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Primary Amino Nitrogen Assay Kit (PANOPA)

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00:05 Introduction
00:50 Principle
01:24  Reagent Preparation
02:34 Procedure
04:54 Calculations

Primary Amino Nitrogen Assay Kit K-PANOPA Scheme
Product code: K-PANOPA

100 assays (manual) / 1000 assays (microplate) / 1100 assays (auto-analyser)

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Content: 100 assays (manual) / 1000 assays (microplate) / 1100 assays (auto-analyser)
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: Nitrogen, Primary Amino Nitrogen, YAN
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer, Microplate, Auto-analyser
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 340
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 0.2 to 10 µg of amino nitrogen per assay
Limit of Detection: 2.59 mg N/L
Reaction Time (min): ~ 15 min
Application examples: Grape juice, must, wine and other materials.
Method recognition: Novel method

The Primary Amino Nitrogen (PANOPA) Assay Kit is suitable for the measurement and analysis of primary amino nitrogen in grape juice/must and wine.

Note for Content: The number of manual tests per kit can be doubled if all volumes are halved.  This can be readily accommodated using the MegaQuantTM  Wave Spectrophotometer (D-MQWAVE).

Display our complete list of nitrogen test kits.

View White paper - Free Amino Nitrogen.

Scheme-K-PANOPA PANOPA Megazyme

  • Simple format (absorbances read at 340 nm) 
  • Very competitive price (cost per test) 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included 
  • Suitable for manual, microplate and auto-analyser formats
Megazyme publication

Megazyme “advanced” wine test kits general characteristics and validation.

Charnock, S. J., McCleary, B. V., Daverede, C. & Gallant, P. (2006). Reveue des Oenologues, 120, 1-5.

Many of the enzymatic test kits are official methods of prestigious organisations such as the Association of Official Analytical Chemicals (AOAC) and the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) in response to the interest from oenologists. Megazyme decided to use its long history of enzymatic bio-analysis to make a significant contribution to the wine industry, by the development of a range of advanced enzymatic test kits. This task has now been successfully completed through the strategic and comprehensive process of identifying limitations of existing enzymatic bio-analysis test kits where they occurred, and then using advanced techniques, such as molecular biology (photo 1), to rapidly overcome them. Novel test kits have also been developed for analytes of emerging interest to the oenologist, such as yeast available nitrogen (YAN; see pages 2-3 of issue 117 article), or where previously enzymes were simply either not available, or were too expensive to employ, such as for D-mannitol analysis.

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Megazyme publication

Grape and wine analysis: Oenologists to exploit advanced test kits.

Charnock, S. C. & McCleary, B. V. (2005). Revue des Enology, 117, 1-5.

It is without doubt that testing plays a pivotal role throughout the whole of the vinification process. To produce the best possible quality wine and to minimise process problems such as “stuck” fermentation or troublesome infections, it is now recognised that if possible testing should begin prior to harvesting of the grapes and continue through to bottling. Traditional methods of wine analysis are often expensive, time consuming, require either elaborate equipment or specialist expertise and frequently lack accuracy. However, enzymatic bio-analysis enables the accurate measurement of the vast majority of analytes of interest to the wine maker, using just one piece of apparatus, the spectrophotometer (see previous issue No. 116 for a detailed technical review). Grape juice and wine are amenable to enzymatic testing as being liquids they are homogenous, easy to manipulate, and can generally be analysed without any sample preparation.

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Scheffersomyces stipitis ability to valorize different residual biomasses for vitamin B9 production.

Mastella, L., Senatore, V., Beltrani, T. & Branduardi, P. (2022). Microbial Biotechnology.

