233.

Green tea (GT) beverages are popular worldwide and may prevent the development of many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. To investigate whether the consumption of a GT beverage causes drug interactions, the effects of GT beverage consumption on atorvastatin metabolism and membrane transporters were evaluated. Male rats were fed a chow diet with tap water or the GT beverage for 3 weeks. Then, the rats were given a single oral dose (10 mg/kg body weight (BW)) of atorvastatin (ATV), and blood was collected at various time points within 6 h. The results show that GT consumption increased the plasma concentrations (AUC0–6h) of ATV (+85%) and 2-OH ATV (+93.3%). GT also increased the 2-OH ATV (+40.9%) and 4-OH ATV (+131.6%) contents in the liver. Decreased cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzyme activity, with no change in P-glycoprotein expression in the intestine, was observed in rats treated with GT. Additionally, GT increased hepatic CYP3A-mediated ATV metabolism and decreased organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) 2 membrane protein expression. There was no significant difference in the membrane protein expression of OATP2B1 and P-glycoprotein in the intestine and liver after the GT treatment. The results show that GT consumption may lower hepatic OATP2 and, thus, limit hepatic drug uptake and increase plasma exposure to ATV and 2-OH ATV.

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Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana in rhizobox culture system evaluated through the lens of root microbiome.

Mercier, A., Mignerot, L., Hennion, N., Gravouil, K., Porcheron, B., Durand, M., Maurousset, L., Héchard, Y., Bertaux, J., Ferreira, T., Lauga, B., Lemoine, R. & Pourtau, N. (2020). Plant and Soil, 455(1), 467-487.

Aims: The present study provides an insight on physiological parameters and root-associated microbiome of two complementary Arabidopsis thaliana culture systems suitable for physiological studies. Methods: A. thaliana plants were grown in rhizobox and in classic pot culture. An analysis of plant growth parameters along with the characterization of the bacterial communities of the compost and the rhizosphere, rhizoplane and endosphere compartments were performed. Results: A. thaliana plants grown in rhizobox exhibited a plant habitus similar to those grown in pots during the first month, but with a delayed leaf initiation and slower rate of growth over the experiment. No nutrient deficiency symptoms were observed in these plants. The rhizobox design permits the migration of bacteria from compost to plant roots and allowed root-bacteria interactions to be established as in traditional pot culture. Some differences into the composition of the rhizobiome were highlighted between the two culture systems. Nevertheless, key bacterial taxa that help to ensure plant growth and health colonized the rhizo- and endosphere compartments in both systems. Conclusions: This study gives some clues for future research programs and selection of efficient root systems with the use of such specific culture devices.

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Non‐structural carbohydrates and sugar export in grapevine leaves exposed to different light regimes.

Dayer, S., Murcia, G., Prieto, J. A., Durán, M., Martinez, L., Píccoli, P. & Perez Peña, J. (2020). Physiologia PlantarumIn Press.

Light is a main environmental factor that determines leaf microclimate within the vine, as well as its photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. This study aimed to examine the relationships between photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and the expression of related genes in leaves of grapevine grown under different radiation regimes. During the 2014/2015 growing season, an experiment was conducted on a Malbec vineyard (Vitis vinifera L.) in which four radiation exposure treatments were established on the leaves: (1) East, (2) West, (3) Sun, and (4) Shade (i.e., reduction in light intensity). Diurnal dynamics of photosynthesis and non‐structural carbohydrates were measured and leaf export rates were calculated. Transcript profiles of leaf sugar transporters (VvHT1, VvHT3, VvSUC27), a sucrose phosphate synthase enzyme (VvSPS), and invertases (VvGIN1, VvCWI) were also examined. We showed that East and Sun leaves had higher daily photosynthetic and export rates than West leaves, which was mainly explained by the environmental conditions (air and leaf temperature, VPDleaf‐air) and leaf water status. Shade leaves accumulated less starch and soluble sugars than exposed leaves, which correlated with a higher expression of hexose transporters and invertases. The hypotheses that these sugars in Shade leaves would play a role as signaling molecules and/or have increased sink strength and phloem unloading are discussed. These results allow us to understand the physiological and molecular behavior of leaves exposed to different radiation regimes, which can be used to design appropriate vineyard management practices.

