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Acetic Acid Assay Kit (ACS Manual Format)

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00:05   Introduction
00:52   Principle
01:21     Reagent Preparation
02:04   Procedure
06:04   Calculations

Acetic Acid Assay Kit ACS Manual Format K-ACET Scheme
Product code: K-ACET

53 assays per kit

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Content: 53 assays per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: Acetic Acid
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 340
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 0.3 to 20 µg of acetic acid per assay
Limit of Detection: 0.14 mg/L
Reaction Time (min): ~ 14 min
Application examples: Wine, beer, fruit and fruit juices, soft drinks, vinegar, vegetables, pickles, dairy products (e.g. cheese), meat, fish, bread, bakery products (and baking agents), ketchup, soy sauce, mayonnaise, dressings, paper (and cardboard), tea, pharmaceuticals (e.g. infusion solutions), feed and other materials (e.g. biological cultures, samples, etc.).
Method recognition: Methods based on this principle have been accepted by EN, ISO,ICUMSA, IFU and MEBAK

The Acetic Acid (ACS Manual Format) test kit is a simple method for the rapid and reliable measurement and analysis of acetic acid/acetate in foods, beverages and other materials.

Note for Content: The number of manual tests per kit can be doubled if all volumes are halved.  This can be readily accommodated using the MegaQuantTM  Wave Spectrophotometer (D-MQWAVE).

See our full range of organic acid test kits.

Scheme-K-ACET ACET Megazyme

  • No wasted ACS solution (stable suspension supplied) 
  • PVP incorporated to prevent tannin inhibition 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation
  • Very competitive price (cost per test) 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Other automated assay procedures Product Performance Validation Report
Megazyme publication

Megazyme “advanced” wine test kits general characteristics and validation.

Charnock, S. J., McCleary, B. V., Daverede, C. & Gallant, P. (2006). Reveue des Oenologues, 120, 1-5.

Many of the enzymatic test kits are official methods of prestigious organisations such as the Association of Official Analytical Chemicals (AOAC) and the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) in response to the interest from oenologists. Megazyme decided to use its long history of enzymatic bio-analysis to make a significant contribution to the wine industry, by the development of a range of advanced enzymatic test kits. This task has now been successfully completed through the strategic and comprehensive process of identifying limitations of existing enzymatic bio-analysis test kits where they occurred, and then using advanced techniques, such as molecular biology (photo 1), to rapidly overcome them. Novel test kits have also been developed for analytes of emerging interest to the oenologist, such as yeast available nitrogen (YAN; see pages 2-3 of issue 117 article), or where previously enzymes were simply either not available, or were too expensive to employ, such as for D-mannitol analysis.

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Megazyme publication

Grape and wine analysis: Oenologists to exploit advanced test kits.

Charnock, S. C. & McCleary, B. V. (2005). Revue des Enology, 117, 1-5.

It is without doubt that testing plays a pivotal role throughout the whole of the vinification process. To produce the best possible quality wine and to minimise process problems such as “stuck” fermentation or troublesome infections, it is now recognised that if possible testing should begin prior to harvesting of the grapes and continue through to bottling. Traditional methods of wine analysis are often expensive, time consuming, require either elaborate equipment or specialist expertise and frequently lack accuracy. However, enzymatic bio-analysis enables the accurate measurement of the vast majority of analytes of interest to the wine maker, using just one piece of apparatus, the spectrophotometer (see previous issue No. 116 for a detailed technical review). Grape juice and wine are amenable to enzymatic testing as being liquids they are homogenous, easy to manipulate, and can generally be analysed without any sample preparation.

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Design of a Plant-Based Yogurt-Like Product Fortified with Hemp Flour: Formulation and Characterization.

Montemurro, M., Verni, M., Rizzello, C. G. & Pontonio, E. (2023). Foods, 12(3), 485.