Sugar beet pulp (SBP), sugar beet molasses (SBM) and unfermented grape marcs (UGM) represent important waste in the agro-food sector. If suitably pre-treated, hexose and pentose sugars can be released in high quantities and can subsequently be used by appropriate cell factories as growth media and for the production of (complex) biomolecules, accomplishing the growing demand for products obtained from sustainable resources. One example is vitamin B9 or folate, a B-complex vitamin currently produced by chemical synthesis, almost exclusively in the oxidized form of folic acid (FA). It is therefore desirable to develop novel competitive strategies for replacing its current fossil-based production with a sustainable bio-based process. In this study, we assessed the production of natural folate by the yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis, investigating SBM, SBP and UGM as potential growth media. Pre-treatment of SBM and SBP had previously been optimized in our laboratory; thus, here we focused only on UGM pre-treatment and hydrolysis strategies for the release of fermentable sugars. Then, we optimized the growth of S. stipitis on the three media formulated from those biomasses, working on inoculum pre-adaptation, oxygen availability and supplementation of necessary nutrients to support the microorganism. Folate production, measured with a microbiological assay, reached 188.2 ± 24.86 μg/L on SBM, 130.6 ± 1.34 μg/L on SBP and 101.9 ± 6.62 μg/L on UGM. Here, we demonstrate the flexibility of S. stipitis in utilizing different residual biomasses as growth media. Moreover, we assessed the production of folate from waste, and to the best of our knowledge, we obtained the highest production of folate from residual biomasses ever reported, providing the first indications for the future development of this microbial production process.

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Impact of Two Commercial S. cerevisiae Strains on the Aroma Profiles of Different Regional Musts.

Patrignani, F., Siesto, G., Gottardi, D., Vigentini, I., Toffanin, A., Englezos, V., et al. (2022). Beverages, 8(4), 59.

The present research is aimed at investigating the potential of two commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (EC1118 and AWRI796) to generate wine-specific volatile molecule fingerprinting in relation to the initial must applied. To eliminate the effects of all the process variables and obtain more reliable results, comparative fermentations on interlaboratory scale of five different regional red grape musts were carried out by five different research units (RUs). For this purpose, the two S. cerevisiae strains were inoculated separately at the same level and under the same operating conditions. The wines were analyzed by means of SPME-GC/MS. Quali-quantitative multivariate approaches (two-way joining, MANOVA and PCA) were used to explain the contribution of strain, must, and their interaction to the final wine volatile fingerprinting. Our results showed that the five wines analyzed for volatile compounds, although characterized by a specific aromatic profile, were mainly affected by the grape used, in interaction with the inoculated Saccharomyces strain. In particular, the AWRI796 strain generally exerted a greater influence on the aromatic component resulting in a higher level of alcohols and esters. This study highlighted that the variable strain could have a different weight, with some musts experiencing a different trend depending on the strain (i.e., Negroamaro or Magliocco musts).

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Development and Analysis of an intensified batch-fed wine fermentation process.

Miller, K. V., Arefaine, E., Arikal, A., Cantu, A., Cauduro Girardello, R., Oberholster, A., Heymann, H. & Block, D. E. (2022). Fermentation, 8(6), 268.

White wine fermentations are typically performed in an entirely batchwise manner, with yeast nutrients only added at the beginning of fermentation. This leads to slow (2+ weeks) fermentation cycle times, with large capital expenditures required to increase winery processing capacity. Prior attempts to speed fermentations via increasing temperature have resulted in unpalatable wine, and continuous fermentation processing is uneconomical and impractical in the winery setting. In this work, we measured yeast nutrient consumption as a function of fermentation progression at the 300 mL scale, and from this derived an equation to optimize yeast nutrient concentration as a function of fermentation progression. These findings were applied at the pilot scale in 150 L fermentors, which resulted in a 60% cycle time reduction versus “best practices” control fermentations. The resultant wines were compared via GC-MS as well as by a trained sensory panel. Organoleptic analysis found statistically significant, but overall, small differences in sensory characteristics between the control and process intensified wines. This intensified fermentation process shows great promise for fermented beverage producers wishing to maximize equipment utilization and debottleneck wineries or other beverage fermentation facilities.

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Volatile Profile Survey of Five Apple Varieties Grown in Southwest Colorado from Juice to Finished, Dry-Hopped Cider.

Hinkley, J. L., Bingman, M. T., Lee, J. S., Bradley, C. P. & Cole, C. A. (2021). Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 1-10.

