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|Stability:||> 10 years under recommended storage conditions|
|Monosaccharides (%):||Arabinose: Galactose: Rhamnose = 71: 26: 3|
|Main Chain Glycosidic Linkage:||α-1,5|
|Substrate For (Enzyme):||endo-Arabinanase|
High purity Debranched Arabinan (Sugar Beet) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.
(Bacteroides ovatus) E-ABFBO21 - α-L-Arabinofuranosidase B21
(Bacteroides ovatus) E-ABFBO25 - α-L-Arabinofuranosidase B25
(Bacteroides ovatus) E-AFASE - α-L-Arabinofuranosidase (Aspergillus niger) E-AFAM2 - α-L-Arabinofuranosidase
(Bifidobacterium adolescentis) E-ABFCJ - α-L-Arabinofuranosidase (Cellvibrio japonicus) E-ABFCT - α-L-Arabinofuranosidase
(Clostridium thermocellum) E-ABFUM - α-L-Arabinofuranosidase (Ustilago maydis)
McCleary, B. V., McKie, V. A., Draga, A., Rooney, E., Mangan, D. & Larkin, J. (2015). Carbohydrate Research, 407, 79-96.
A range of α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-xylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) were produced by hydrolysis of wheat flour arabinoxylan (WAX) and acid debranched arabinoxylan (ADWAX), in the presence and absence of an AXH-d3 α-L-arabinofuranosidase, by several GH10 and GH11 β-xylanases. The structures of the oligosaccharides were characterised by GC-MS and NMR and by hydrolysis by a range of α-L-arabinofuranosidases and β-xylosidase. The AXOS were purified and used to characterise the action patterns of the specific α-L-arabinofuranosidases. These enzymes, in combination with either Cellvibrio mixtus or Neocallimastix patriciarum β -xylanase, were used to produce elevated levels of specific AXOS on hydrolysis of WAX, such as 32-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylobiose (A3X), 23-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A2XX), 33-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A3XX), 22-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (XA2X), 32-α-L-Araf (1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (XA3X), 23-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA2XX), 33-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA3XX), 23 ,33-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A2+3XX), 23,33-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA2+3XX), 24,34-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylopentaose (XA2+3XXX) and 33,34-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylopentaose (XA3A3XX), many of which have not previously been produced in sufficient quantities to allow their use as substrates in further enzymic studies. For A2,3XX, yields of approximately 16% of the starting material (wheat arabinoxylan) have been achieved. Mixtures of the α-L-arabinofuranosidases, with specific action on AXOS, have been combined with β-xylosidase and β-xylanase to obtain an optimal mixture for hydrolysis of arabinoxylan to L-arabinose and D-xylose.Hide Abstract
Verhertbruggen, Y., Marcus, S. E., Haeger, A., Verhoef, R., Schols, H. A., McCleary, B. V., McKee, L., Gilbert, H. J. & Knox, J. P. (2009). The Plant Journal, 59(3), 413-425.
Plant cell walls are constructed from a diversity of polysaccharide components. Molecular probes directed to structural elements of these polymers are required to assay polysaccharide structures in situ, and to determine polymer roles in the context of cell wall biology. Here, we report on the isolation and the characterization of three rat monoclonal antibodies that are directed to 1,5-linked arabinans and related polymers. LM13, LM16 and LM17, together with LM6, constitute a set of antibodies that can detect differing aspects of arabinan structures within cell walls. Each of these antibodies binds strongly to isolated sugar beet arabinan samples in ELISAs. Competitive-inhibition ELISAs indicate the antibodies bind differentially to arabinans with the binding of LM6 and LM17 being effectively inhibited by short oligoarabinosides. LM13 binds preferentially to longer oligoarabinosides, and its binding is highly sensitive to arabinanase action, indicating the recognition of a longer linearized arabinan epitope. In contrast, the binding of LM16 to branched arabinan and to cell walls is increased by arabinofuranosidase action. The presence of all epitopes can be differentially modulated in vitro using glycoside hydrolase family 43 and family 51 arabinofuranosidases. In addition, the LM16 epitope is sensitive to the action of β-galactosidase. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicates that the antibodies can be used to detect epitopes in cell walls, and that the four antibodies reveal complex patterns of epitope occurrence that vary between organs and species, and relate both to the probable processing of arabinan structural elements and the differing mechanical properties of cell walls.Hide Abstract
Production of thermostable endo-1, 5-α-L-arabinanase in Pichia pastoris for enzymatically releasing functional oligosaccharides from sugar beet pulp.