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Cake perception, texture and aroma profile as affected by wheat flour and cocoa replacement with carob flour.

Papageorgiou, M., Paraskevopoulou, A., Pantazi, F. & Skendi, A. (2020). Foods, 9(11), 1586.

Carob flour has been used in the production of a wide range of functional food formulations such as bakery goods either as a natural sweetener or food ingredient that, when roasted, exerts a chocolate/cocoa-reminiscent flavor and color. The aim of the present study was twofold; firstly to study the effect of an increasing incorporation of roasted carob flour (0-70% flour basis) on the quality and sensory attributes of a conventional cocoa cake recipe and secondly to investigate the obtained volatile fraction responsible for the aroma by means of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) while comparing it with the control, cocoa-containing cake recipe. Thirty and fifty percent carob flour incorporation rendered cakes with acceptable texture and sensory attributes, comparable to the control cake recipe containing 20% cocoa. Similarity to cocoa aroma was attributed to a great number of odor active compounds mainly belonging to aldehydes, lactones, furan/pyran derivatives, and pyrrole derivatives.

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Breakfast cereals with inulin obtained through thermoplastic extrusion: Chemical characteristics and physical and technological properties.

Ferreira, S. M., Capriles, V. D. & Conti-Silva, A. C. (2020). LWT, 137, 110390.

Inulin is an interesting dietary fiber with potential to improve the technological and nutritional properties of food products. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop breakfast cereals through extrusion of corn grits with added inulin and evaluating the effects of different extrusion conditions on the chemical, physical and technological characteristics. The independent variables of the experimental design were the moisture of the ‘corn grits and inulin’ mixture (11.5-18.5 g/100 g) and the amount of inulin added (5.1-24.9 g/100 g). The breakfast cereals presented adequate expansion ratio and they maintained their texture after milk addition. Increasing the inulin enhanced the total fructan content and reduced the cutting force after the addition of milk, although increasing together with the moisture of ‘corn grits and inulin’ mixture resulted in higher losses of the total fructans. Decreasing the amount of inulin and increasing the moisture of the ‘corn grits and inulin’ mixture enhanced the color parameters (chroma and hue) and the paste properties (final viscosity and setback). Therefore, the production of breakfast cereals through extrusion of corn grits and inulin is feasible, providing products with fructans in their composition and contributing to consumption of breakfast cereals with fibers.

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Effects of darkness and light spectra on nutrients and pigments in radish, soybean, mung bean and pumpkin sprouts.

Mastropasqua, L., Dipierro, N. & Paciolla, C. (2020). Antioxidants, 9(6), 558.

Fresh sprouts are an important source of antioxidant compounds and contain useful phytonutrients in the human diet. Many factors, such as the time of germination and types of light, influence the physiological processes and biosynthetic pathways in sprouts. The effect of red, blue and white light vs. dark conditions on the quality parameters in different sprout species after 5 d of germination was evaluated. Total ascorbate, soluble proteins, sugars, phenolic compounds, and pigments, such as carotenoids, chlorophylls, and anthocyanins, were investigated in radishes, soybeans, mung beans, and pumpkin sprouts. The light treatments increased the contents of vitamin C and the various pigments in all sprouts, conversely, they increased the soluble proteins and sugars, including d-glucose, d-fructose and sucrose, in soybeans and pumpkins, respectively. The dark treatment prevented the decrease in dry matter due to the lighting, while the red light induced an increase in polyphenols in soybean. These results suggest that the nutritional content of different sprouts grown under different light conditions depend on the dark or specific spectral wavelength used for their growth. The manuscript may increase the knowledge on light use for the industrialized food production aiming at preserving the phytonutrient content of vegetables, increasing the consumer health, or developing tailored diets for specific nutritional needs.

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Nutritional and nutraceutical properties of raw and traditionally obtained flour from chestnut fruit grown in Tuscany.

Piccolo, E. L., Landi, M., Ceccanti, C., Mininni, A. N., Marchetti, L., Massai, R., Guidi, L. & Remorini, D. (2020). European Food Research and Technology, 246(9), 1867-1876.

