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Acetic Acid Assay Kit (ACS Manual Format)

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00:05   Introduction
00:52   Principle
01:21     Reagent Preparation
02:04   Procedure
06:04   Calculations

Acetic Acid Assay Kit ACS Manual Format K-ACET Scheme
Product code: K-ACET

53 assays per kit

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Content: 53 assays per kit
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: Acetic Acid
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 340
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 0.3 to 20 µg of acetic acid per assay
Limit of Detection: 0.14 mg/L
Reaction Time (min): ~ 14 min
Application examples: Wine, beer, fruit and fruit juices, soft drinks, vinegar, vegetables, pickles, dairy products (e.g. cheese), meat, fish, bread, bakery products (and baking agents), ketchup, soy sauce, mayonnaise, dressings, paper (and cardboard), tea, pharmaceuticals (e.g. infusion solutions), feed and other materials (e.g. biological cultures, samples, etc.).
Method recognition: Methods based on this principle have been accepted by EN, ISO,ICUMSA, IFU and MEBAK

The Acetic Acid (ACS Manual Format) test kit is a simple method for the rapid and reliable measurement and analysis of acetic acid/acetate in foods, beverages and other materials.

Note for Content: The number of manual tests per kit can be doubled if all volumes are halved.  This can be readily accommodated using the MegaQuantTM  Wave Spectrophotometer (D-MQWAVE).

See our full range of organic acid test kits.

Scheme-K-ACET ACET Megazyme

  • No wasted ACS solution (stable suspension supplied) 
  • PVP incorporated to prevent tannin inhibition 
  • All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation
  • Very competitive price (cost per test) 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator Other automated assay procedures Product Performance Validation Report
Megazyme publication

Megazyme “advanced” wine test kits general characteristics and validation.

Charnock, S. J., McCleary, B. V., Daverede, C. & Gallant, P. (2006). Reveue des Oenologues, 120, 1-5.

Many of the enzymatic test kits are official methods of prestigious organisations such as the Association of Official Analytical Chemicals (AOAC) and the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) in response to the interest from oenologists. Megazyme decided to use its long history of enzymatic bio-analysis to make a significant contribution to the wine industry, by the development of a range of advanced enzymatic test kits. This task has now been successfully completed through the strategic and comprehensive process of identifying limitations of existing enzymatic bio-analysis test kits where they occurred, and then using advanced techniques, such as molecular biology (photo 1), to rapidly overcome them. Novel test kits have also been developed for analytes of emerging interest to the oenologist, such as yeast available nitrogen (YAN; see pages 2-3 of issue 117 article), or where previously enzymes were simply either not available, or were too expensive to employ, such as for D-mannitol analysis.

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Megazyme publication

Grape and wine analysis: Oenologists to exploit advanced test kits.

Charnock, S. C. & McCleary, B. V. (2005). Revue des Enology, 117, 1-5.

It is without doubt that testing plays a pivotal role throughout the whole of the vinification process. To produce the best possible quality wine and to minimise process problems such as “stuck” fermentation or troublesome infections, it is now recognised that if possible testing should begin prior to harvesting of the grapes and continue through to bottling. Traditional methods of wine analysis are often expensive, time consuming, require either elaborate equipment or specialist expertise and frequently lack accuracy. However, enzymatic bio-analysis enables the accurate measurement of the vast majority of analytes of interest to the wine maker, using just one piece of apparatus, the spectrophotometer (see previous issue No. 116 for a detailed technical review). Grape juice and wine are amenable to enzymatic testing as being liquids they are homogenous, easy to manipulate, and can generally be analysed without any sample preparation.

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Chemical composition and bioactivity of oilseed cake extracts obtained by subcritical and modified subcritical water.

Švarc-Gajić, J., Rodrigues, F., Moreira, M. M., Delerue-Matos, C., Morais, S., Dorosh, O., Silva, A. M., Bassani, A., Dzedik, V. & Spigno, G. (2022). Bioresources and Bioprocessing, 9(1), 1-14.