Zhang, N., Wright, T., Wang, X., Savary, B. J. & Xu, J. (2020). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 104(4), 1595-1607.
Sugar beet pulp is an agricultural processing residue that is a rich source of the cell wall polysaccharide arabinan. Functional oligosaccharides, specifically feruloylated arabino-oligosaccharides (FAOs), can be isolated from sugar beet pulp through selective action by endo-arabinanase (glycoside hydrolase family 43). This study aimed to develop yeast (Pichia pastoris) as an efficient, eukaryotic platform to produce a thermophilic endo-1,5-α-L-arabinanase (TS-ABN) for extracting FAOs from sugar beet pulp. Recombinant TS-ABN was secreted into yeast culture medium at a yield of ~ 80 mg/L, and the protein exhibited specific enzyme activity, pH and temperature optimum, and thermostability comparable to those of the native enzyme. Treatment of sugar beet pulp with Pichia-secreted TS-ABN released FAOs recovered by hydrophobic chromatography at 1.52% (w/w). The isolated FAOs averaged seven arabinose residues per ferulic acid, and treatment of T84 human colon epithelial cells significantly increased expression of two key tight junction-related proteins-zonula occludens-1 and occluding-in a dose-dependent manner. This research establishes a biochemical platform for utilizing sugar beet pulp to produce value-added bioproducts with potential nutraceutical applications.Hide Abstract
The hydrophobic polysaccharides of apple pomace.
Fernandes, P. A., Silva, A. M., Evtuguin, D. V., Nunes, F. M., Wessel, D. F., Cardoso, S. M. & Coimbra, M. A. (2019). Carbohydrate Polymers, 223, 115132.
In this work, polysaccharides extracted with hot water from apple pomace were isolated by C18 cartridge solid-phase extraction at pH 7 (Fr7). Dialysis (12-14 kDa) of this fraction allowed to obtain 17% (w/w) of polymeric material composed by 65% of polysaccharides, mainly arabinose (58 mol%), galacturonic acid (16 mol%) and glucose (10 mol%). Folin-Ciocalteu assay showed 62 g of phloridzin equiv/kg of polyphenols. Moreover, adjusting to pH 3, it was possible to retain an additional fraction (Fr3) representing a further 4% of the polymeric material. Fr3 contained 53% of polysaccharides composed mainly by galacturonic acid (66 mol%) and polyphenols accounted for 37 g of phloridzin equiv/kg. Precipitation with ethanol and subsequent methylation and NMR spectroscopic analysis of Fr7 dialysate allowed the identification of covalently-linked pectic-polyphenol-xyloglucan and arabinan-polyphenol complexes. These structures are possibly formed as a result of polyphenol oxidation reactions during the industrial processing of apples, conferring hydrophobic characteristics to apple pomace polysaccharides.Hide Abstract
Purification and characterization of a new xylanase with excellent stability from Aspergillus flavus and its application in hydrolyzing pretreated corncobs.
Chen, Z., Zaky, A. A., Liu, Y., Chen, Y., Liu, L., Li, S. & Jia, Y. (2019). Protein Expression and Purification, 154, 91-97.
A new extracellular xylanase was purified from a non-toxic mesophilic fungus Aspergillus flavus, and characterized as the β-1, 4-endoxylanase (designated as AfXynA) that appeared in a single protein band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of 20.2 kDa, which is different from all other reported xylanases from the same strain. The AfXynA exhibited a specific activity of 838.2 U/mg. Its optimal temperature and pH were determined to be 55°C and 7.5, respectively. It was stable up to 50°C and within pH 3.5-10.5. AfXynA also exhibited an excellent tolerance to various proteases. This new xylanase had an endohydrolytic mode of action and could hydrolyze xylotriose to xylobiose through transglycosylation. It could efficiently degrade xylan to mainly yield xylobiose, xylotriose, xylopentose and xylohexaose. In addition, the AfXynA was effective in hydrolyzing pretreated corncobs, and shows a great potential in the production of xylooligosaccharides. These unique enzymatic properties make the AfXynA attractive for more biotechnological applications.Hide Abstract
Kinetics and regioselectivity of three GH62 α-L-arabinofuranosidases from plant pathogenic fungi.