The study of local chestnut and traditional techniques related to their use and consumption are considered of primary importance to promote their nutritional/nutraceutical values. Fruit of four local chestnut cultivars (‘Carpinese’, ‘Pontecosi’, ‘Capannaccia’ and ‘Morona’) from Garfagnana (Italy) were analysed under nutritional and antioxidant aspects and compared with their flour obtained through a traditional thermal-drying process. Raw fruit contained significative amounts of P, K and Mg (~ 149, 1960 and 50 mg 100 g−1 dry weight, respectively) and they were characterised by a good moisture content (~ 49%) and starch (~ 50 g 100 g−1 dw). The traditional thermal-drying processes affected the carbohydrate content of dried chestnut showing a higher sucrose and lower starch content as compared to raw fruits. Traditional thermal-drying processes negatively influenced also total phenol content (TP) and total antioxidant activity: flours from all cultivars contained lower amounts of TP than raw fruit except for ‘Morona’ in which these compounds remained unchanged. This study provides new useful information about the evaluation of nutritional and nutraceutical characteristics of Tuscany local chestnuts and the effects of a traditional thermal-drying processing method, helping consumers and producers to valorise these “forest products”.

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Soil Nitrogen Fertilization Increases Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen Concentrations in ‘Golden Russet’and ‘Medaille d’Or’Apples Used for Cider Production.

Karl, A. D., Brown, M. G., Ma, S., Sandbrook, A., Stewart, A. C., Cheng, L., Mansfield, A. K. & Peck, G. M. (2020). Hort. Science, 55(8), 1345-1355.

The recent growth in the U.S. hard-cider industry has increased the demand for cider apples (Malus×domestica Borkh.), but little is known about how to manage orchard soil fertility best to optimize horticultural performance and juice characteristics for these cultivars. To assess whether nitrogen fertilizer applied to the soil can improve apple juice and cider quality, calcium nitrate (CaNO3) fertilizer was applied at different rates to the soil beneath ‘Golden Russet’ and ‘Medaille d’Or’ trees over the course of three growing seasons. The experiment started when the trees were in their second leaf. The trees were cropped in their third and fourth leaf. At the end of the first growing season of the experiment, the greatest fertilizer rate increased tree trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) by 82% relative to the control, but this difference did not persist through to the end of the study. Yield and crop load were unaffected by the nitrogen fertilization treatments. Increasing the nitrogen fertilizer rate correlated positively with more advanced harvest maturity in ‘Golden Russet’ fruit, which resulted in greater soluble solid concentration (SSC). Fruit from the greatest fertilizer rate treatment had an average starch pattern index (SPI) that was 1 U greater than in the control, and an SSC that was 3% greater than the control. The fertilizer treatments did not affect juice pH, titratable acidity (TA), or total polyphenol concentrations. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentrations were increased by nitrogen fertilization for both cultivars in both harvest years. The greatest fertilizer treatment increased juice primary amino nitrogen by 103% relative to the control. Greater nitrogen fertilization rates correlated positively with less hydrogen sulfide production during the fermentation of ‘Golden Russet’ juice from the first, but not the second, harvest. During the first year, cumulative hydrogen sulfide production for the ‘Golden Russet’ control treatment was 29.6 μg·L-1 compared with the ‘Golden Russet’ high treatment, which cumulatively produced 0.1 μg·L-1. Greater maximum fermentation rates and shorter fermentation durations correlated positively with increased fertilization rate for both cultivars after the second harvest. High treatment fermentations had maximum fermentation rates 110% greater, and fermentation durations 30% shorter than the control. Other horticultural and juice-quality parameters were not affected negatively by the CaNOtreatments. In orchards producing apples specifically for the hard-cider industry, nitrogen fertilizer could increase juice YAN, thus reducing the need for exogenous additions during cider production.

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Revalorization of coffee silverskin as a potential feedstock for antifungal chemicals in wood preservation.

Barbero-López, A., Monzó-Beltrán, J., Virjamo, V., Akkanen, J. & Haapala, A. (2020). International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation,152, 105011.