Plant-based milk alternatives have gained massive popularity among consumers because of their sustainable production compared to bovine milk and because of meeting the nutritional requests of consumers affected by cow milk allergies and lactose intolerance. In this work, hemp flour, in a blend with rice flour, was used to design a novel lactose- and gluten-free yogurt-like (YL) product with suitable nutritional, functional, and sensory features. The growth and the acidification of three different lactic acid bacteria strains were monitored to better set up the biotechnological protocol for making the YL product. Hemp flour conferred the high fiber (circa 2.6 g/100 g), protein (circa 4 g/100 g), and mineral contents of the YL product, while fermentation by selected lactic acid bacteria increased the antioxidant properties (+8%) and the soluble fiber (+0.3 g/100 g), decreasing the predicted glycemic index (-10%). As demonstrated by the sensory analysis, the biotechnological process decreased the earthy flavor (typical of raw hemp flour) and increased the acidic and creamy sensory perceptions. Supplementation with natural clean-label vanilla powder and agave syrup was proposed to further decrease the astringent and bitter flavors. The evaluation of the starter survival and biochemical properties of the product under refrigerated conditions suggests an estimated shelf-life of 30 days. This work demonstrated that hemp flour might be used as a nutritional improver, while fermentation with a selected starter represents a sustainable and effective option for exploiting its potential.

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High-throughput mass spectrometry analysis revealed a role for glucosamine in potentiating recovery following desiccation stress in Chironomus.

Thorat, L., Oulkar, D., Banerjee, K., Gaikwad, S. M. & Nath, B. B. (2017). Scientific Reports7(1), 3659.

Desiccation tolerance is an essential survival trait, especially in tropical aquatic organisms that are vulnerable to severe challenges posed by hydroperiodicity patterns in their habitats, characterized by dehydration-rehydration cycles. Here, we report a novel role for glucosamine as a desiccation stress-responsive metabolite in the underexplored tropical aquatic midge, Chironomus ramosus. Using high- throughput liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) analysis, biochemical assays and gene expression studies, we confirmed that glucosamine was essential during the recovery phase in C. ramosus larvae. Additionally, we demonstrated that trehalose, a known stress-protectant was crucial during desiccation but did not offer any advantage to the larvae during recovery. Based on our findings, we emphasise on the collaborative interplay of glucosamine and trehalose in conferring overall resilience to desiccation stress and propose the involvement of the trehalose-chitin metabolic interface in insects as one of the stress-management strategies to potentiate recovery post desiccation through recruitment of glucosamine.

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Continuous fed-batch strategy decreases acetic acid production and increases volatile ester formation in wines under high-gravity fermentation.

Deng, H., Wang, M. & Li, E. (2023). OENO One, 57(1), 363-374.

High sugar fermentation elevates acetic acid levels in wines, which can be avoided by applying the continuous fed-batch strategy. In this study, yeast gene expressions and wine volatile compounds were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in high-gravity (HG, 320 g/L sugars) fermentations with different batch strategies. The acetic acid concentration in continuous fed-batch fermentation wine was reduced by 51.69 %, compared with that in whole-batch fermentation wine. The acetyl-CoA synthase gene (ACS2) expression was up-regulated, whereas the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1) expression was down-regulated on day 3 and day 7 during the continuous fed-batch fermentation. The volatile ester concentration in continuous fed-batch fermentation wine was 36.74 % higher than that in whole-batch fermentation wine. Overall, the continuous fed-batch strategy can modulate the expression of yeast genes involved in acetic acid metabolism and can increase volatile esters in wine under high sugar fermentation. Our findings provide a reference for the application of a continuous fed-batch strategy in high-sugar fermentation so as to improve the quality of the wine.

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Up-cycling grape pomace through sourdough fermentation: Characterization of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and anti-inflammatory potential.

Torreggiani, A., Demarinis, C., Pinto, D., Papale, A., Difonzo, G., Caponio, F., Pontonio, E., Verni, M. & Rizzello, C. G. (2023).. Antioxidants12(8), 1521.