Recovery of bioactive compounds from biowaste is gaining more and more interest in circular economy models. The oilseed cakes are usually insufficiently exploited by most technologies since they represent valuable matrices abundant in proteins, minerals, and phytochemicals, but their use is mostly limited to feed ingredients, fertilizers or biofuel production. This study was thus focused on the exploration of new valorization pathways of oilseed cakes by subcritical water, representing a safe and economic alternative in the creation of value chains. Pumpkin, hemp, and flax seed cakes were treated with subcritical water in nitrogen and carbon-dioxide atmospheres, as well as in nitrogen atmosphere with the addition of acid catalyst. The degradation of carbohydrate fraction was studied by quantifying sugars and sugar degradation products in the obtained extracts. The extracts obtained under different conditions were further compared chemically with respect to total phenols and flavonoids, as well as to the content of individual phenolic compounds. Furthermore, the effects of subcritical water treatment conditions on antioxidant, antiradical and cytotoxic properties of thus obtained extracts were defined and discussed.

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Bioconversion of cellulose into bisabolene using Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Rhodosporidium toruloides.

Walls, L. E., Otoupal, P., Ledesma-Amaro, R., Velasquez-Orta, S. B., Gladden, J. M. & Rios-Solis, L. (2022). Bioresource Technology, 368, 128216.

In this study, organic acids were demonstrated as a promising carbon source for bisabolene production by the non-conventional yeast, Rhodosporidium toruloides, at microscale with a maximum titre of 1055 ± 7 mg/L. A 125-fold scale-up of the optimal process, enhanced bisabolene titres 2.5-fold to 2606 mg/L. Implementation of a pH controlled organic acid feeding strategy at this scale lead to a further threefold improvement in bisabolene titre to 7758 mg/L, the highest reported microbial titre. Finally, a proof-of-concept sequential bioreactor approach was investigated. Firstly, the cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus flavefaciens was employed to ferment cellulose, yielding 4.2 g/L of organic acids. R. toruloides was subsequently cultivated in the resulting supernatant, producing 318 ± 22 mg/L of bisabolene. This highlights the feasibility of a sequential bioprocess for the bioconversion of cellulose, into biojet fuel candidates. Future work will focus on enhancing organic acid yields and the use of real lignocellulosic feedstocks to further enhance bisabolene production.

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Effects of ensiling length and storage temperature on the nutritive value and fibre-bound protein of three tropical legumes ensiled alone or combined with sorghum.

Aloba, T. A., Corea, E. E., Mendoza, M., Dickhoefer, U. & Castro-Montoya, J. (2022). Animal Feed Science and Technology, 283, 115172.

Changes in the nutritive value of forages are imminent under different ensiling conditions. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the effects of ensiling length and storage temperature on the nutritive value, fermentation characteristics and fibre-bound protein of three tropical forage legumes, sorghum and mixtures of sorghum and the legumes. Soybean (Glycine max), jack bean (Cannavalia ensiformis), lablab (Lablab purpureus) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were solely grown and harvested, and the legumes were wilted before ensiling. Mixtures of sorghum and each legume were handmade on a percentage fresh weight basis of 60:40. Each forage and mixtures (400 g) were ensiled in polythene vacuum bags with homofermentative lactic acid bacteria inoculation for 30, 75 and 180 days. A set of mini silos were stored indoors, and another batch was stored outdoors. HOBO Pro v2 data loggers were deployed to monitor the ambient temperature of the storage locations during the entire ensiling period (from day 0-180). Measurements included nutrient analysis, fermentation quality and fibre bound protein characteristics. The hourly ambient temperature for outdoor and indoor storage ranged from 16° to 61°C vs 18-35°C, respectively. Proximate constituents of all silages were influenced by ensiling length. Significant changes were primarily detected in fermentation products of legume silages between 30 and 75 d of ensiling. There were reduced fermentation products for silages stored outdoors. The ensiling length influenced proportions of neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (NDIN) and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) with outdoor silages resulting in a higher proportion of NDIN and ADIN compared to indoor silages. Overall, a short period of ensiling preserves the nutritional quality of ensiled forages compared to prolonged storage at high ambient temperatures typical of the tropics that increase nutrient losses. Thus, changes in the nutritional composition of forages during ensiling should be considered during ration formulations.

