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|Storage Temperature:||Below -10oC|
|Formulation:||In 50% (v/v) glycerol|
|Stability:||Minimum 1 year at < -10oC. Check vial for details.|
|Synonyms:||cellulose 1,4-beta-cellobiosidase (non-reducing end); 4-beta-D-glucan cellobiohydrolase (non-reducing end)|
|Concentration:||Supplied at ~ 80 U/mL|
|Expression:||Recombinant from a Microbial source|
|Specificity:||Hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in cellulose and cellooligosaccharides (DP < 4), releasing cellobiose from the non-reducing ends of the chains.|
|Specific Activity:||~ 50 U/mg protein (40oC, pH 5.5 on 1,4-β-D-cellopentaitol)|
|Unit Definition:||One Unit of cellobiohydrolase activity is defined as the amount of enzyme required to release one µmole of glucose per minute from 1,4-β-D-cellopentaitol (10 mg/mL) in sodium acetate buffer (100 mM), pH 5.5 at the appropriate temperature.|
|Application examples:||For use in research.|
A TEMPO-catalyzed oxidation-reduction method to probe surface and anhydrous crystalline-core domains of cellulose microfibril bundles.
Shiga, T. M., Yang, H., Penning, B. W., Olek, A. T., McCann, M. C. & Carpita, N. C. (2021). Cellulose, 28(9), 5305-5319.
A modified TEMPO-catalyzed oxidation of the solvent-exposed glucosyl units of cellulose to uronic acids, followed by carboxyl reduction with NaBD4 to 6-deutero- and 6,6-dideuteroglucosyl units, provided a robust method for determining relative proportions of disordered amorphous, ordered surface chains, and anhydrous core-crystalline residues of cellulose microfibrils inaccessible to TEMPO. Both glucosyl residues of cellobiose units, digested from amorphous chains of cellulose with a combination of cellulase and cellobiohydrolase, were deuterated, whereas those from anhydrous chains were undeuterated. By contrast, solvent-exposed and anhydrous residues alternate in surface chains, so only one of the two residues of cellobiosyl units was labeled. Although current estimates indicate that each cellulose microfibril comprises only 18 to 24 (1 → 4)-β-D-glucan chains, we show here that microfibrils of walls of Arabidopsis leaves and maize coleoptiles, and those of secondary wall cellulose of cotton fibers and poplar wood, bundle into much larger macrofibrils, with 67 to 86% of the glucan chains in the anhydrous domain. These results indicate extensive bundling of microfibrils into macrofibrils occurs during both primary and secondary wall formation. We discuss how, beyond lignin, the degree of bundling into macrofibrils contributes an additional recalcitrance factor to lignocellulosic biomass for enzymatic or chemical catalytic conversion to biofuel substrates.Hide Abstract
A lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase from Myceliophthora thermophila and its synergism with cellobiohydrolases in cellulose hydrolysis.
Zhou, H., Li, T., Yu, Z., Ju, J., Zhang, H., Tan, H., Li, K. & Yin, H. (2019). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 139, 570-576.
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) have attracted vast attention because of their unique mechanism of oxidative degradation of carbohydrate polymers and the potential application in biorefineries. This study characterized a novel LPMO from Myceliophthora thermophila, denoted MtLPMO9L. The structure model of the enzyme indicated that it belongs to the C1-oxidizing LPMO, which has neither an extra helix in the L3 loop nor extra loop region in the L2 loop. This was confirmed subsequently by the enzymatic assays since MtLPMO9L only acts on cellulose and generates C1-oxidized cello-oligosaccharides. Moreover, synergetic experiments showed that MtLPMO9L significantly improves the efficiency of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) II. In contrast, the inhibitory rather than synergetic effect was observed when combining used MtLPMO9L and CBHI. Changing the incubation time and concentration ratio of MtLPMO9L and CBHI could attenuate the inhibitory effects. This discovery suggests a different synergy detail between MtLPMO9L and two CBHs, which implies that the composition of cellulase cocktails may need reconsideration.Hide Abstract
Ogunmolu, F. E., Jagadeesha, N. B. K., Kumar, R., Kumar, P., Gupta, D. & Yazdani, S. S. (2017). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 10(71).
Background: GH7 cellobiohydrolases (CBH1) are vital for the breakdown of cellulose. We had previously observed the enzyme as the most dominant protein in the active cellulose-hydrolyzing secretome of the hypercellulolytic ascomycete—Penicillium funiculosum (NCIM1228). To understand its contributions to cellulosic biomass saccharification in comparison with GH7 cellobiohydrolase from the industrial workhorse—Trichoderma reesei, we natively purified and functionally characterized the only GH7 cellobiohydrolase identified and present in the genome of the fungus. Results: There were marginal differences observed in the stability of both enzymes, with P. funiculosum (PfCBH1) showing an optimal thermal midpoint (Tm) of 68°C at pH 4.4 as against an optimal Tm of 65°C at pH 4.7 for T. reesei (TrCBH1). Nevertheless, PfCBH1 had an approximate threefold lower binding affinity (Km), an 18-fold higher turnover rate (kcat), a sixfold higher catalytic efficiency as well as a 26-fold higher enzyme-inhibitor complex equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) than TrCBH1 on p-nitrophenyl-β-D-lactopyranoside (pNPL). Although both enzymes hydrolyzed cellooligomers (G2–G6) and microcrystalline cellulose, releasing cellobiose and glucose as the major products, the propensity was more with PfCBH1. We equally observed this trend during the hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straws in tandem with other core cellulases under the same conditions. Molecular dynamic simulations conducted on a homology model built using the TrCBH1 structure (PDB ID: 8CEL) as a template enabled us to directly examine the effects of substrate and products on the protein dynamics. While the catalytic triads—EXDXXE motifs—were conserved between the two enzymes, subtle variations in regions enclosing the catalytic path were observed, and relations to functionality highlighted. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about a comprehensive and comparative description of CBH1 from hypercellulolytic ascomycete—P. funiculosum NCIM1228, against the backdrop of the same enzyme from the industrial workhorse—T. reesei. Our study reveals PfCBH1 as a viable alternative for CBH1 from T. reesei in industrial cellulase cocktails.Hide Abstract