Despite its appealing composition, because it is rich in fibers and polyphenols, grape pomace, the major by-product of the wine industry, is still discarded or used for feed. This study aimed at exploiting grape pomace functional potential through fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). A systematic approach, including the progressively optimization of the grape pomace substrate, was used, evaluating pomace percentage, pH, and supplementation of nitrogen and carbon sources. When grape pomace was used at 10%, especially without pH correction, LAB cell viability decreased up to 2 log cycles. Hence, the percentage was lowered to 5 or 2.5% and supplementations with carbon and nitrogen sources, which are crucial for LAB metabolism, were considered aiming at obtaining a proper fermentation of the substrate. The optimization of the substrate enabled the comparison of strains performances and allowed the selection of the best performing strain (Lactiplantibacillus plantarum T0A10). A sourdough, containing 5% of grape pomace and fermented with the selected strain, showed high antioxidant activity on DPPH and ABTS radicals and anti-inflammatory potential on Caco2 cells. The anthocyanins profile of the grape pomace sourdough was also characterized, showing qualitative and quantitative differences before and after fermentation. Overall, the grape pomace sourdough showed promising applications as a functional ingredient in bread making.

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Agaricus bisporus chitosan influences the concentrations of caftaric acid and furan-derived compounds in Pinot noir juice and base wine.

Mederios, J., Xu, S., Pickering, G. & Kemp, B. (2023). Oeno One, 57(3), 255-268.

Chitosan is a fining agent used in winemaking, although its use in juice and wine beyond fining has been limited until now. Therefore, this study's first aim was to determine if chitosan derived from Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms) could reduce caffeic and caftaric acid concentrations in Pinot noir grape juice (Study A). The second aim was to determine if chitosan, when added to base wine, could influence the synthesis of furan-derived compounds during storage (Study B). In Study A, Pinot noir grape juice was stored at 10°C for 18 hours after the following treatments: control (no addition), bentonite/activated charcoal (BAC), low molecular weight (< 3 kDa; LMW) chitosan, med. MW (250 kDa; MMW) chitosan, and high MW (422 kDa; HMW) chitosan (all 1 g/L additions). Caftaric acid was decreased, and total amino acid concentration was increased in the LMW chitosan-treated juice, while the estimated total hydroxycinnamic acid content, turbidity, and browning were decreased in the MMW chitosan-treated juice compared to the control. In Study B, Pinot noir base wine destined for sparkling wine was stored at 15 and 30°C for 90 days with the following treatments: control (no addition), LMW chitosan, MMW chitosan, and HMW chitosan (all 1 g/L additions). The three chitosan treatments stored at 30°C had increased furfural, homofuraneol, and 5-methylfurfural formation in the base wine compared to the control. At 15°C, furfural and homofuraneol had greater concentrations in all chitosan-treated wines after 90 days of storage. Our results demonstrate the potential of mushroom-derived chitosan to remove caftaric acid from grape juice and suggest that chitosan can influence the synthesis of furan-derived compounds in wine after short-term storage.

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Growth-coupled anaerobic production of isobutanol from glucose in minimal medium with Escherichia coli.

Boecker, S., Schulze, P. & Klamt, S. (2023). Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts, 16(1), 148.