Sarch, C., Suzuki, H., Master, E. R. & Wang, W. (2019). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects, 1863(6), 1070-1078.
Backgound: Xylan is the second most abundant plant cell wall polysaccharide after cellulose with α-L-arabinofuranose (L-Araf) as one of the major side substituents. Capacity to degrade xylan is characteristic of many plant pathogens; and corresponding enzymes that debranch arabinoxylan provide tools to tailor xylan functionality or permit its full hydrolysis. Method: Three GH62_2 family α-arabinofuranosidases (Abfs) from plant pathogenic fungi, NhaAbf62A from Nectria haematococca, SreAbf62A from Sporisorium reilianum and GzeAbf62A from Gibberella zeae, were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli. Their biochemical properties and substrate specificities were characterized in detail. Particularly with 1H NMR, the regioselectivity and debranching preference of the three Abfs were directly compared. Results: The activities of selected Abfs towards arabinoxylan were all optimal at pH 6.5. Their preferred substrates were wheat arabinoxylan, followed by soluble oat spelt xylan. The Abfs displayed selectivity towards either α-(1 → 2) or α-(1 → 3)-L-Araf mono-substituents in arabinoxylan. Specifically, SreAbf62A and GzeAbf62A removed m-α-(1 → 3)-L-Araf and m-α-(1 → 2)-L-Araf substituents with a similar rates, whereas NhaAbf62A released m-α-(1→ 3)-L-Araf 1.9 times faster than m-α-(1 → 2)-L-Araf. Major conclusions: Building upon the known selectivity of GH62 family α-arabinofuranosidases towards L-Araf mono-substituents in xylans, the current study uncovers enzyme-dependent preferences towards m-α-(1 → 3)-L-Araf and m-α-(1 → 2)-L-Araf substitutions. Comparative sequence-structure analyses of Abfs identified an arginine residue in the xylose binding +2R subsite that was correlated to the observed enzyme-dependent L-Araf debranching preferences. General significance: This study expands the limited pool of characterized GH62 Abfs particularly those from plant pathogenic fungi, and provides biochemical details and methodology to evaluate regioselectivity within this glycoside hydrolase family.Hide Abstract
A novel thermostable GH10 xylanase with activities on a wide variety of cellulosic substrates from a xylanolytic Bacillus strain exhibiting significant synergy with commercial Celluclast 1.5 L in pretreated corn stover hydrolysis.
Wang, K., Cao, R., Wang, M., Lin, Q., Zhan, R., Xu, H. & Wang, S. (2019). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 12(1), 48.
Background: Cellulose and hemicellulose are the two largest components in lignocellulosic biomass. Enzymes with activities towards cellulose and xylan have attracted great interest in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass, since they have potential in improving the hydrolytic performance and reducing the enzyme costs. Exploring glycoside hydrolases (GHs) with good thermostability and activities on xylan and cellulose would be beneficial to the industrial production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Results: A novel GH10 enzyme (XynA) identified from a xylanolytic strain Bacillus sp. KW1 was cloned and expressed. Its optimal pH and temperature were determined to be pH 6.0 and 65°C. Stability analyses revealed that XynA was stable over a broad pH range (pH 6.0-11.0) after being incubated at 25°C for 24 h. Moreover, XynA retained over 95% activity after heat treatment at 60°C for 60 h, and its half-lives at 65°C and 70°C were about 12 h and 1.5 h, respectively. More importantly, in terms of substrate specificity, XynA exhibits hydrolytic activities towards xylans, microcrystalline cellulose (filter paper and Avicel), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), cellobiose, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG). Furthermore, the addition of XynA into commercial cellulase in the hydrolysis of pretreated corn stover resulted in remarkable increases (the relative increases may up to 90%) in the release of reducing sugars. Finally, it is worth mentioning that XynA only shows high amino acid sequence identity (88%) with rXynAHJ14, a GH10 xylanase with no activity on CMC. The similarities with other characterized GH10 enzymes, including xylanases and bifunctional xylanase/cellulase enzymes, are no more than 30%. Conclusions: XynA is a novel thermostable GH10 xylanase with a wide substrate spectrum. It displays good stability in a broad range of pH and high temperatures, and exhibits activities towards xylans and a wide variety of cellulosic substrates, which are not found in other GH10 enzymes. The enzyme also has high capacity in saccharification of pretreated corn stover. These characteristics make XynA a good candidate not only for assisting cellulase in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis, but also for the research on structure-function relationship of bifunctional xylanase/cellulase.Hide Abstract
Huang, D., Liu, J., Qi, Y., Yang, K., Xu, Y. & Feng, L. (2017). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 1-15.