The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during cider fermentation, maturation, and dry hopping greatly impact enjoyment of the final product. To investigate the effect of apple variety on VOC development in cider, five apple varieties were picked from two orchards in southwest Colorado. Each apple variety was juiced, fermented with Lalvin QA23 Saccharomyces cerevisiae, dry-hopped with Citra hops, and analyzed separately alongside non-dry hopped controls. The aroma attributes of these historical southwest Colorado apples have never been explored, and few studies have chemically profiled the aromas of dry-hopped cider. A total of 73 VOCs were identified using headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) from fruit juice to cider. Ethyl esters, acetate esters, higher alcohols, and terpenes were the major aroma contributors observed in dry-hopped cider. The identity and concentrations of VOCs varied greatly between apple varieties, with only 24 common VOCs detected in all samples studied. This indicates the importance of apple variety choice in tuning the aroma profile of the finished cider. This method can be used to more effectively evaluate orchard or cider production treatments on cider quality. This case study also provides practical information for cider makers seeking to improve the quality of their products through consideration of fruit variety and dry hopping.

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Exploring the influence of grape tissues on the concentration of wine volatile compounds.

Blackford, C. L., Trengove, R. D. & Boss, P. K. (2021). Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, In Press.

Background and Aims: Knowledge of varietal wine flavour and aroma compounds has improved, but gaps exist concerning how grape composition impacts wine style. This work aimed to explore the influence that different grape tissues can have on the volatile profiles of wines. Methods and Results: Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon berries were separated into skin, flesh and seeds. Two sets of fermentations were performed using separated tissues: one using an equal mass of each tissue and another where the amount of each tissue in 25 g of berries was fermented. When an equal mass of tissue was used, the seed-derived wines had a higher concentration of esters than that produced from other grape tissues. Those produced using skins had the highest concentration of lipoxygenase pathway-derived compounds, and, for Riesling, a higher concentration of monoterpenes. When the proportional amounts of each tissue found per berry were used, the flesh-derived wines generally had a higher concentration of many wine volatiles compared to the other tissues. This reflects the greater proportion of flesh tissue in the berry compared to skin and seeds. Conclusions: Seed-derived compounds can enhance ester biosynthesis during fermentation and skins appear to have high lipoxygenase pathway activity. Nevertheless, the flesh makes up such a large proportion of the whole berry that it has the major influence on volatile profiles of whole berry fermentations. Significance of the Study: Different berry tissues can alter wine composition in unique ways, and this can inform strategies to alter wine composition through vineyard management or the selection of new germplasm.

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Aroma and Sensory Profiles of Sauvignon Blanc Wines from Commercially Produced Free Run and Pressed Juices.

Parish-Virtue, K., Herbst-Johnstone, M., Bouda, F., Fedrizzi, B., Deed, R. C. & Kilmartin, P. A. (2021). Beverages, 7(2), 29.

Sauvignon blanc is the most important grape cultivar within the New Zealand wine industry, and wines from the Marlborough region are renowned for their intense aromas including tropical, passionfruit, and green capsicum. Quality Sauvignon blanc wines are usually made from free run juice, although press fractions can be included. The chemical aroma composition and sensory profiles of two wine sets made from three press fractions (free run, light press and heavy press) were compared. The compounds 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate were found to decrease between free run and heavily pressed wines while hexyl acetate, hexanol, and benzyl alcohol increased. The accompanying sensory analysis showed that free run wines were marked by aromas of Passionfruit/sweaty, Boxwood and Fresh green capsicum, while the heavy pressed wines were described by French vanilla/bourbon, Floral and Banana lolly attributes, consistent with the aroma chemical composition.

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In Vitro Protective Effect of Paste and Sauce Extract Made with Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae on HepG2 Cells Damaged by Ethanol.

Hwang, D., Goo, T. W. & Yun, E. Y. (2020). Insects, 11(8), 494.

We made paste and sauce using protein-rich Protaetia brevitarsis larvae (PBL) and evaluated their fermentation levels. After pretreatment with the paste and sauce extracts, HepG2 cells were damaged with ethanol (EtOH), and then the effects of the paste and sauce were evaluated. As a result, we confirmed that the PBL paste and sauce extracts reduced the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) content in the medium as compared to soybean (Glycine max) sauce and paste extracts. In addition, the PBL paste and sauce extracts significantly lowered the level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, which are biomarkers of inflammation, and significantly increased the inhibition rate of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH), which are antioxidative indicators, in proportion to the amount of PBL added to the paste and sauce. These results suggest that an intake of PBL paste and sauce, a novel type of fermented food made from insects, may be effective for liver protection through anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects against hepatocyte injury caused by EtOH.