Background: The microbial production of isobutanol holds promise to become a sustainable alternative to fossil-based synthesis routes for this important chemical. Escherichia coli has been considered as one production host, however, due to redox imbalance, growth-coupled anaerobic production of isobutanol from glucose in E. coli is only possible if complex media additives or small amounts of oxygen are provided. These strategies have a negative impact on product yield, productivity, reproducibility, and production costs. Results: In this study, we propose a strategy based on acetate as co-substrate for resolving the redox imbalance. We constructed the E. coli background strain SB001 (ΔldhA ΔfrdA ΔpflB) with blocked pathways from glucose to alternative fermentation products but with an enabled pathway for acetate uptake and subsequent conversion to ethanol via acetyl-CoA. This strain, if equipped with the isobutanol production plasmid pIBA4, showed robust exponential growth (µ = 0.05 h−1) under anaerobic conditions in minimal glucose medium supplemented with small amounts of acetate. In small-scale batch cultivations, the strain reached a glucose uptake rate of 4.8 mmol gDW−1 h−1, a titer of 74 mM and 89% of the theoretical maximal isobutanol/glucose yield, while secreting only small amounts of ethanol synthesized from acetate. Furthermore, we show that the strain keeps a high metabolic activity also in a pulsed fed-batch bioreactor cultivation, even if cell growth is impaired by the accumulation of isobutanol in the medium. Conclusions: This study showcases the beneficial utilization of acetate as a co-substrate and redox sink to facilitate growth-coupled production of isobutanol under anaerobic conditions. This approach holds potential for other applications with different production hosts and/or substrate–product combinations.

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Combined use of Trametes versicolor extract and sourdough fermentation to extend the microbiological shelf-life of baked goods.

Torreggiani, A., Beccaccioli, M., Verni, M., Cecchetti, V., Minisci, A., Reverberi, M., Pontonio, E. & Rizzello, C. G. (2023). LWT, 189, 115467.

Fungal spoilage is the main responsible for the short shelf-life of baked goods. Indeed, many chemical preservatives (e.g., calcium propionate and ethanol) are often included in their formulation leading to consumer dissatisfaction. Here, an in-vitro and in-situ integrated approach was used to investigate the potential antifungal activity of the extract obtained from Trametes versicolor as biological preservative. An intense inhibition towards most of the Aspergillus and Penicillium species and a broad spectrum of activity on typical spoilage fungi of the bakery products, as well as high thermal stability and intense activity at pH 4.00 characterized the Trametes extract. The antifungal potential of the extract has been exploited in sour bread made with organic acids (chemical) or type II-sourdough (biological). Compared to baker's yeast bread produced as control (pH 5.6), the acidified samples were characterized by a longer mold-free shelf-life, with indicator mycelia that became visible after 6–9 days of storage at room temperature. Sourdough was effective to counteract the negative effect of the extract supplementation on the leavening performances, textural and sensory features of the bread samples.

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Expression and Molecular Modification of Chitin Deacetylase from Streptomyces bacillaris.

Yin, L., Wang, Q., Sun, J. & Mao, X. (2023). Molecules, 28(1), 113.

Chitin deacetylase can be used in the green and efficient preparation of chitosan from chitin. Herein, a novel chitin deacetylase SbCDA from Streptomyces bacillaris was heterologously expressed and comprehensively characterized. SbDNA exhibits its highest deacetylation activity at 35°C and pH 8.0. The enzyme activity is enhanced by Mn2+ and prominently inhibited by Zn2+, SDS, and EDTA. SbCDA showed better deacetylation activity on colloidal chitin, (GlcNAc)5, and (GlcNAc)6 than other forms of the substrate. Molecular modification of SbCDA was conducted based on sequence alignment and homology modeling. A mutant SbCDA63G with higher activity and better temperature stability was obtained. The deacetylation activity of SbCDA63G was increased by 133% compared with the original enzyme, and the optimal reaction temperature increased from 35 to 40°C. The half-life of SbCDA63G at 40°C is 15 h, which was 5 h longer than that of the original enzyme. The improved characteristics of the chitin deacetylase SbCDA63G make it a potential candidate to industrially produce chitosan from chitin.

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Consumption and Metabolism of Extracellular Pyruvate by Cultured Rat Brain Astrocytes.

Denker, N., Harders, A. R., Arend, C. & Dringen, R. (2022). Neurochemical Research, 1-17.