Lignocellulosic biomass from various types of wood has become a renewable resource for production of biofuels and biobased chemicals. Because xylan is the major component of wood hemicelluloses, highly efficient enzymes to enhance xylan hydrolysis can improve the use of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, a xylanolytic gene cluster was identified from the crude oil-degrading thermophilic strain Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2. The enzymes involved in xylan hydrolysis, which include two xylanases (XynA1, XynA2), three β-xylosidases (XynB1, XynB2, XynB3), and one α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AbfA), have many unique features, such as high pH tolerance, high thermostability, and a broad substrate range. The three β-xylosidases were highly resistant to inhibition by product (xylose) accumulation. Moreover, the combination of xylanase, β-xylosidase, and α-L-arabinofuranosidase exhibited the largest synergistic action on xylan degradation (XynA2, XynB1, and AbfA on oat spelt or beechwood xylan; XynA2, XynB3, and AbfA on birchwood xylan). We have demonstrated that the proposed enzymatic cocktail almost completely converts complex xylan to xylose and arabinofuranose and has great potential for use in the conversion of plant biomass into biofuels and biochemicals.Hide Abstract
Identification and characterization of the first β-1, 3-D-xylosidase from a gram-positive bacterium, Streptomyces sp. SWU10.
Phuengmaung, P., Fujiwara, D., Sukhumsirichart, W. & Sakamoto, T. (2017). Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 112, 72-78.
In previous reports, we characterized four endo-xylanases produced by Streptomyces sp. strain SWU10 that degrade xylans to several xylooligosaccharides. To obtain a set of enzymes to achieve complete xylan degradation, a β-D-xylosidase gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein, named rSWU43A, was characterized. SWU43A is composed of 522 amino acids and does not contain a signal peptide, indicating that the enzyme is an intracellular protein. SWU43A was revealed to contain a Glyco_hydro_43 domain and possess the three conserved amino acid residues of the glycoside hydrolase family 43 proteins. The molecular mass of rSWU43A purified by Ni-affinity column chromatography was estimated to be 60 kDa. The optimum reaction conditions of rSWU43A were pH 6.5 and 40°C. The enzyme was stable up to 40°C over a wide pH range (3.1-8.9). rSWU43A activity was enhanced by Fe2+ and Mn2+ and inhibited by various metals (Ag+, Cd2+ , Co2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+), D-xylose, and L-arabinose. rSWU43A showed activity on p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside and p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside substrates, with specific activities of 0.09 and 0.06 U/mg, respectively, but not on any xylosidic or arabinosidic polymers. rSWU43A efficiently degraded β-1,3-xylooligosaccharides to produce xylose but showed little activity towards β-1,4-xylobiose, with specific activities of 1.33 and 0.003 U/mg, respectively. These results demonstrate that SWU43A is a β-1,3-D-xylosidase (EC 22.214.171.124), which to date has only been described in the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. Therefore, rSWU43A of Streptomyces sp. is the first β-1,3-xylosidase found in gram-positive bacteria. SWU43A could be useful as a specific tool for the structural elucidation and production of xylose from β-1,3-xylan in seaweed cell walls.Hide Abstract
Gruben, B. S., Mäkelä, M. R., Kowalczyk, J. E., Zhou, M., Benoit-Gelber, I. & De Vries, R. P. (2017). BMC genomics, 18(1), 900.