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Soil Nitrogen Fertilization Increases Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen Concentrations in ‘Golden Russet’and ‘Medaille d’Or’Apples Used for Cider Production.

Karl, A. D., Brown, M. G., Ma, S., Sandbrook, A., Stewart, A. C., Cheng, L., Mansfield, A. K. & Peck, G. M. (2020). Hort. Science, 55(8), 1345-1355.

The recent growth in the U.S. hard-cider industry has increased the demand for cider apples (Malus×domestica Borkh.), but little is known about how to manage orchard soil fertility best to optimize horticultural performance and juice characteristics for these cultivars. To assess whether nitrogen fertilizer applied to the soil can improve apple juice and cider quality, calcium nitrate (CaNO3) fertilizer was applied at different rates to the soil beneath ‘Golden Russet’ and ‘Medaille d’Or’ trees over the course of three growing seasons. The experiment started when the trees were in their second leaf. The trees were cropped in their third and fourth leaf. At the end of the first growing season of the experiment, the greatest fertilizer rate increased tree trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) by 82% relative to the control, but this difference did not persist through to the end of the study. Yield and crop load were unaffected by the nitrogen fertilization treatments. Increasing the nitrogen fertilizer rate correlated positively with more advanced harvest maturity in ‘Golden Russet’ fruit, which resulted in greater soluble solid concentration (SSC). Fruit from the greatest fertilizer rate treatment had an average starch pattern index (SPI) that was 1 U greater than in the control, and an SSC that was 3% greater than the control. The fertilizer treatments did not affect juice pH, titratable acidity (TA), or total polyphenol concentrations. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentrations were increased by nitrogen fertilization for both cultivars in both harvest years. The greatest fertilizer treatment increased juice primary amino nitrogen by 103% relative to the control. Greater nitrogen fertilization rates correlated positively with less hydrogen sulfide production during the fermentation of ‘Golden Russet’ juice from the first, but not the second, harvest. During the first year, cumulative hydrogen sulfide production for the ‘Golden Russet’ control treatment was 29.6 μg·L-1 compared with the ‘Golden Russet’ high treatment, which cumulatively produced 0.1 μg·L-1. Greater maximum fermentation rates and shorter fermentation durations correlated positively with increased fertilization rate for both cultivars after the second harvest. High treatment fermentations had maximum fermentation rates 110% greater, and fermentation durations 30% shorter than the control. Other horticultural and juice-quality parameters were not affected negatively by the CaNOtreatments. In orchards producing apples specifically for the hard-cider industry, nitrogen fertilizer could increase juice YAN, thus reducing the need for exogenous additions during cider production.

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Modelling of S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii pure culture fermentation in synthetic media using a compartmental nitrogen model.

Brou, P., Patricia, T., Beaufort, S. & Brandam, C. (2020). OENO One, 54(2), 299-311.

Aim: The objective of the present work is to propose a model describing the evolution of the pure culture fermentation of two oenological yeasts: S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii. Methods and results: For both yeasts, pure culture fermentation was performed in a synthetic medium with different initial concentrations of yeast available nitrogen. The datasets obtained from those experiments were used to identify the parameters of the proposed model. Conclusions: The developed comprehensive model of wine-making fermentation is based on the partition of assimilated nitrogen between the constitutive and the storage compartments. It efficiently describes the evolution of S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii pure cultures. This mass-balance model provides a stoichiometric approach in biomass production, unlike nitrogen backboned models used in winemaking. Moreover, it gives an estimation of non-accessed data such as nitrogen partition between vacuole and cytosol during T. delbrueckii fermentation. Significance and impact of the study: The developed model is robust enough to precisely describe the fermentation evolution of two pure culture yeasts and therefore has future potential for modelling mixed culture fermentations of S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii.

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Factors influencing the production of the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol during alcoholic fermentation: Yeast strain, initial tyrosine concentration and initial must.

Rebollo-Romero, I., Fernández-Cruz, E., Carrasco-Galán, F., Valero, E., Cantos-Villar, E., Cerezo, A. B., Troncosso, A. M. & Garcia-Parrilla, M. C. (2020). LWT, 130, 109631.