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Arabinosyl deacetylase modulates the arabinoxylan acetylation profile and secondary wall formation.

Zhang, L., Gao, C., Mentink-Vigier, F., Tang, L., Zhang, D., Wang, S., Cao, S., Xu, Z., Liu, X., Wang, T., Zhou, Y. & Zhang, B. (2019). The Plant Cell, 31(5), 1113-1126.

Acetylation, a prevalent modification of cell-wall polymers, is a tightly controlled regulatory process that orchestrates plant growth and environmental adaptation. However, due to limited characterization of the enzymes involved, it is unclear how plants establish and dynamically regulate the acetylation pattern in response to growth requirements. In this study, we identified a rice (Oryza sativa) GDSL esterase that deacetylates the side chain of the major rice hemicellulose, arabinoxylan. Acetyl esterases involved in arabinoxylan modification were screened using enzymatic assays combined with mass spectrometry analysis. One candidate, DEACETYLASE ON ARABINOSYL SIDECHAIN OF XYLAN1 (DARX1), is specific for arabinosyl residues. Disruption of DARX1 via Tos17 insertion and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches resulted in the accumulation of acetates on the xylan arabinosyl side chains. Recombinant DARX1 abolished the excess acetyl groups on arabinoxylanderived oligosaccharides of the darx1 mutants in vitro. Moreover, DARX1 is localized to the Golgi apparatus. Two-dimensional 13C-13C correlation spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy further revealed that the abnormal acetylation pattern observed in darx1 interrupts arabinoxylan conformation and cellulose microfibril orientation, resulting in compromised secondary wall patterning and reduced mechanical strength. This study provides insight into the mechanism controlling the acetylation pattern on arabinoxylan side chains and suggests a strategy to breed robust elite crops.

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A Multi-Membrane System to Study the Effects of Physical and Metabolic Interactions in Microbial Co-Cultures and Consortia.

Oosthuizen, J. R., Naidoo-Blassoples, R. K., Rossouw, D., Pott, R. & Bauer, F. F. (2021). Fermentation, 7(4), 206.

Continuous cell-to-cell contact between different species is a general feature of all natural environments. However, almost all research is conducted on single-species cultures, reflecting a biotechnological bias and problems associated with the complexities of reproducibly growing and controlling multispecies systems. Consequently, biotic stress due to the presence of other species remains poorly understood. In this context, understanding the effects of physical contact between species when compared to metabolic contact alone is one of the first steps to unravelling the mechanisms that underpin microbial ecological interactions. The current technologies to study the effects of cell-to-cell contact present disadvantages, such as the inefficient or discontinuous exchange of metabolites when preventing contact between species. This paper presents and characterizes a novel bioreactor system that uses ceramic membranes to create a “multi-membrane” compartmentalized system whereby two or more species can be co-cultured without the mixing of the species, while ensuring the efficient sharing of all of the media components. The system operates continuously, thereby avoiding the discontinuities that characterize other systems, which either have to use hourly backwashes to clean their membranes, or have to change the direction of the flow between compartments. This study evaluates the movement of metabolites across the membrane in co-cultures of yeast, microalgae and bacterial species, and monitors the movement of the metabolites produced during co-culturing. These results show that the multi-membrane system proposed in this study represents an effective system for studying the effects of cell-to-cell contact in microbial consortia. The system can also be adapted for various biotechnological purposes, such as the production of metabolites when more than one species is required for such a process.

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Bioprocessing of Barley and Lentil Grains to Obtain In Situ Synthesis of Exopolysaccharides and Composite Wheat Bread with Improved Texture and Health Properties.

Perri, G., Rizzello, C. G., Ampollini, M., Celano, G., Coda, R., Gobbetti, M., De Angelis, M. & Calasso, M. (2021). Foods, 10(7), 1489.

