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Pentaacetyl-chitopentaose O-CHI5
Product code: O-CHI5

20 mg

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Content: 20 mg
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Ambient
Physical Form: Powder
Stability: > 10 years under recommended storage conditions
CAS Number: 36467-68-2
Synonyms: penta-N-acetylchitopentaose, chitinpentaose
Molecular Formula: C40H67N5O26
Molecular Weight: 1034.0
Purity: > 95%
Substrate For (Enzyme): endo-Chitinase

High purity Pentaacetyl-chitopentaose for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.

Prepared from chitin.

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Megazyme publication

Versatile high resolution oligosaccharide microarrays for plant glycobiology and cell wall research.

Pedersen, H. L., Fangel, J. U., McCleary, B., Ruzanski, C., Rydahl, M. G., Ralet, M. C., Farkas, V., Von Schantz, L., Marcus, S. E., Andersen, M.C. F., Field, R., Ohlin, M., Knox, J. P., Clausen, M. H. & Willats, W. G. T. (2012). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(47), 39429-39438.

Microarrays are powerful tools for high throughput analysis, and hundreds or thousands of molecular interactions can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Nucleotide microarrays are well established in plant research, but carbohydrate microarrays are much less established, and one reason for this is a lack of suitable glycans with which to populate arrays. Polysaccharide microarrays are relatively easy to produce because of the ease of immobilizing large polymers noncovalently onto a variety of microarray surfaces, but they lack analytical resolution because polysaccharides often contain multiple distinct carbohydrate substructures. Microarrays of defined oligosaccharides potentially overcome this problem but are harder to produce because oligosaccharides usually require coupling prior to immobilization. We have assembled a library of well characterized plant oligosaccharides produced either by partial hydrolysis from polysaccharides or by de novo chemical synthesis. Once coupled to protein, these neoglycoconjugates are versatile reagents that can be printed as microarrays onto a variety of slide types and membranes. We show that these microarrays are suitable for the high throughput characterization of the recognition capabilities of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and other oligosaccharide-binding proteins of biological significance and also that they have potential for the characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes.

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Novel bi-modular GH19 chitinase with broad pH stability from a fibrolytic intestinal symbiont of Eisenia fetida, Cellulosimicrobium funkei HY-13.

Bai, L., Kim, J., Son, K. H., Chung, C. W., Shin, D. H., Ku, B. H., Kim, D. Y. & Park, H. Y. (2021). Biomolecules, 11(11), 1735.

Endo-type chitinase is the principal enzyme involved in the breakdown of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-based oligomeric and polymeric materials through hydrolysis. The gene (966-bp) encoding a novel endo-type chitinase (ChiJ), which is comprised of an N-terminal chitin-binding domain type 3 and a C-terminal catalytic glycoside hydrolase family 19 domain, was identified from a fibrolytic intestinal symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, Cellulosimicrobium funkei HY-13. The highest endochitinase activity of the recombinant enzyme (rChiJ: 30.0 kDa) toward colloidal shrimp shell chitin was found at pH 5.5 and 55 °C and was considerably stable in a wide pH range (3.5–11.0). The enzyme exhibited the highest biocatalytic activity (338.8 U/mg) toward ethylene glycol chitin, preferentially degrading chitin polymers in the following order: ethylene glycol chitin > colloidal shrimp shell chitin > colloidal crab shell chitin. The enzymatic hydrolysis of N-acetyl-β-d-chitooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization from two to six and colloidal shrimp shell chitin yielded primarily N,N-diacetyl-β-d-chitobiose together with a small amount of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. The high chitin-degrading ability of inverting rChiJ with broad pH stability suggests that it can be exploited as a suitable biocatalyst for the preparation of N,N-diacetyl-β-d-chitobiose, which has been shown to alleviate metabolic dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes.

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Heterologous expression and characterization of thermostable chitinase and β-N-acetylhexosaminidase from Caldicellulosiruptor acetigenus and their synergistic action on the bioconversion of chitin into N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.

Qin, X., Xin, Y., Su, X., Wang, X., Zhang, J., Tu, T., Wang, Y., Yao, B., Huang, H. & Luo, H. (2021). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 192, 250-257.