Background: The Aspergillus niger genome contains a large repertoire of genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) that are targeted to plant polysaccharide degradation enabling A. niger to grow on a wide range of plant biomass substrates. Which genes need to be activated in certain environmental conditions depends on the composition of the available substrate. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of a number of transcriptional regulators in plant biomass degradation and have identified sets of target genes for each regulator. In this study, a broad transcriptional analysis was performed of the A. niger genes encoding (putative) plant polysaccharide degrading enzymes. Microarray data focusing on the initial response of A. niger to the presence of plant biomass related carbon sources were analyzed of a wild-type strain N402 that was grown on a large range of carbon sources and of the regulatory mutant strains δxlnR, δaraR, δamyR, δrhaR and δgalX that were grown on their specific inducing compounds. Results: The cluster analysis of the expression data revealed several groups of co-regulated genes, which goes beyond the traditionally described co-regulated gene sets. Additional putative target genes of the selected regulators were identified, based on their expression profile. Notably, in several cases the expression profile puts questions on the function assignment of uncharacterized genes that was based on homology searches, highlighting the need for more extensive biochemical studies into the substrate specificity of enzymes encoded by these non-characterized genes. The data also revealed sets of genes that were upregulated in the regulatory mutants, suggesting interaction between the regulatory systems and a therefore even more complex overall regulatory network than has been reported so far. Conclusions: Expression profiling on a large number of substrates provides better insight in the complex regulatory systems that drive the conversion of plant biomass by fungi. In addition, the data provides additional evidence in favor of and against the similarity-based functions assigned to uncharacterized genes.Hide Abstract
Zhang, J., Zhao, L., Gao, B., Wei, W., Wang, H. & Xie, J. (2018). Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 42(1), e13367.
Paenibacillus polymyxa Z6 was screened as protopectinase (PPase) producing strain and its PPase activity was 44.4 U/mL. The factors influencing PPase production were identified by a two-level Plackett-Burman design with seven variables. The results indicated that Ca2+ concentration, fermentation time, and temperature were the most influential factors on the PPase production, which were applied in the Box-Behnken design. The predicted maximum PPase activity was 219 U/mL and the experimental maximum PPase activity was 221 U/mL, under the predicted optimum conditions, 170 mg/L Ca2+, 27°C, and 29 hr of fermentation. The present PPase was composed of both type-A PPase, polygalacturonase; and type-B PPase, arabinanase, and rhamnogalacturonase. Finally, the PPase was applied for the pectin extraction from apple pomace and achieved an average yield of 11.9% with properties like 8.5% moisture content, 1.6% ash content, 3.8 mPa.S viscosity, and pH 6.1 of 1% solution.Hide Abstract
Pérez, R. & Eyzaguirre, J. (2016). Applied biochemistry and biotechnology, 179(1), 143-154.
The genes of two α-L-arabinofuranosidases (AbfI and II) from family GH 62 have been identified in the genome of Aspergillus fumigatus wmo. Both genes have been expressed in Pichia pastoris and the enzymes have been purified and characterized. AbfI is composed of 999 bp, does not contain introns and codes for a protein (ABFI) of 332 amino acid residues. abfII has 1246 bp, including an intron of 51 bp; the protein ABFII has 396 amino acid residues; it includes a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) in the N-terminal region, followed by a catalytic module. The sequence of ABFI and the catalytic module of ABFII show a 79 % identity. Both enzymes are active on p-nitrophenyl α-L-arabinofuranoside (pNPAra) with KM of 94.2 and 3.9 mM for ABFI and II, respectively. Optimal temperature for ABFI is 37°C and for ABFII 42°C, while the pH optimum is about 4.5 to 5 for both enzymes. ABFII shows a higher thermostability. When assayed using natural substrates, both show higher activity over rye arabinoxylan as compared to wheat arabinoxylan. ABFII only is active on sugar beet pulp arabinan and both are inactive towards debranched arabinan. The higher thermostability, higher affinity for pNPAra and wider activity over natural substrates shown by ABFII may be related to the presence of a CBM. The availability of the recombinant enzymes may be useful in biotechnological applications for the production of arabinose.Hide Abstract
Mardones, W., Callegari, E. & Eyzaguirre, J. (2015). Fungal biology, 119(12), 1267-1278.