A comprehensive study into the potential of bioprocessing techniques (sprouting and sourdough fermentation) for improving the technological and nutritional properties of wheat breads produced using barley and lentil grains was undertaken. Dextran biosynthesis in situ during fermentation of native or sprouted barley flour (B or SB) alone or by mixing SB flour with native or sprouted lentil flour (SB-L or SB-SL) by Weissella paramesenteroides SLA5, Weissella confusa SLA4, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 or Weissella confusa DSM 20194 was assessed. The acidification and the viscosity increase during 24 h of fermentation with and without 16% sucrose (on flour weight), to promote the dextran synthesis, were followed. After the selection of the fermentation parameters, the bioprocessing was carried out by using Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 (the best LAB dextran producer, up to 2.7% of flour weight) and a mixture of SB-SL (30:70% w/w) grains, enabling also the decrease in the raffinose family oligosaccharides. Then, the SB-SL sourdoughs containing dextran or control were mixed with the wheat flour (30% of the final dough) and leavened with baker’s yeast before baking. The use of dextran-containing sourdough allowed the production of bread with structural improvements, compared to the control sourdough bread. Compared to a baker’s yeast bread, it also markedly reduced the predicted glycemic index, increased the soluble (1.26% of dry matter) and total fibers (3.76% of dry matter) content, giving peculiar and appreciable sensory attributes.

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Structural study of a pectic polysaccharide fraction isolated from “mountain tea” (Sideritis scardica Griseb.).

Ognyanov, M., Remoroza, C. A., Schols, H. A., Petkova, N. T. & Georgiev, Y. N. (2021). Carbohydrate Polymers, 260, 117798.

The present study was conducted to investigate the structural characteristics of an acid-extracted polysaccharide fraction from mountain tea. The monosaccharide composition revealed that uronic acids (72.4 mol%) considerably predominated in the fraction, followed by smaller amounts of galactose (14.5 mol%) and glucose (6.2 mol%). The fraction contained mostly a highly methyl-esterified homogalacturonan (HG) - 71 mol%. The pectin had a high molecular weight population (~60−100 kDa). Enzymatic fingerprinting was employed with a combination of HG degrading enzymes and LC-HILIC-MS, HPAEC, HPSEC to examine the structure in greater detail. Unsaturated oligomers released indicated the presence of large blocks of highly methyl-esterified GalA residues. Furthermore, the presence of blocks of non-esterified GalA residues and partly methyl-esterified and acetylated GalA residues in HG domain was demonstrated. The research findings provide a basis for further investigations regarding biological activity and commercial exploitation of mountain tea.

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Establishment of successive co-fermentation by Bacillus subtilis and Acetobacter pasteurianus for extracting chitin from shrimp shells.

Zhang, Q., Wang, L., Liu, S. & Li, Y. (2021). Carbohydrate Polymers, 258, 117720.

To simplify the process of chitin bio-extraction from shrimp shells powder (SSP), successive co-fermentation using Bacillus subtilis and Acetobacter pasteurianus was explored in this work. Among three protease-producer (B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, and B. cereus), only B. subtilis exhibited high compatibility with A. pasteurianus in co-culture. Successive co-fermentation was constructed as follows: deproteinization was performed for 3 d by culturing B. subtilis in the medium containing 50 g·L−1 SSP, 50 g·L−1 glucose, and 1 g·L−1 yeast extracts; After feeding 5 g·L-1 KH2PO4 and 6 % (v/v) ethanol, A. pasteurianus was cultured for another 2 d without replacing and re-sterilizing medium. Through 5 d of fermentation, the final deproteinization, demineralization efficiency, and chitin yield reached 94.5 %, 92.0 %, and 18.0 %, respectively. This purified chitin had lower molecular weight (12.8 kDa) and higher deacetylation degree (19.6 %) compared with commercial chitin (18.5 kDa, 6.7 %), and showed excellent structural characterization of FESEM and FT-IR analysis.

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Chemical Composition of Sour Beer Resulting from Supplementation the Fermentation Medium with Magnesium and Zinc Ions.

Ciosek, A., Fulara, K., Hrabia, O., Satora, P. & Poreda, A. (2020). Biomolecules, 10(12), 1599.