The bioconversion of chitin into N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) using chitinolytic enzymes is one of the important avenues for chitin valorization. However, industrial applications of chitinolytic enzymes have been limited by their poor thermostability. Therefore, it is necessary to discover thermostable chitinolytic enzymes for GlcNAc production from chitin. In this study, two chitinolytic enzyme-encoding genes CaChiT and CaHex from Caldicellulosiruptor acetigenus were identified and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant CaChiT and CaHex showed optimal activities at 70°C and 90°C respectively, and exhibited good thermostability over a range of temperature below 70°C and broad pH stability at pH range of 3.0-8.0. CaChiT and CaHex were active on colloidal chitin, pNP-(GlcNAc)2, pNP-(GlcNAc)3, and pNP-GlcNAc, pNP-(GlcNAc)2, pNP-(GlcNAc)3, pNP-Glc respectively. Besides, the chitin oligosaccharides and colloidal chitin hydrolysis profiles revealed that CaChiT degraded chitin chains through exo-mode of action. Furthermore, CaChiT and CaHex exhibited a synergistic effect in the degradation of colloidal chitin, reaching 0.60 mg/mL of GlcNAc production after 1 h incubation. These results suggested that a combination of CaChiT and CaHex have great potential for industrial applications in the enzymatic production of GlcNAc from chitin-containing biowastes.

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Biochemical characterization of a novel acidic chitinase with antifungal activity from Paenibacillus xylanexedens Z2-4.

Zhang, W., Ma, J., Yan, Q., Jiang, Z. & Yang, S. (2021). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 182, 1528-1536.

A chitinase gene (PxChi52) from Paenibacillus xylanexedens Z2-4 was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). PxChi52 shared the highest identity of 91% with a glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinase (ChiD) from Bacillus circulans. The recombinant enzyme (PxChi52) was purified and biochemically characterized. PxChi52 had a molecular mass of 52.8 kDa. It was most active at pH 4.5 and 65°C, respectively, and stable in a wide pH range of 4.0-13.0 and up to 50°C. The enzyme exhibited the highest specific activity of 16.0 U/mg towards colloidal chitin, followed by ethylene glycol chitin (5.4 U/mg) and ball milled chitin (0.4 U/mg). The Km and Vmax values of PxChi52 towards colloidal chitin were determined to be 3.06 mg/mL and 71.38 U/mg, respectively, PxChi52 hydrolyzed colloidal chitin and chitooligosaccharides with degree of polymerization 2-5 to release mainly N-acetyl chitobiose. In addition, PxChi52 displayed inhibition effects on the growth of some phytopathogenic fungi, including Alternaria alstroemeriae, Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Valsa mali. The unique properties of PxChi52 may enable it potential application in agriculture field as a biocontrol agent.

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Chromatographic assays for the enzymatic degradation of chitin.

Mekasha, S., Tuveng, T. R., Vaaje-Kolstad, G. & Eijsink, V. G. (2021). Bio-protocol, 11(9), e4014.

Chitin is an insoluble linear polymer of β(1→4)-linked N-acetylglucosamine. Enzymatic cleavage of chitin chains can be achieved using hydrolytic enzymes, called chitinases, and/or oxidative enzymes, called lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). These two groups of enzymes have different modes of action and yield different product types that require different analytical methods for detection and quantitation. While soluble chromogenic substrates are readily available for chitinases, proper insight into the activity of these enzymes can only be obtained by measuring activity toward their polymeric, insoluble substrate, chitin. For LPMOs, only assays using insoluble chitin are possible and relevant. Working with insoluble substrates complicates enzyme assays from substrate preparation to product analysis. Here, we describe typical set-ups for chitin degradation reactions and the chromatographic methods used for product analysis. Graphical abstract: Overview of chromatographic methods for assessing the enzymatic degradation of chitin.

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Biochemical characterization of a novel bifunctional chitosanase from Paenibacillus barengoltzii for chitooligosaccharide production.

Jiang, Z., Yan, Q. & Yang, S. (2021). World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 37(5), 1-13.