Arabinan is a component of pectin, which is one of the polysaccharides present in lignocelluose. The enzymes degrading the main chain of arabinan are the endo- (EC 126.96.36.199) and exo-arabinanases (3.2.1.-). Only three exo-arabinanases have been biochemically characterized; they belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 93. In this work, the cDNA of an exo-arabinanase (Arap2) from Penicillium purpurogenum has been heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The gene is 1310 bp long, has three introns and codes for a protein of 380 amino acid residues; the mature protein has a calculated molecular mass of 39 823 Da. The heterologously expressed Arap2 has a molecular mass in the range of 60-80 kDa due to heterogeneous glycosylation. The enzyme is active on debranched arabinan with optimum pH of 4-5.5 and optimal temperature of 40°C, and has an exo-type action mode, releasing arabinobiose from its substrates. The expression profile of arap2 in corncob and sugar beet pulp follows a different pattern and is not related to the presence of arabinan. This is the first exo-arabinanase studied from P. purpurogenum and the first expressed in yeast. The availability of heterologous Arap2 may be useful for biotechnological applications requiring acidic conditions.Hide Abstract
Benassi, V. M., Lucas, R. C. D., Jorge, J. A. & Polizeli, M. D. L. T. D. (2014). Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 45(4), 1459-1467.
Plant cell wall is mainly composed by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The heterogeneous structure and composition of the hemicellulose are key impediments to its depolymerization and subsequent use in fermentation processes. Thus, this study aimed to perform a screening of thermophilic and thermotolerant filamentous fungi collected from different regions of the São Paulo state, and analyze the production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase at different temperatures. These enzymes are important to cell wall degradation and synthesis of end products as xylose and arabinose, respectively, which are significant sugars to fermentation and ethanol production. A total of 12 fungal species were analyzed and 9 of them grew at 45°C, suggesting a thermophilic or thermotolerant character. Additionally Aspergillus thermomutatus anamorph of Neosartorya and A. parasiticus grew at 50°C. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus thermomutatus were the filamentous fungi with the most expressive production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase, respectively. In general for most of the tested microorganisms, β-xylosidase and arabinanase activities from mycelial extract (intracellular form) were higher in cultures grown at high temperatures (35-40°C), while the correspondent extracellular activities were favorably secreted from cultures at 30°C. This study contributes to catalogue isolated fungi of the state of São Paulo, and these findings could be promising sources for thermophilic and thermotolerant microorganisms, which are industrially important due to their enzymes.Hide Abstract
Ferreira, M. J. & de Sá-Nogueira, I. (2010). Journal of Bacteriology, 192(20), 5312-5318.
Bacillus subtilis is able to utilize arabinopolysaccharides derived from plant biomass. Here, by combining genetic and physiological analyses we characterize the AraNPQ importer and identify primary and secondary transporters of B. subtilis involved in the uptake of arabinosaccharides. We show that the ABC-type importer AraNPQ is involved in the uptake of α-1,5-arabinooligosaccharides, at least up to four L-arabinosyl units. Although this system is the key transporter for α-1,5-arabinotriose and α-1,5-arabinotetraose, the results indicate that α-1,5-arabinobiose also is translocated by the secondary transporter AraE. This broad-specificity proton symporter is the major transporter for arabinose and also is accountable for the uptake of xylose and galactose. In addition, MsmX is shown to be the ATPase that energizes the incomplete AraNPQ importer. Furthermore, the results suggest the existence of at least one more unidentified MsmX-dependent ABC importer responsible for the uptake of nonlinear α-1,2- and α-1,3-arabinooligosaccharides. This study assigns MsmX as a multipurpose B. subtilis ATPase required to energize different saccharide transporters, the arabinooligosaccharide-specific AraNPQ-MsmX system, a putative MsmX-dependent ABC transporter specific for nonlinear arabinooligosaccharides, and the previously characterized maltodextrin-specific MdxEFG-MsmX system.Hide Abstract
Ichinose, H., Yoshida, M., Fujimoto, Z. & Kaneko, S. (2008). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 80(3), 399-408.