Hydroxytyrosol is well known for its potent antioxidant activity and anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, cardioprotective and neuroprotective properties. Main food sources are olive oil (formed from the hydrolysis of oleuropein) and wine. One possible explanation to its origin in wines is the synthesis from tyrosol, which in turn is produced from the Ehrlich pathway by yeasts. This work aims to explore the factors that could increase the content as the strain of yeast, the initial tyrosine concentrations as precursor and the effect of synthetic and sterilized natural grape musts. Alcoholic fermentations in synthetic must showed that hydroxytyrosol is produced by all the yeast strains under study. Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts were those which produced higher concentrations, being the Red Fruit strain the biggest producer (6.12 ng/mL). Once the strain was selected, alcoholic fermentations were performed in synthetic must, with different tyrosine concentrations. The amount of hydroxytyrosol did not increase in a proportional way as tyrosine does. On the other hand, higher concentrations of hydroxytyrosol were obtained in natural grape musts (10.46 ng/mL) than in synthetic must (4.03 ng/mL). This work confirms the capacity of winemaking yeasts to produce the bioactive hydroxytyrosol.

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Assessing the oenological potential of Nakazawaea ishiwadae, Candida railenensis and Debaryomyces hansenii strains in mixed-culture grape must fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

van Wyk, N., Pretorius, I. S. & von Wallbrunn, C. (2020). Fermentation, 6(2), 49.

Recently, there has been a growing interest in the role of non-Saccharomyces yeast (NSY) as a coculturing partner with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during grape must fermentation. We investigated three new strains, namely Nakazawaea ishiwadae, Candida railenensis and Debaryomyces hansenii, for their oenological potential in mixed-culture micro-vinifications with S. cerevisiae Vin13 using Muscaris grape must. None of the NSY strains impeded the fermentation performance as all the mixed-culture experiments finished at the same time. Coculturing with N. ishiwadae yielded significantly higher concentrations of ethyl and acetate esters in the final wine product. Apart from higher acetic acid levels, wines produced with C. railenensis and D. hansenii yielded much lower esters concentrations. The concentrations of certain terpenes and norisoprenoids were also significantly modulated in the mixed-culture fermentations. This study reveals the rarely reported species of N. ishiwadae as a promising coculturing partner for increasing aroma-active compounds in a wine.

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Saccharomyces uvarum yeast isolate consumes acetic acid during fermentation of high sugar juice and juice with high starting volatile acidity.

Inglis, D., Kelly, J., van Dyk, S., Dowling, L., Pickering, G. & Kemp, B. (2020). OENO One, 54(2).

Aim: A Saccharomyces uvarum isolate was assessed for its ability to metabolize acetic acid present in juice and during the fermentation of partially dehydrated grapes. The impact on other yeast metabolites was also compared using an S. uvarum isolate and an S. cerevisiae wine yeast. The upper limit of fruit concentration that allowed the S. uvarum isolate to ferment wines to < 5 g/L residual sugar was defined. Methods and results: Cabernet franc grapes were partially dehydrated to three different post-harvest sugar targets (24.5 °Brix, 26.0 °Brix, and 27.5 °Brix) along with non-dehydrated grapes (21.5 °Brix control). Musts from all treatments were vinified with either the S. uvarum isolate CN1, formerly identified as S. bayanus, or S. cerevisiae EC1118. All wines were successfully vinified to less than 5 g/L residual sugar. Fermentation kinetics between the two yeasts were similar for all wines other than 27.5 °Brix, where CN1 took three days longer. During fermentation with CN1, acetic acid peaked on day two, then decreased in concentration, resulting in final wine acetic acid lower than that measured on day two. Wines fermented with EC1118 showed an increase in acetic acid over the time-course of fermentation. Significantly lower wine oxidative compounds (acetic acid, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate) and higher glycerol resulted in wine produced with CN1 in comparison to EC1118. Both yeasts produced comparable ethanol at each Brix level tested. Further studies showed that CN1 lowered acetic acid seven-fold from 0.48 g/L in juice to 0.07 g/L in wine whereas EC1118 reduced acetic acid to 0.18 g/L. Conclusions: The autochthonous S. uvarum yeast isolate successfully fermented partially dehydrated grapes to < 5 g/L sugar up to 27.5 ºBrix. The consumption rate of acetic acid was faster than its production during fermentation, resulting in low acetic acid, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate in wine in comparison to a commercial S. cerevisiae yeast while consistently producing higher glycerol. Significance and impact of the study: The S. uvarum yeast isolate can metabolize acetic acid during fermentation to significantly lower acetic acid, ethyl acetate and acetaldehyde in wine. It can also reduce acetic acid by seven-fold from the starting juice to the finished wine, which could have potential application for managing sour rot arising in the vineyard or during the dehydration process in making appassimento-style wines.