Brain astrocytes are considered as glycolytic cell type, but these cells also produce ATP via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Exposure of cultured primary astrocytes in a glucose-free medium to extracellular substrates that are known to be metabolised by mitochondrial pathways, including pyruvate, lactate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, alanine and acetate, revealed that among the substrates investigated extracellular pyruvate was most efficiently consumed by astrocytes. Extracellular pyruvate was consumed by the cells almost proportional to time over hours in a concentration-dependent manner with apparent Michaelis–Menten kinetics [Km = 0.6 ± 0.1 mM, Vmax = 5.1 ± 0.8 nmol/(min × mg protein)]. The astrocytic consumption of pyruvate was strongly impaired in the presence of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) inhibitor AR-C155858 or by application of a 10-times excess of the MCT1 substrates lactate or beta-hydroxybutyrate. Pyruvate consumption by viable astrocytes was inhibited in the presence of UK5099, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier, or after application of the respiratory chain inhibitor antimycin A. In contrast, the mitochondrial uncoupler BAM15 strongly accelerated cellular pyruvate consumption. Lactate and alanine accounted after 3 h of incubation with pyruvate for around 60% and 10%, respectively, of the pyruvate consumed by the cells. These results demonstrate that consumption of extracellular pyruvate by astrocytes involves uptake via MCT1 and that the velocity of pyruvate consumption is strongly modified by substances that affect the entry of pyruvate into mitochondria or the activity of mitochondrial respiration.

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Antioxidant and Functional Features of Pre-Fermented Ingredients Obtained by the Fermentation of Milling By-Products.

Siroli, L., Giordani, B., Rossi, S., Gottardi, D., McMahon, H., Augustyniak, A., Menon, A., Vannini, L., Vitali, B., Patrignan, F. & Lanciotti, R. (2022). Fermentation, 8(12), 722.

The use of milling by-products as ingredients in food formulations has increased gradually over the past years, due to their well-recognized health properties. Fermentation performed with selected microbial strains or microbial consortia is the most promising way to reduce antinutritional factors of cereals and bran, while increasing their nutritional and functional properties. This work, developed within the BBI project INGREEN, was aimed to study the functional, nutritional and technological features of a pre-fermented ingredient obtained from the fermentation of a mixture of rye bran and wheat germ by a selected microbial consortium composed of yeasts (Kazachstania unispora and Kazachstania servazii) and lactic acid bacteria (Latilactobacillus curvatus) using as reference the unfermented mixture and the same mixture fermented by a baker’s yeast. The selected microbial consortium improved the complexity of the volatile molecules such as acids, alcohols and esters. A better retention of color parameters was maintained compared to the product fermented by a baker’s yeast. In addition, the fermentation by the selected consortium showed a significant increase in short chain fatty acids (more than 5-fold), antioxidant activity (22–24%), total phenol content (53-71%), bioactive peptides (39-52%), a reduction of 20-28% in phytic acid content and an increase in prebiotic activity not only compared to the unfermented product but also compared to the preferment obtained with a baker’s yeast. Overall, the fermentation by the selected microbial consortium can be considered a valuable way to valorize milling by-products and promote their exploitation as food ingredients.

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Chemical composition and bioactivity of oilseed cake extracts obtained by subcritical and modified subcritical water.

Švarc-Gajić, J., Rodrigues, F., Moreira, M. M., Delerue-Matos, C., Morais, S., Dorosh, O., Silva, A. M., Bassani, A., Dzedik, V. & Spigno, G. (2022). Bioresources and Bioprocessing, 9(1), 1-14.

Recovery of bioactive compounds from biowaste is gaining more and more interest in circular economy models. The oilseed cakes are usually insufficiently exploited by most technologies since they represent valuable matrices abundant in proteins, minerals, and phytochemicals, but their use is mostly limited to feed ingredients, fertilizers or biofuel production. This study was thus focused on the exploration of new valorization pathways of oilseed cakes by subcritical water, representing a safe and economic alternative in the creation of value chains. Pumpkin, hemp, and flax seed cakes were treated with subcritical water in nitrogen and carbon-dioxide atmospheres, as well as in nitrogen atmosphere with the addition of acid catalyst. The degradation of carbohydrate fraction was studied by quantifying sugars and sugar degradation products in the obtained extracts. The extracts obtained under different conditions were further compared chemically with respect to total phenols and flavonoids, as well as to the content of individual phenolic compounds. Furthermore, the effects of subcritical water treatment conditions on antioxidant, antiradical and cytotoxic properties of thus obtained extracts were defined and discussed.