A gene encoding an α-L-arabinofuranosidase, designated SaAraf43A, was cloned from Streptomyces avermitilis. The deduced amino acid sequence implies a modular structure consisting of an N-terminal glycoside hydrolase family 43 module and a C-terminal family 42 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM42). The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 45°C and was stable over the pH range of 5.0–6.5 at 30°C. The enzyme hydrolysed p-nitrophenol (PNP)-α-L-arabinofuranoside but did not hydrolyze PNP-α-L-arabinopyranoside, PNP-β-D-xylopyranoside, or PNP-β-D-galactopyranoside. Debranched 1,5-arabinan was hydrolyzed by the enzyme but arabinoxylan, arabinogalactan, gum arabic, and arabinan were not. Among the synthetic regioisomers of arabinofuranobiosides, only methyl 5-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside was hydrolyzed by the enzyme, while methyl 2-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside and methyl 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside were not. These data suggested that the enzyme only cleaves α-1,5-linked arabinofuranosyl linkages. The analysis of the hydrolysis product of arabinofuranopentaose suggested that the enzyme releases arabinose in exo-acting manner. These results indicate that the enzyme is definitely an exo-1,5-α-L-arabinofuranosidase. The C-terminal CBM42 did not show any affinity for arabinogalactan and debranched arabinan, although it bound arabinan and arabinoxylan, suggesting that the CBM42 bound to branched arabinofuranosyl residues. Removal of the module decreased the activity of the enzyme with regard to debranched arabinan. The CBM42 plays a role in enhancing the debranched arabinan hydrolytic action of the catalytic module in spite of its preference for binding arabinofuranosyl side chains.Hide Abstract
Fritz, M., Ravanal, M. C., Braet, C. & Eyzaguirre, J. (2008). Mycological Research, 112(8), 933-942.
The soft rot fungus Penicillium purpurogenum secretes a wide variety of xylanolytic enzymes to the medium, among them three α-L-arabinofuranosidases. This work refers to arabinofuranosidase 2 (ABF 2). This enzyme was purified to homogeneity and characterized; it is a glycosylated monomer with a molecular weight of 70 000 and an isoelectric point of 5.3. When assayed with p-nitrophenyl α-L-arabinofuranoside (pNPAra) the enzyme followed Michaelis–Menten kinetics with a KM of 0.098 mm. The optimum pH is 5 and the optimal temperature 60°C. ABF 2 showed weak activity on natural polymeric substrates, such as sugar beet arabinan, debranched arabinan, and arabinoxylan. These results, together with its low KM (pNPAra) and its activity towards short arabinooligosaccharides, suggest that the enzyme belongs to the exo α-L-arabinosyl hydrolases not active on polymers. The abf2 gene and its cDNA were sequenced, and the gene was found to possess seven introns. The mature protein is 618 amino acids long with a calculated molecular weight of 67 212. Amino acid sequence alignments show that the enzyme belongs to family 51 of the glycosyl hydrolases, although it differs in some properties from other enzymes of this family.Hide Abstract
Zykwinska, A., Thibault, J. F. & Ralet, M. C. (2007). Journal of Experimental Botany, 58(7), 1795-1802.
The structure of arabinan and galactan domains in association with cellulose microfibrils was investigated using enzymatic and alkali degradation procedures. Sugar beet and potato cell wall residues (called ‘natural’ composites), rich in pectic neutral sugar side chains and cellulose, as well as ‘artificial’ composites, created by in vitro adsorption of arabinan and galactan side chains onto primary cell wall cellulose, were studied. These composites were sequentially treated with enzymes specific for pectic side chains and hot alkali. The degradation approach used showed that most of the arabinan and galactan side chains are in strong interaction with cellulose and are not hydrolysed by pectic side chain-degrading enzymes. It seems unlikely that isolated arabinan and galactan chains are able to tether adjacent microfibrils. However, cellulose microfibrils may be tethered by different pectic side chains belonging to the same pectic macromolecule.Hide Abstract
Zykwinska, A. W., Ralet, M. C. J., Garnier, C. D. & Thibault, J. F. J. (2005). Plant Physiology, 139(1), 397-407.
Pectins of varying structures were tested for their ability to interact with cellulose in comparison to the well-known adsorption of xyloglucan. Our results reveal that sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectins, which are rich in neutral sugar side chains, can bind in vitro to cellulose. The extent of binding varies with respect to the nature and structure of the side chains. Additionally, branched arabinans (Br-Arabinans) or debranched arabinans (Deb-Arabinans; isolated from sugar beet) and galactans (isolated from potato) were shown bind to cellulose microfibrils. The adsorption of Br-Arabinan and galactan was lower than that of Deb-Arabinan. The maximum adsorption affinity of Deb-Arabinan to cellulose was comparable to that of xyloglucan. The study of sugar beet and potato alkali-treated cell walls supports the hypothesis of pectin-cellulose interaction. Natural composites enriched in arabinans or galactans and cellulose were recovered. The binding of pectins to cellulose microfibrils may be of considerable significance in the modeling of primary cell walls of plants as well as in the process of cell wall assembly.Hide Abstract
Leal, T. F. & Sá‐Nogueira, I. (2004). FEMS Microbiology Letters, 241(1), 41-48.