The bioavailability of minerals, such as zinc and magnesium, has a significant impact on the fermentation process. These metal ions are known to influence the growth and metabolic activity of yeast, but there are few reports on their effects on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) metabolism during sour brewing. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of magnesium and zinc ions on the metabolism of Lactobacillus brevis WLP672 during the fermentation of brewers’ wort. We carried out lactic acid fermentations using wort with different mineral compositions: without supplementation; supplemented with magnesium at 60 mg/L and 120 mg/L; and supplemented with zinc at 0.4 mg/L and 2 mg/L. The concentration of organic acids, pH of the wort and carbohydrate use was determined during fermentation, while aroma compounds, real extract and ethanol were measured after the mixed fermentation. The addition of magnesium ions resulted in the pH of the fermenting wort decreasing more quickly, an increase in the level of L-lactic acid (after 48 h of fermentation) and increased concentrations of some volatile compounds. While zinc supplementation had a negative impact on the L. brevis strain, resulting in a decrease in the L-lactic acid content and a higher pH in the beer. We conclude that zinc supplementation is not recommended in sour beer production using L. brevis WLP672.

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Identification, characterization, and immobilization of a novel YbfF esterase from Halomonas elongata.

Yoo, W., Kim, B., Jeon, S., Kim, K. K. & Kim, T. D. (2020). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 165, 1139-1148.

The YbfF esterase family, which has a bifurcated binding pocket for diverse ligands, could serve as excellent biocatalysts in industrial and biotechnological applications. Here, the identification, characterization, and immobilization of a novel YbfF esterase (YbfFHalomonas elongata) from Halomonas elongata DSM 2581 is reported. Biochemical characterization of YbfF was carried out using activity staining, chromatographic analysis, kinetic analysis, activity assay, acetic acid release, and pH-indicator-based hydrolysis. YbfFH.elongata displayed broad substrate specificity, including that for p-nitrophenyl esters, glucose pentaacetate, tert-butyl acetate, and β-lactam-containing compounds, with high efficiency. Based on a homology model of YbfFH.elongata, Trp237 in the substrate-binding pocket, a critical residue for catalytic activity and substrate specificity was identified and characterized. Furthermore, crosslinked enzyme aggregates and nanoflower formation were explored to enhance the chemical stability and recyclability of YbfFH.elongata. The present study is the first report of a YbfF esterase from extremophiles, and explains its protein stability, catalytic activity, substrate specificities and diversities, kinetics, functional residues, amyloid formation, and immobilization.

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Production of a yeast-free focaccia with reduced salt content using a selected Leuconostoc citreum strain and seawater.

De Bellis, P., Montemurro, M., D'Imperio, M., Rizzello, C. G., Sisto, A. & Lavermicocca, P. (2020). LWT, 134, 109918.

A biotechnological protocol to produce a focaccia (a typical Italian flat bread) without bakers' yeast addition and with reduced salt was developed, to meet the current needs of the consumer. Based on its leavening capability, the Leuconostoc citreum strain C2.27 was selected to be used as a starter instead of the baker's yeast and inoculated in a liquid sourdough (type-II) for the production of the “yeast-free” focaccia. The addition of different NaCl concentrations and the replacement of the salt with food grade seawater were evaluated, and the capability of the selected strain to affect technological, nutritional and sensory features of the focaccia investigated. A significant improvement of the nutritional characteristics of the focaccia was observed compared to the control (leavened with bakers' yeast and added with NaCl 1.5 g/100 g) using 0.7 g/100 g of salt in the form of NaCl or seawater. Besides the reduced Na content (66% lower than the control), focaccia with seawater also showed a higher content of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (ca. 36% and 53%, respectively), and the lowest predicted glycemic index compared to the other experimental focaccia.

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Rethinking about flor yeast diversity and its dynamic in the “criaderas and soleras” biological aging system.

Ruiz-Muñoz, M., Cordero-Bueso, G., Benítez-Trujillo, F., Martínez, S., Pérez, F. & Cantoral, J. M. (2020). Food Microbiology, 92, 103553.