The possibility of using coffee silverskin, an industrial waste from the coffee roasting process, as an antifungal feedstock in wood preservative formulations was investigated. Silverskin hot water extract and its antifungal properties in vitro against Rhodonia (Poria) placenta,Gloeophyllum trabeum, and Trametes versicolor were characterized, and its in vitro effects on wood decay caused by Coniophora puteana were analyzed. A kinetic luminescent bacteria test was performed using Aliivibrio fischeri to measure the acute ecotoxicity of the silverskin extracts. The antifungal test showed 60-70% growth inhibition of the studied fungi at higher concentrations-3%-but did not meet the high inhibition-100%-of the commercial wood preservative. The phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid and its derivatives, and caffeine derivatives, were the main constituents of the silverskin extracts and considered the responsible compounds of the fungal inhibition. The silverskin extracts were significantly less toxic than the commercial copper-based wood preservative. Revalorization of silverskin from industrial residues does not perform as a wood preservative but it remains a potential source of antifungal chemicals for wood preservative formulations.

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Enzymatic browning and chemical composition of whole yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp.) H. Rob.] tubers as affected by blanching.

Campus, T. M. (2020). Food Research, 4(5), 1554-1562.

Browning is the major problem associated with yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp.) H. Rob.] processing as it takes place rapidly and intensely after tissue damage. This study investigated the effects of different blanching conditions on the browning parameters and some chemical components of yacon. Whole yacon tubers were blanched in hot water under different temperature and time conditions and immediately cooled in ice water. Increasing blanching temperature and time significantly reduced the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity but resulted in an undesirable change in firmness; lightness (L*) decreased approaching to a black color flesh of yacon, and the a* and b* values decreased representing a tendency to a green and blue colors, respectively. Blanching the whole yacon at 60⁰C for 20 mins was found to be the most effective and can be used as preprocessing treatment to reduce browning of the product. At this condition, PPO activity was reduced to 70%, firmness was retained, and further browning was decelerated when the cut surface of yacon was allowed to stand at room temperature. Moreover, the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity, glucose, sucrose and fructose were not significantly different from unblanched yacon but fructooligosaccharide (FOS) content was reduced from 51.36 to 36.29% on dry weight basis.

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G× E interactions on yield and quality in Coffea arabica: new F1 hybrids outperform American cultivars.

Marie, L., Abdallah, C., Campa, C., Courtel, P., Bordeaux, M., Navarini, L., Lonzarich, V., Bosselmann, A. S., Turreira-García, N., Alpizar, E., Georget, F., Breitler, J-C. Etienne, H. & Bertrand, B. (2020). Euphytica, 216(5), 1-17.

Conventional American cultivars of coffee are no longer adapted to global warming. Finding highly productive and stable cultivars in different environments without neglecting quality characteristics has become a priority for breeders. In this study, new Arabica F1 hybrids clones were compared to conventional American varieties in seven contrasting environments, for yield, rust incidence and volume of the canopy. The quality was assessed through size, weight of 100 beans, biochemical analysis (24 aroma precursors and 31 volatiles compounds) and sensory analysis. Conventional varieties were the least productive, producing 50% less than the best hybrid. The AMMI model analysis pointed out five hybrids as the most stable and productive. Two F1 hybrids clones, H1-Centroamericano and H16-Mundo Maya, were superior to the most planted American cultivar in Latin and Central America showing a high yield performance and stability performance. H1-Centroamerica and Starmaya contain more D-limonene than Caturra, while Starmaya contain more 3-methylbutanoic acid than the control. Those two latter volatiles compounds are linked with good cup quality in previous studies. In terms of sensory analysis, Starmaya and H1-Centroamericano scored better than control.

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Growth and leaf injury in tomato plants under continuous light at different settings of constant and diurnally varied photosynthetic photon flux densities.

Pham, D. M. & Chun, C. (2020). Scientia Horticulturae, 269, 109347.

