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This product has been discontinued
|Stability:||> 10 years under recommended storage conditions|
|CAS Number:|| 121591-98-8, |
|Molecular Weight:|| 1064.94, |
|Substrate For (Enzyme):||Xyloglucanase|
This product has been discontinued (read more).
High purity Xyloglucan (hepta+octa+nona saccharides) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.
The oligosaccharides present in the mixture are XXXG, XXLG and XLLG according the letter code naming convention employed by Fry et al.1 where each segment is assigned a single letter based on its sidechain motif: unsubstituted D-Glcp is assigned G, α-D-Xylp-(1-6)-β-D-Glcp segments are named X and β-D-Galp-(1-2)-α-D-Xylp-(1-6)-β-D-Glcp is assigned L.
1 Fry, S. C., York, W. S., Albersheim, P., Darvill, A., Hayashi, T., Joseleau, J. P., Kato, Y., Lorences, E. P., Maclachlan, G. A., McNeil, M., Mort, A. J., Reid, J. S. G., Seitz, H. U., Selvendran, R. R., Voragen, A. G. J. & White, A. R. (1993). Physiol. Plant, 89, 1–3.
Versatile high resolution oligosaccharide microarrays for plant glycobiology and cell wall research.
Pedersen, H. L., Fangel, J. U., McCleary, B., Ruzanski, C., Rydahl, M. G., Ralet, M. C., Farkas, V., Von Schantz, L., Marcus, S. E., Andersen, M.C. F., Field, R., Ohlin, M., Knox, J. P., Clausen, M. H. & Willats, W. G. T. (2012). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(47), 39429-39438.
Microarrays are powerful tools for high throughput analysis, and hundreds or thousands of molecular interactions can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Nucleotide microarrays are well established in plant research, but carbohydrate microarrays are much less established, and one reason for this is a lack of suitable glycans with which to populate arrays. Polysaccharide microarrays are relatively easy to produce because of the ease of immobilizing large polymers noncovalently onto a variety of microarray surfaces, but they lack analytical resolution because polysaccharides often contain multiple distinct carbohydrate substructures. Microarrays of defined oligosaccharides potentially overcome this problem but are harder to produce because oligosaccharides usually require coupling prior to immobilization. We have assembled a library of well characterized plant oligosaccharides produced either by partial hydrolysis from polysaccharides or by de novo chemical synthesis. Once coupled to protein, these neoglycoconjugates are versatile reagents that can be printed as microarrays onto a variety of slide types and membranes. We show that these microarrays are suitable for the high throughput characterization of the recognition capabilities of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and other oligosaccharide-binding proteins of biological significance and also that they have potential for the characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes.Hide Abstract
Structural and functional analysis of a multimodular hyperthermostable xylanase-glucuronoyl esterase from Caldicellulosiruptor kristjansonii.
Krska, D., Mazurkewich, S., Brown, H. A., Theibich, Y., Poulsen, J. C. N., Morris, A. L., Koropatkin, N. M., Leggio, L. L. & Larsbrink, J. (2021). Biochemistry, 60(27), 2206-2220.
The hyperthermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor kristjansonii encodes an unusual enzyme, CkXyn10C-GE15A, which incorporates two catalytic domains, a xylanase and a glucuronoyl esterase, and five carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) from families 9 and 22. The xylanase and glucuronoyl esterase catalytic domains were recently biochemically characterized, as was the ability of the individual CBMs to bind insoluble polysaccharides. Here, we further probed the abilities of the different CBMs from CkXyn10C-GE15A to bind to soluble poly- and oligosaccharides using affinity gel electrophoresis, isothermal titration calorimetry, and differential scanning fluorimetry. The results revealed additional binding properties of the proteins compared to the former studies on insoluble polysaccharides. Collectively, the results show that all five CBMs have their own distinct binding preferences and appear to complement each other and the catalytic domains in targeting complex cell wall polysaccharides. Additionally, through renewed efforts, we have achieved partial structural characterization of this complex multidomain protein. We have determined the structures of the third CBM9 domain (CBM9.3) and the glucuronoyl esterase (GE15A) by X-ray crystallography. CBM9.3 is the second CBM9 structure determined to date and was shown to bind oligosaccharide ligands at the same site but in a different binding mode compared to that of the previously determined CBM9 structure from Thermotoga maritima. GE15A represents a unique intermediate between reported fungal and bacterial glucuronoyl esterase structures as it lacks two inserted loop regions typical of bacterial enzymes and a third loop has an atypical structure. We also report small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of the N-terminal CBM22.1–CBM22.2–Xyn10C construct, indicating a compact arrangement at room temperature.Hide Abstract
Configuration of active site segments in lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases steers oxidative xyloglucan degradation.