Fino wine is one of the most important Sherry wines and it is obtained through a complex and dynamic biological aging system. In this study, wine and veil of flor samples from fifty-two barrels with different aging levels and distributed in three different wineries from the Jerez-Xèrés-Sherry winemaking area have been analyzed during two years. Some of the wine compounds most deeply involved in flor yeast metabolism were analyzed to take into account the blending effect of this system. On the other hand, veil of flor was analyzed by molecular methods, finding five different species: S. cerevisiae, W. anomalus, P. membranaefaciens, P. kudriavzevii and P. manshurica, being the first time that the three last species have been reported in this biological aging system. Since S. cerevisiae was the vast majority of the isolates, its intraspecies variability was also analyzed by the simultaneous amplification of three microsatellite loci, obtaining nine different S. cerevisiae genotypes, also differentiated according to their physiological properties. Biodiversity analysis showed there were significant differences between the three wineries in the three aging scales, although the overall diversity was relatively low. Moreover, variations in the relative frequency of the different S. cerevisiae genotypes were found to be seasonal-dependent.

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Saccharomyces uvarum yeast isolate consumes acetic acid during fermentation of high sugar juice and juice with high starting volatile acidity.

Inglis, D., Kelly, J., van Dyk, S., Dowling, L., Pickering, G. & Kemp, B. (2020). OENO One, 54(2).

Aim: A Saccharomyces uvarum isolate was assessed for its ability to metabolize acetic acid present in juice and during the fermentation of partially dehydrated grapes. The impact on other yeast metabolites was also compared using an S. uvarum isolate and an S. cerevisiae wine yeast. The upper limit of fruit concentration that allowed the S. uvarum isolate to ferment wines to < 5 g/L residual sugar was defined. Methods and results: Cabernet franc grapes were partially dehydrated to three different post-harvest sugar targets (24.5 °Brix, 26.0 °Brix, and 27.5 °Brix) along with non-dehydrated grapes (21.5 °Brix control). Musts from all treatments were vinified with either the S. uvarum isolate CN1, formerly identified as S. bayanus, or S. cerevisiae EC1118. All wines were successfully vinified to less than 5 g/L residual sugar. Fermentation kinetics between the two yeasts were similar for all wines other than 27.5 °Brix, where CN1 took three days longer. During fermentation with CN1, acetic acid peaked on day two, then decreased in concentration, resulting in final wine acetic acid lower than that measured on day two. Wines fermented with EC1118 showed an increase in acetic acid over the time-course of fermentation. Significantly lower wine oxidative compounds (acetic acid, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate) and higher glycerol resulted in wine produced with CN1 in comparison to EC1118. Both yeasts produced comparable ethanol at each Brix level tested. Further studies showed that CN1 lowered acetic acid seven-fold from 0.48 g/L in juice to 0.07 g/L in wine whereas EC1118 reduced acetic acid to 0.18 g/L. Conclusions: The autochthonous S. uvarum yeast isolate successfully fermented partially dehydrated grapes to < 5 g/L sugar up to 27.5 ºBrix. The consumption rate of acetic acid was faster than its production during fermentation, resulting in low acetic acid, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate in wine in comparison to a commercial S. cerevisiae yeast while consistently producing higher glycerol. Significance and impact of the study: The S. uvarum yeast isolate can metabolize acetic acid during fermentation to significantly lower acetic acid, ethyl acetate and acetaldehyde in wine. It can also reduce acetic acid by seven-fold from the starting juice to the finished wine, which could have potential application for managing sour rot arising in the vineyard or during the dehydration process in making appassimento-style wines.

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Prebiotic Activity of Poly-and Oligosaccharides Obtained from Plantago major L. Leaves.