In tomato, continuous light inflicts distinctive injuries, including leaf chlorosis and epinasty, a phenomenon that is not fully understood. To gain insights regarding the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we cultivated tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Momotaro) for 14 days under continuous light with one of three constant photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) (300, 175 or 50 μmol⋅m−2⋅s-1) or two diurnal variations of PPFD (300 μmol⋅m−2⋅s-1 for 14 h alternating with 50 or 5 μmol⋅m−2⋅s-1 for 10 h). We quantitatively evaluated and compared the levels of leaf chlorosis and epinasty of these plants with those grown under a 14/10-h photoperiod. The results showed that under continuous light with constant PPFD, the level of leaf chlorosis did not increase with higher light intensity, whereas the level of leaf epinasty increased with increasing light intensity, suggesting that these injuries are inflicted through different mechanisms. Relative to continuous light with constant PPFD, diurnal variations in PPFD significantly mitigated leaf chlorosis, slightly reduced leaf epinasty and improved plant growth. The leaf carbohydrate concentrations, including glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch concentrations, did not follow the trend in the level of leaf chlorosis. However, a daily pattern of increase and decrease of the sucrose content resulted from diurnal variation in PPFD, which seemed to be associated with the mitigation of continuous light injury. These results suggest that the circadian rhythm rather than the overaccumulation of carbohydrates is involved in the induction of continuous-light-induced injuries in tomato.

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Biochemical changes in leaves of Vitis vinifera cv. sangiovese infected by bois noir phytoplasma.

Negro, C., Sabella, E., Nicolì, F., Pierro, R., Materazzi, A., Panattoni, A., Aprile, A., Nutricati, E., Vergine, M., Miceli, A., De Bellis, L. & Luvisi, A. (2020). Pathogens, 9(4), 269.

Bois noir is a disease associated with the presence of phytoplasma ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ belonging to the Stolbur group (subgroup 16SrXII-A), which has a heavy economic impact on grapevines. This study focused on the changes induced by phytoplasma in terms of the profile and amount of secondary metabolites synthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway in leaves of Vitis vinifera L. red-berried cultivar Sangiovese. Metabolic alterations were assessed according to the disease progression through measurements of soluble sugars, chlorophyll, and phenolic compounds produced by plant hosts, in response to disease on symptomatic and asymptomatic Bois noir-positive plants. Significant differences were revealed in the amount of soluble sugars, chlorophyll, and accumulation/reduction of some compounds synthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway of Bois noir-positive and negative grapevine leaves. Our results showed a marked increase in phenolic and flavonoid production and a parallel decrease in lignin content in Bois noir-positive compared to negative leaves. Interestingly, some parameters (chlorophyll a, soluble sugars, total phenolic or flavonoids content, proanthocyanidins, quercetin) differed between Bois noir-positive and negative leaves regardless of symptoms, indicating measurable biochemical changes in asymptomatic leaves. Our grapevine cultivar Sangiovese results highlighted an extensive modulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway as a defense mechanism activated by the host plant in response to Bois noir disease.

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Conversion of sugars to methyl lactate with exfoliated layered stannosilicate UZAR-S4.

Murillo, B., de la Iglesia, Ó., Rubio, C., Coronas, J. & Téllez, C. (2020). Catalysis Today, 362, 90-96.

Biomass has been shown as an alternative to fossil fuels for obtaining chemicals. In this work, the transformation of sugars into methyl lactate (ML) at 160°C was carried out using the layered stannosilicate UZAR-S3 (University of Zaragoza-solid number 3) and the delaminated material UZAR-S4 (University of Zaragoza-solid number 4) obtained from its exfoliation. The exfoliation of UZAR-S3 to UZAR-S4 increased the accessibility of the compounds to the catalytic sites and the medium-strength acidity. Thus, the yield to ML for sucrose transformation increased from 8% for UZAR-S3 to 49.9 % for UZAR-S4. In the reusability tests, the UZAR-S4 catalyst was characterized before and after reaction by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption. A deactivation of the catalyst was observed, which was related to carbonaceous deposits that decreased the specific surface area and the pore volume of the catalyst.

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Maize GOLDEN2-LIKE genes enhance biomass and grain yields in rice by improving photosynthesis and reducing photoinhibition.

Li, X., Wang, P., Li, J., Wei, S., Yan, Y., Yang, J., Zhao, M., Langdale, J. A. & Zhou, W. (2020). Communications Biology, 3(1), 1-12.