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Influence of Nutrient Supplementation on Torulaspora Delbrueckii Wine Fermentation Aroma.

Mecca, D., Benito, S., Beisert, B., Brezina, S., Fritsch, S., Semmler, H. & Rauhut, D. (2020). Fermentation, 6(1), 35.

This study was performed with the aim of characterizing the fermentative performance of three commercial strains of Torulaspora delbrueckii and their impact on the production of volatile and non-volatile compounds. Laboratory-scale single culture fermentations were performed using a commercial white grape juice. The addition of commercial nutrient products enabled us to test the yeasts under two different nutrient conditions. The addition of nutrients promoted fermentation intensity from 9% to 20 % with significant differences (p < 0.05) among the strains tested. The strain diversity together with the nutrient availability influenced the production of volatile compounds.

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Nutrient Addition to Low pH Base Wines (L. cv. Riesling) during Yeast Acclimatization for Sparkling Wine: Its Influence on Yeast Cell Growth, Sugar Consumption and Nitrogen Usage.

Kemp, B., Plante, J. & Inglis, D. L. (2020). Beverages, 6(1), 10.

In traditional method sparkling wine production, to carry out a successful second alcoholic fermentation, yeast are acclimatized to stressful base wine conditions. Base wines typically have low pH, low nutrient concentrations, high acid concentrations, contain sulfur dioxide (SO2), and high ethanol concentrations. Supplementing yeast during the acclimatization stages prior to second alcoholic fermentation with different nutrient sources was assessed to determine the impact on yeast growth, sugar consumption and nitrogen usage. Four treatments were tested with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain EC1118: the control (T1) with no additives; addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) during acclimatization, (T2); Go-Ferm® inclusion during yeast rehydration (GF), (T3); and DAP + GF (T4). Results (n = 4) indicated that supplementing with DAP, GF or DAP + GF increased both the rate of sugar consumption and the concentration of viable cells during the yeast acclimatization phase in comparison to the control. Treatments supplemented with DAP + GF or DAP alone resulted in yeast consuming 228 and 220 mg N/L during the acclimatization phase, respectively. Yeast treated only with GF consumed 94 mg N/L in comparison to the control, which consumed 23 mg N/L. The time required to reach the target specific gravity (1.010) during acclimatization was significantly reduced to 57 h for yeast treated with DAP and GF, 69 h for yeast treated with DAP only and 81 h for yeast rehydrated with GF in comparison to 105 h for the control. Our results suggest that nutrients used during yeast acclimatization could have an important impact on the kinetics of second alcoholic fermentation.

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Viability of IR spectroscopy for the accurate measurement of yeast assimilable nitrogen content of grape juice.

Petrovic, G., Aleixandre-Tudo, J. L. & Buica, A. (2020). Talanta, 206, 120241.

Up to date, there have been only a few reports on the measurement of YAN and/or its components using IR spectroscopy, suffering from various limitations (number of samples, validation strategies, etc.). In this work, three IR spectral instruments measuring in different modes and ranges of the IR spectrum (FT-IR, FT-NIR, and ATR-MIR), were compared and evaluated for their accuracy to measure both total YAN as well as the components, FAN and ammonia separately, using over 900 grape juice samples from 28 cultivars over three seasons. The global and vintage-based models were evaluated using R2CAL/VAL, RMSEC/P, and RPDCAL/VAL. Randomization tests were used for pair-wise comparison of models. FT-IR and FT-NIR instruments gave the best results, while ATR-MIR can be used for screening purposes. Considering the accuracy, robustness, high throughput, and cost-effective nature, the models produced by both FT-IR and FT-NIR spectroscopy can provide winemakers with the opportunity to make timelier and more informed nutrient supplementation decisions, facilitating the achievement of their desired wine style and quality.

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The Use of CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Editing to Determine the Importance of Glycerol Uptake in Wine Yeast During Icewine Fermentation.