Lukova, P., Nikolova, M., Petit, E., Elboutachfaiti, R., Vasileva, T., Katsarov, P., Manev, H., Gardarin, C., Pierre, G., Michaud, P., Iliev, I. & Delattre, C. (2020). Applied Sciences, 10(8), 2648.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prebiotic potential of Plantago major L. leaves water-extractable polysaccharide (PWPs) and its lower molecular fractions. The structure of PWPs was investigated by high pressure anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering detector (SEC-MALLS) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The chemical composition and monosaccharide analyses showed that galacturonic acid was the main monosaccharide of PWPs followed by glucose, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and xylose. FTIR study indicated a strong characteristic absorption peak at 1550 cm−1 corresponding to the vibration of COO group of galacturonic acid. The PWPs was subjected to hydrolysis using commercial enzymes to obtain P. major low molecular fraction (PLM) which was successively separated by size exclusion chromatography on Biogel P2. PWPs and PLM were examined for in vitro prebiotic activity using various assays. Results gave evidence for changes in optical density of the bacteria cells and pH of the growth medium. A heterofermentative process with a lactate/acetate ratio ranged from 1:1 to 1:5 was observed. The ability of PLM to stimulate the production of certain probiotic bacteria glycohydrolases and to be fermented by Lactobacillus sp. strains was successfully proved.

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Discovering microbiota and volatile compounds of surströmming, the traditional Swedish sour herring.

Belleggia, L., Aquilanti, L., Ferrocino, I., Milanović, V., Garofalo, C., Clementi, F., Cocolin, L., Mozzon, M., Foligni, R., Haouet, M. N., Scuota, S., Framboas, M. & Osimani, A. (2020). Food Microbiology, 91, 103503.

In this study, the microbiota of ready-to-eat surströmming from three Swedish producers were studied using a combined approach. The pH values of the samples ranged between 6.67 ± 0.01 and 6.98 ± 0.01, whereas their aw values were between 0.911 ± 0.001 and 0.940 ± 0.001. The acetic acid concentration was between 0.289 ± 0.009 g/100 g and 0.556 ± 0.036 g/100 g. Very low concentrations of lactic acid were measured. Viable counting revealed the presence of mesophilic aerobes, mesophilic lactobacilli and lactococci as well as halophilic lactobacilli and lactococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, halophilic aerobes and anaerobes. Negligible counts for Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae and total eumycetes were observed, whereas no sulfite-reducing anaerobes were detected. Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were absent in all samples. Multiplex real-time PCR revealed the absence of the bont/A, bont/B, bont/E, bont/F, and 4gyrB (CP) genes, which encode botulinic toxins, in all the samples analyzed. Metagenomic sequencing revealed the presence of a core microbiota dominated by Halanaerobium praevalens, Alkalibacterium gilvum, Carnobacterium spp., Tetragenococcus halophilus, Clostridiisalibacter spp. and Porphyromonadaceae. Psychrobacter celer, Ruminococcaceae, Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans, Streptococcus infantis and Salinivibrio costicola were detected as minor OTUs. GC-MS analysis of volatile components revealed the massive presence of trimethylamine and sulphur compounds. Moreover, 1,2,4-trithiolane, phenols, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters and long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons were also detected. The data obtained allowed pro-technological bacteria, which are well-adapted to saline environments, to be discovered for the first time. Further analyses are needed to better clarify the extent of the contribution of either the microbiota or autolytic enzymes of the fish flesh in the aroma definition.

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Is there any still undisclosed biodiversity in Ciauscolo salami? A new glance into the microbiota of an artisan production as revealed by high-throughput sequencing.

Belleggia, L., Milanović, V., Ferrocino, I., Cocolin, L., Haouet, M. N., Scuota, S., Maoloni, A., Garofalo, C., Cardinali, F., Aquilanti, L., Mozzon, M., Foligni, R., Pasquini, M., Trombetta, M. F., Clementi, F. & Osimani, A. (2020). Meat Science, 165, 108128.