A novel chitosanase gene, designated as PbCsn8, was cloned from Paenibacillus barengoltzii. It shared the highest identity of 73% with the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 8 chitosanase from Bacillus thuringiensis JAM-GG01. The gene was heterologously expressed in Bacillus subtilis as an extracellular protein, and the highest chitosanase yield of 1, 108 U/mL was obtained by high-cell density fermentation in a 5-L fermentor. The recombinant chitosanase (PbCsn8) was purified to homogeneity and biochemically characterized. PbCsn8 was most active at pH 5.5 and 70°C, respectively. It was stable in a wide pH range of 5.0-11.0 and up to 55°C. PbCsn8 was a bifunctional enzyme, exhibiting both chitosanase and glucanase activities, with the highest specificity towards chitosan (360 U/mg), followed by barley β-glucan (72 U/mg) and lichenan (13 U/mg). It hydrolyzed chitosan to release mainly chitooligosaccharides (COSs) with degree of polymerization (DP) 2-3, while hydrolyzed barley β-glucan to yield mainly glucooligosaccharides with DP > 5. PbCsn8 was further applied in COS production, and the highest COS yield of 79.3% (w/w) was obtained. This is the first report on a GH family 8 chitosanase from P. barengoltzii. The high yield and remarkable hydrolysis properties may make PbCsn8 a good candidate in industrial application.

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LysM receptor-like kinase LYK9 of Pisum Sativum L. may regulate plant responses to chitooligosaccharides differing in structure.

Leppyanen, I. V., Pavlova, O. A., Vashurina, M. A., Bovin, A. D., Dolgikh, A. V., Shtark, O. Y., Sendersky, I. V., Dolgikh, V. V., Tikhonovich, I. A. & Dolgikh, E. A. (2021). International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(2), 711.

This study focused on the interactions of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants with phytopathogenic and beneficial fungi. Here, we examined whether the lysin-motif (LysM) receptor-like kinase PsLYK9 is directly involved in the perception of long- and short-chain chitooligosaccharides (COs) released after hydrolysis of the cell walls of phytopathogenic fungi and identified in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal exudates. The identification and analysis of pea mutants impaired in the lyk9 gene confirmed the involvement of PsLYK9 in symbiosis development with AM fungi. Additionally, PsLYK9 regulated the immune response and resistance to phytopathogenic fungi, suggesting its bifunctional role. The existence of co-receptors may provide explanations for the potential dual role of PsLYK9 in the regulation of interactions with pathogenic and AM fungi. Co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed that PsLYK9 and two proposed co-receptors, PsLYR4 and PsLYR3, can form complexes. Analysis of binding capacity showed that PsLYK9 and PsLYR4, synthesized as extracellular domains in insect cells, were able to bind the deacetylated (DA) oligomers CO5-DA–CO8-DA. Our results suggest that the receptor complex consisting of PsLYK9 and PsLYR4 can trigger a signal pathway that stimulates the immune response in peas. However, PsLYR3 seems not to be involved in the perception of CO4-5, as a possible co-receptor of PsLYK9.

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Enzymatic characterization and structure-function relationship of two chitinases, LmChiA and LmChiB, from Listeria monocytogenes.

Churklam, W. & Aunpad, R. (2020). Heliyon, 6(7), e04252.

Listeria monocytogenes possesses two chitinases (LmChiA and LmChiB) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 18 (GH18). In this study, two chitinase genes (lmchiA and lmchiB) from L. monocytogenes 10403S were cloned and their biochemical characteristics were studied. Using colloidal chitin as substrate, both chitinases exhibited maximum catalytic activity at pH 6-7 with optimum temperature at 50°C. Their activities were stable over broad pH (3-10) and temperature (10-50°C) ranges. Kinetic analysis using [4NP-(GlcNAc)2] as substrate indicated that LmChiB had an approximately 4-fold lower Km and 2-fold higher kcat than LmChiA, suggesting that the catalytic specificity and efficiency of LmChiB were greater than those of LmChiA. LmChiA and LmChiB showed the same reactivity toward oligomeric substrates and exhibited both non-processive endo-acting and processive exo-acting (chitobiosidase) activity on colloidal chitin, chitin oligosaccharides and 4-nitrophenyl substrates. Structure-based sequence alignments and homology modeling of the catalytic domains revealed that both chitinases consisted of an (α/β)8 TIM barrel fold with a conserved DXDXE motif. The key residues involved in the substrate hydrolysis were conserved with other bacterial chitinases. The site-directed mutagenesis of conserved Asp and Glu residues in DXDXE motif of both chitinases significantly reduced the chitinolytic activity toward colloidal chitin substrate and revealed their critical role in the catalytic mechanism. LmChiA and LmChiB might have potential in chitin waste utilization and biotechnological applications.