Bacillus subtilis synthesizes at least one arabinanase encoded by the abnA gene that is able to degrade the polysaccharide arabinan. Here, we report the expression in Escherichia coli of the full-length abnA coding region with a His6-tag fused to the C-terminus. The recombinant protein was secreted to the periplasmic space and correctly processed by the E. coli signal peptidase. The substrate specificity of purified AbnA, the physico-chemical properties and kinetic parameters were determined. Functional analysis studies revealed Glu 215 as a key residue for AbnA hydrolytic activity and indicated that in addition to AbnA B. subtilis secretes other enzyme(s) able to degrade linear 1,5-α-L-arabinan.Hide Abstract
Skjøt, M., Pauly, M., Bush, M. S., Borkhardt, B., McCann, M. C. & Ulvskov, P. (2002). Plant Physiology, 129(1), 95-102.
Pectin is a class of complex cell wall polysaccharides with multiple roles during cell development. Assigning specific functions to particular polysaccharides is in its infancy, in part, because of the limited number of mutants and transformants available with modified pectic polymers in their walls. Pectins are also important polymers with diverse applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries, which would benefit from technology for producing pectins with specific functional properties. In this report, we describe the generation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Posmo) tuber transformants producing pectic rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) with a low level of arabinosylation. This was achieved by the expression of a Golgi membrane-anchored endo-α-1,5-arabinanase. Sugar composition analysis of RGI isolated from transformed and wild-type tubers showed that the arabinose content was decreased by approximately 70% in transformed cell walls compared with wild type. The modification of the RGI was confirmed by immunolabeling with an antibody recognizing α-1,5-arabinan. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that the biosynthesis of a plant cell wall polysaccharide has been manipulated through the action of a glycosyl hydrolase targeted to the Golgi compartment.Hide Abstract
Takao, M., Akiyama, K. & Sakai, T. (2002). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(4), 1639-1646.
A strain of a thermophilic bacterium, tentatively designated Bacillus thermodenitrificans TS-3, with arabinan-degrading activity was isolated. It produced an endo-arabinase (ABN) (EC 188.8.131.52) and two arabinofuranosidases (EC 184.108.40.206) extracellularly when grown at 60°C on a medium containing sugar beet arabinan. The ABN (tentatively called an ABN-TS) was purified 7,417-fold by anion-exchange, hydrophobic, size exclusion, and hydroxyapatite chromatographies. The molecular mass of ABN-TS was 35 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the isoelectric point was pH 4.5. The enzyme was observed to be more thermostable than known ABNs; it had a half-life of 4 h at 75°C. The enzyme had optimal activity at 70°C and pH 6.0. The enzyme had apparent Km values of 8.5 and 45 mg/ml and apparent Vmax values of 1.6 and 1.1 mmol/min/mg of protein against debranched arabinan (α-1,5-arabinan) and arabinan, respectively. The enzyme had no pectin-releasing activity (protopectinase activity) from sugar beet protopectin, differing from an ABN (protopectinase-C) from mesophilic Bacillus subtilis IFO 3134. The pattern of degradation of debranched arabinan by ABN-TS indicated that the enzyme was an endo-acting enzyme and the main end products were arabinobiose and arabinose. The results of preliminary experiments indicated that the culture filtrate of strain TS-3 is suitable for L-arabinose production from sugar beet pulp at high temperature.Hide Abstract
Sakamoto, T. & Thibault, J. F. (2001). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67(7), 3319-3321.
An exo-arabinanase, designated Abnx, was purified from a culture filtrate of Penicillium chrysogenum 31B by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography, and hydrophobic chromatography. Abnx had an apparent molecular mass of 47 kDa. The enzyme released only arabinobiose from the nonreducing terminus of α-1,5-L-arabinan and showed no activity towards p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside and α-1,5-L-arabinofuranobiose. Abnx is the first enzyme with this mode of action.Hide Abstract