Ciauscolo is a fermented sausage with the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) status. To disclose the microbial ecology of a model Ciauscolo salami manufacture during its natural fermentation, viable counting, amplicon-based sequencing and real-time PCR were applied. The volatilome during fermentation was also characterized. The results allowed previously undetected species to be discovered. The core microbiota was composed by Lactobacillus algidus, Leuconostoc carnosum, Lactobacillus sakei, Debaryomyces hansenii, Glomus hyderabadensis, Tilletiopsis washingtonensis, and Kurtzmaniella zeylanoides. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were absent in all the samples; moreover, multiplex real-time PCR revealed the absence of the target genes bont/A, bont/B, bont/E, bont/F, and 4gyrB (CP), encoding botulinic toxins. Volatilome, deeply depending on microbiological metabolism, was characterized by spices-derived components. Limonene, sabinene, α- and β-pinene, 3-carene, and α-thujene were the most represented monoterpene hydrocarbons, whereas β- and α-copaene were the most represented sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Allyl methyl sulphide and diallyl disulphide were the major aliphatic sulphur compounds, together with diallyl sulphide and allyl methyl disulphide.

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Biodiesel and flavor compound production using a novel promiscuous cold-adapted SGNH-type lipase (HaSGNH1) from the psychrophilic bacterium Halocynthiibacter arcticus.

Le, L. T. H. L., Yoo, W., Jeon, S., Lee, C., Kim, K. K., Lee, J. H. & Kim, T. D. (2020). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 13(1), 1-13.

Background: Biodiesel and flavor compound production using enzymatic transesterification by microbial lipases provides mild reaction conditions and low energy cost compared to the chemical process. SGNH-type lipases are very effective catalysts for enzymatic transesterification due to their high reaction rate, great stability, relatively small size for convenient genetic manipulations, and ease of immobilization. Hence, it is highly important to identify novel SGNH-type lipases with high catalytic efficiencies and good stabilities. Results: A promiscuous cold-adapted SGNH-type lipase (HaSGNH1) from Halocynthiibacter arcticus was catalytically characterized and functionally explored. HaSGNH1 displayed broad substrate specificity that included tert-butyl acetate, glucose pentaacetate, and p-nitrophenyl esters with excellent stability and high efficiency. Important amino acids (N83, M86, R87, F131, and I173F) around the substrate-binding pocket were shown to be responsible for catalytic activity, substrate specificity, and reaction kinetics. Moreover, immobilized HaSGNH1 was used to produce high yields of butyl and oleic esters. Conclusions: This work provides a molecular understanding of substrate specificities, catalytic regulation, immobilization, and industrial applications of a promiscuous cold-adapted SGNH-type lipase (HaSGNH1) from H. arcticus. This is the first analysis on biodiesel and flavor synthesis using a cold-adapted halophilic SGNH-type lipase from a Halocynthiibacter species.

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Characterization of EstZY: A new acetylesterase with 7-aminocephalosporanic acid deacetylase activity from Alicyclobacillus tengchongensis.

Ding, J., Zhou, Y., Zhu, H., Deng, M., Gao, Y., Yang, Y. & Huang, Z. (2020). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 148, 333-341.

Deacetyl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid (D-7-ACA) is required for producing of many semisynthetic β-lactam antibiotics; therefore, enzymes capable of converting 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) to D-7-ACA present a valuable resource to the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, a putative acetylesterase, EstZY, was identified and characterized from a thermophilic bacterium Alicyclobacillus tengchongensis. Sequence alignment showed that EstZY was an acetylesterase which belonged to carbohydrate esterase family 7 (CE7), with substrate preference for short-chain acyl esters p-NPC2 to p-NPC8. Maximum enzyme activity was recorded at pH 9.0 and 50°C, where Km and Vmax were calculated as 1.9 ± 0.23 mM and 258 ± 18.5 μM min−1, respectively. The residues Ser185, Asp274, and His303 were identified as the putative catalytic triad by homology modelling, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular docking. Moreover, EstZY can remove the acetyl group at C3′ position of 7-ACA to form D-7-ACA; this is the first report of a 7-ACA deacetylase from CE7 family in A. tengchongensis and may represent a new enzyme with industrial values.

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Safety Information
Symbol : GHS08
Signal Word : Danger
Hazard Statements : H319, H360
Precautionary Statements : P201, P202, P280, P308+P313, P405, P501
Safety Data Sheet
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