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Bioconversion of cellulose into bisabolene using Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Rhodosporidium toruloides.

Walls, L. E., Otoupal, P., Ledesma-Amaro, R., Velasquez-Orta, S. B., Gladden, J. M. & Rios-Solis, L. (2022). Bioresource Technology, 368, 128216.

In this study, organic acids were demonstrated as a promising carbon source for bisabolene production by the non-conventional yeast, Rhodosporidium toruloides, at microscale with a maximum titre of 1055 ± 7 mg/L. A 125-fold scale-up of the optimal process, enhanced bisabolene titres 2.5-fold to 2606 mg/L. Implementation of a pH controlled organic acid feeding strategy at this scale lead to a further threefold improvement in bisabolene titre to 7758 mg/L, the highest reported microbial titre. Finally, a proof-of-concept sequential bioreactor approach was investigated. Firstly, the cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus flavefaciens was employed to ferment cellulose, yielding 4.2 g/L of organic acids. R. toruloides was subsequently cultivated in the resulting supernatant, producing 318 ± 22 mg/L of bisabolene. This highlights the feasibility of a sequential bioprocess for the bioconversion of cellulose, into biojet fuel candidates. Future work will focus on enhancing organic acid yields and the use of real lignocellulosic feedstocks to further enhance bisabolene production.

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Effects of ensiling length and storage temperature on the nutritive value and fibre-bound protein of three tropical legumes ensiled alone or combined with sorghum.

Aloba, T. A., Corea, E. E., Mendoza, M., Dickhoefer, U. & Castro-Montoya, J. (2022). Animal Feed Science and Technology, 283, 115172.

Changes in the nutritive value of forages are imminent under different ensiling conditions. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the effects of ensiling length and storage temperature on the nutritive value, fermentation characteristics and fibre-bound protein of three tropical forage legumes, sorghum and mixtures of sorghum and the legumes. Soybean (Glycine max), jack bean (Cannavalia ensiformis), lablab (Lablab purpureus) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were solely grown and harvested, and the legumes were wilted before ensiling. Mixtures of sorghum and each legume were handmade on a percentage fresh weight basis of 60:40. Each forage and mixtures (400 g) were ensiled in polythene vacuum bags with homofermentative lactic acid bacteria inoculation for 30, 75 and 180 days. A set of mini silos were stored indoors, and another batch was stored outdoors. HOBO Pro v2 data loggers were deployed to monitor the ambient temperature of the storage locations during the entire ensiling period (from day 0-180). Measurements included nutrient analysis, fermentation quality and fibre bound protein characteristics. The hourly ambient temperature for outdoor and indoor storage ranged from 16° to 61°C vs 18-35°C, respectively. Proximate constituents of all silages were influenced by ensiling length. Significant changes were primarily detected in fermentation products of legume silages between 30 and 75 d of ensiling. There were reduced fermentation products for silages stored outdoors. The ensiling length influenced proportions of neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (NDIN) and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) with outdoor silages resulting in a higher proportion of NDIN and ADIN compared to indoor silages. Overall, a short period of ensiling preserves the nutritional quality of ensiled forages compared to prolonged storage at high ambient temperatures typical of the tropics that increase nutrient losses. Thus, changes in the nutritional composition of forages during ensiling should be considered during ration formulations.

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Safety Information
Symbol : GHS08
Signal Word : Danger
Hazard Statements : H319, H360
Precautionary Statements : P201, P202, P280, P308+P313, P405, P501
Safety Data Sheet
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