Photosynthetic efficiency is a major target for improvement of crop yield potential under agricultural field conditions. Inefficiencies can occur in many steps of the photosynthetic process, from chloroplast biogenesis to functioning of the light harvesting and carbon fixation reactions. Nuclear-encoded GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors regulate some of the earliest steps by activating target genes encoding chloroplast-localized and photosynthesis-related proteins. Here we show that constitutive expression of maize GLK genes in rice leads to enhanced levels of chlorophylls and pigment-protein antenna complexes, and that these increases lead to improved light harvesting efficiency via photosystem II in field-grown plants. Increased levels of xanthophylls further buffer the negative effects of photoinhibition under high or fluctuating light conditions by facilitating greater dissipation of excess absorbed energy as heat. Significantly, the enhanced photosynthetic capacity of field-grown transgenic plants resulted in increased carbohydrate levels and a 30–40% increase in both vegetative biomass and grain yield.

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Optimizing nitrogen fertilization to improve qualitative performances and physiological and yield responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

Lombardo, S., Pandino, G. & Mauromicale, G. (2020). Agronomy, 10(3), 352.

Potato is often produced by adopting high nitrogen (N) external inputs to maximize its yield, although the possible agronomic and qualitative benefits of a N over-fertilization to the crop are scarcely demonstrated. Therefore, our aim was to determine, over two years, the effect of three N fertilization rates (0, 140 and 280 kg ha−1, referred to as N0, N140 and N280) simultaneously on the crop physiology, yield components, N use efficiency and tuber chemical composition of cv. Bellini. Throughout the field monitoring, our data highlighted that N140 provided an improvement of the crop physiology, as expressed in terms of leaf photosynthesis rate and Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) readings, than the other N fertilization rates. In addition, regardless of year and as compared to N0 and N280, the supply of 140 kg N ha−1 also ensured the highest yield and an intermediate value of the nitrogen use efficiency (59.1 t ha−1 and 37.1 kg tuber dry weight kg N−1, respectively), together with nutritionally relevant tuber qualitative traits, i.e. high levels of dry matter, starch (by an enzymatic/spectrophotometric method), total polyphenols (by Folin-Ciocalteu assay) and ascorbic acid [by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis], and a low nitrate amount (by an ion-selective electrode method) (16.6%, 634-3.31-0.61 and 0.93 g kg−1 of dry matter, respectively). Therefore, although a certain interaction between N fertilization rate and year was observed, our findings demonstrated that a conventional N fertilization rate (280 kg ha−1) is unnecessary from both agronomic and qualitative standpoints. This is of considerable importance in the perspective to both limit environmental pollution and improve growers’ profits by limiting N external inputs to potato crops.

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Girled-induced anthocyanin accumulation in red-leafed Prunus cerasifera: Effect on photosynthesis, photoprotection and sugar metabolism.

Piccolo, E. L., Landi, M., Massai, R., Remorini, D. & Guidi, L. (2020). Plant Science, 294, 110456.

The feedback regulation of photosynthesis depends on the cooperation of multiple signals, including sugars. Herein, the effect of shoot girdling was monitored on a daily basis for three days in green- and red-leafed Prunus cerasifera plants (GLP and RLP, respectively). The effect of anthocyanin presence was investigated in terms of photosynthesis, sugar metabolism and photoprotection. Net photosynthesis (A390) and stomatal conductance were reduced on the first day at 12:00 only in the girdled GLP (29 and 33 %, respectively). Moreover, the girdled GLP displayed at 12:00 higher sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations than control leaves. Conversely, girdled RLP showed the first reduction of A390 at 18:00, with no significant differences at 12:00 in sucrose and glucose concentrations. The increased biosynthesis of anthocyanins that was only detected in girdled RLP contributed to lowering the accumulation of hexoses. Overall, these results revealed a sugar-buffering role exerted by anthocyanins that positively influence the feedback regulation of photosynthesis. Moreover, non-photochemical quenching, namely pNPQ, revealed the ability of anthocyanins to photoprotect photosystem II from supernumerary photons reaching the chloroplast, whose function was compromised by girdling. The present study provides a starting point to understand the possible link between photosynthesis regulation through sugar signalling and anthocyanin upregulation.

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