Muysson, J., Miller, L., Allie, R. & Inglis, D. L. (2019). Fermentation, 5(4), 93.

The high concentration of sugars in Icewine juice causes formidable stress for the fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae, causing cells to lose water and shrink in size. Yeast can combat this stress by increasing the internal concentration of glycerol by activating the high osmolarity glycerol response to synthesize glycerol and by actively transporting glycerol into the cell from the environment. The H+/glycerol symporter, Stl1p, has been previously characterized as being glucose repressed and inactivated, despite osmotic stress induction. To further investigate the role of Stl1p in Icewine fermentations, we developed a rapid single plasmid CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing method to construct a strain of the common Icewine yeast, S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, that lacks STL1. In an Icewine fermentation, the ∆STL1 strain had reduced fermentation performance, and elevated glycerol and acetic acid production compared to the parent. These results demonstrate that glycerol uptake by Stl1p has a significant role during osmotically challenging Icewine fermentations in K1-V1116 despite potential glucose downregulation.

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A 2-year multisite study of viticultural and environmental factors affecting rotundone concentration in Duras red wine.

Geffroy, O., Descôtes, J., Levasseur-Garcia, C., Debord, C., Denux, J. P. & Dufourcq, T. (2019). OENO One, 53(3).

Aim: A study was carried out in 2013 and 2014 to determine the key environmental and viticultural variables affecting the concentration of rotundone, the black pepper aroma compound, in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Duras red wines at 10 different vineyard blocks. Methods and Results: For each block, data for fruit quality attributes, as well as climatic and agronomical variables, were collected. Rotundone was quantified in wines prepared by microvinification techniques (in a 1-L Erlenmeyer flask). Rotundone concentration varied across blocks from 63 ng/L to 239 ng/L in 2013 and from 25 ng/L to 115 ng/L in 2014. Three separate partial least squares regression models were constructed to predict rotundone concentration in wines in 2013, in 2014, and in both vintages. Gluconic acid, a secondary metabolite of Botrytis cinerea, had a substantial contribution to the 2013 and multivintage models, with a negative regression coefficient with rotundone concentration. Other predictors were associated with abiotic factors such as cumulative rainfall, thermal index, hours of sunshine and mean daily irradiation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that mesoscale climatic variables are the key factors determining rotundone concentration, and also suggest that Botrytis cinerea may be involved in rotundone degradation. Significance and impact of the study: Our findings may assist grape growers producing Duras red wines to select specific vineyard blocks with the aim of producing wines with a desired rotundone concentration. They also open up new fields of investigation into mechanisms involved in possible rotundone degradation by Botrytis cinerea.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii intra-and extra-cellular aromatic amino acids metabolism.

Álvarez-Fernández, M. A., Fernández-Cruz, E., Garcia-Parrilla, M. C., Troncoso, A. M., Mattivi, F., Vrhovsek, U. & Arapitsas, P. (2019). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 67(28), 7942-7953.

Tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine play an important role as nitrogen sources in yeast metabolism. They regulate biomass production and fermentation rate, and their catabolites contribute to wine health benefits and sensorial character through the yeast biotransformation of grape juice constitutes into biologically active and flavor-impacting components. A UHPLC-MS/MS method was applied to monitor 37 tryptophan/phenylalanine/tyrosine yeast metabolites both in extra- and intracellular extracts produced by the fermentation of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and one Torulaspora delbrueckii. The results shed light on the intra- and extra-cellular metabolomic dynamics, by combining metabolic needs, stimuli, and signals. Among others, the results indicated (a) the production of 2-aminoacetophenone by yeasts, mainly by the two Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (b) the deactivation and/or detoxification of tryptophol via sulfonation reaction; and (c) the deacetylation of N-acetyl tryptophan ethyl ester and N-acetyl tyrosine ethyl ester by producing the corresponding ethyl esters.

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Safety Information
Symbol : GHS07, GHS08
Signal Word : Danger
Hazard Statements : H315, H317, H319, H360, H412
Precautionary Statements : P201, P202, P261, P264, P272, P273, P280, P305+P351+P338
Safety Data Sheet
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D- L-Lactic Acid D- L-Lactate Rapid Assay Kit K-DLATE DLATE
D-/L-Lactic Acid (D-/L-Lactate) (Rapid) Assay Kit