Sun, P., Laurent, C. V., Scheiblbrandner, S., Frommhagen, M., Kouzounis, D., Sanders, M. G., van Berkel, W. J. H., Ludwig, R. & Kabel, M. A. (2020). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 13, 1-19.
This study investigated pilot-scale production of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) and fermentable sugars from Miscanthus using steam explosion (SE) pretreatment. SE conditions (200°C; 15 bar; 10 min) led to XOS yields up to 52 % (w/w of initial xylan) in the hydrolysate. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated that the solubilised XOS contained bound acetyl- and hydroxycinnamate residues, physicochemical properties known for high prebiotic effects and anti-oxidant activity in nutraceutical foods. Enzymatic hydrolysis of XOS-rich hydrolysate with commercial endo-xylanases resulted in xylobiose yields of 380 to 500 g/kg of initial xylan in the biomass after only 4 h, equivalent to ~74 to 90 % conversion of XOS into xylobiose. Fermentable glucose yields from enzymatic hydrolysis of solid residues were 8 to 9-fold higher than for untreated material. In view of an integrated biorefinery, we demonstrate the potential for efficient utilisation of Miscanthus for the production of renewable sources, including biochemicals and biofuels.Hide Abstract
Fanuel, M., Ropartz, D., Guillon, F., Saulnier, L. & Rogniaux, H. (2018). Planta, 1-9.
Uneven distribution of AX and BG in lateral and longitudinal dimensions of a wheat grain was observed by three-dimensional MS imaging, presumably related to specific physicochemical properties of cell walls. Arabinoxylans (AX) and β-glucans (BG) are the main hemicelluloses that comprise the primary walls of starchy endosperm. These components are not evenly distributed in the endosperm, and the impact of their distribution on cell wall properties is not yet fully understood. Combined with on-tissue enzymatic degradation of the cell walls, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was used to monitor the molecular structure of AX and BG in thirty consecutive cross-sections of a mature wheat grain. A 3D image was built from the planar images, showing the distribution of these polymers at the full-grain level, both in lateral and longitudinal dimensions. BGs were more abundant at the vicinity of the germ and in the central cells of the endosperm, while AX, and especially highly substituted AX, were more abundant close to the brush and in the cells surrounding the crease (i.e., the transfer cells). Compared with the previously reported protocol, significant improvements were made in the tissue preparation to better preserve the shape of the fragile sections. This allowed to us achieve a good-quality 3D reconstruction from the consecutive 2D images. By providing a continuous view of the molecular distribution of the cell wall components across and along the grain, the three-dimensional images obtained by MSI may help understand the structure–function relationships of cell walls. The method should be readily extendable to other parietal polymers by selecting the appropriate enzymes.Hide Abstract
Safari, M., Ghanati, F., Safarnejad, M. R. & Chashmi, N. A. (2017). Planta, 1-12.
Unlike most terrestrial plants, tea (Camellia sinensis L.) responds to aluminum (Al) through the promotion of its root elongation; but the real mechanism(s) behind this phenomenon is not well understood. A plausible relationship between the modifications of the cell wall and the promotion of root elongation was examined in tea seedlings treated for 8 days with 400 µM Al. The mechanical properties of the cell wall, the composition of its polysaccharides and their capacity to absorb Al, the expression of genes, and the activities of the wall-modifying proteins were studied. With 6 h of the treatment, about 40% of the absorbed Al was bound to the cell wall; however, the amount did not increase thereafter. Meanwhile, the activity of pectin methylesterase, the level of pectin demethylation, the amounts and the average molecular mass of xyloglucan in the root apices significantly decreased upon exposure to Al, resulting in the reduction of Al binding sites. On the other hand, the activity and the gene expression of peroxidase decreased, whereas the activity and gene expression of xyloglucan-degrading enzymes, the expression of expansin A and the H+-ATPase4 genes increased in the Al-treated plants. Interestingly, it was accompanied by the increase of elastic and viscous extensibility of the root apices. From the results, it can be suggested that the biochemical modification of the cell walls reduces sites of Al binding to roots and triggers the activity of the loosening agents, thereby increasing the length of tea roots.Hide Abstract