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Biochemical characterization of a bifunctional chitinase/lysozyme from Streptomyces sampsonii suitable for N-acetyl chitobiose production.

Zhang, W., Liu, Y., Ma, J., Yan, Q., Jiang, Z. & Yang, S. (2020). Biotechnology Letters, 1-11.

Chitinases play important role in chitin bioconversion, while few of them have been put into use due to their poor properties. We aimed to identify and characterize chitinases suitable for N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides (COSs) production from chitin materials. A chitinase gene (SsChi28) from Streptomyces sampsonii XY2-7 was cloned and heterologously expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) as an active protein. The deduced protein shared high sequence identities and structure similarities with some glycoside hydrolase family 19 chitinases. The recombinant enzyme (SsChi28) was purified and biochemically characterized. SsChi28 was a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 30 kDa estimated by SDS-PAGE. It was most active at pH 6.0 and 55°C, respectively, and stable in a wide pH range of 3.5-11.5 and up to 60°C. The enzyme exhibited strict substrate specificities towards ethylene glycol chitin (222.3 U/mg) and colloidal chitin (20.1 U/mg). Besides, it displayed lysozyme activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus. SsChi28 hydrolyzed colloidal chitin to yield mainly N-acetyl chitobiose, accounting high up to 73% (w/w) in total products. The excellent enzymatic properties of SsChi28 may make it potential in chitin bioconversion (especially for N-acetyl COS production), as well as in biological control of fungal diseases.

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Structural basis for the O-acetyltransferase function of the extracytoplasmic domain of OatA from Staphylococcus aureus.

Jones, C. S., Sychantha, D., Howell, P. L. & Clarke, A. J. (2020). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 295(24), 8204-8213.

Many bacteria possess enzymes that modify the essential cell-wall polymer peptidoglycan by O-acetylation. This modification occurs in numerous Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of human infections. O-Acetylation of peptidoglycan protects bacteria from the lytic activity of lysozyme, a mammalian innate immune enzyme, and as such is important for bacterial virulence. The O-acetylating enzyme in Gram-positive bacteria, O-acetyltransferase A (OatA), is a two-domain protein consisting of an N-terminal integral membrane domain and a C-terminal extracytoplasmic domain. Here, we present the X-ray crystal structure at 1.71 Å resolution and the biochemical characterization of the C-terminal domain of S. aureus OatA. The structure revealed that this OatA domain adopts an SGNH-hydrolase fold and possesses a canonical catalytic triad. Site-specific replacement of active-site amino acids revealed the presence of a water-coordinating aspartate residue that limits esterase activity. This residue, although conserved in staphyloccocal OatA and most other homologs, is not present in the previously characterized streptococcal OatA. These results provide insights into the mechanism of acetyl transfer in the SGNH/GDSL hydrolase family and highlight important evolutionary differences between homologous OatA enzymes. Furthermore, this study enhances our understanding of PG O-acetyltransferases, which could guide the development of novel antibacterial drugs to combat infections with multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens.

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Chitooligosaccharide binding to CIA17 (Coccinia indica agglutinin). Thermodynamic characterization and formation of higher order complexes.

Bobbili, K. B., Singh, B., Narahari, A., Bulusu, G., Surolia, A. & Swamy, M. J. (2019). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 137, 774-782.

CIA17 is a PP2-like, homodimeric lectin made up of 17 kDa subunits present in the phloem exudate of ivy gourd (Coccinia indica). Isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) studies on the interaction of chitooligosaccharides [(GlcNAc)2–6] showed that the dimeric protein has two sugar binding sites which recognize chitotriose with ~70-fold higher affinity than chitobiose, indicating that the binding site is extended in nature. ITC, atomic force microscopic and non-denaturing gel electrophoresis studies revealed that the high-affinity interaction of CIA17 with chitohexaose (Ka = 1.8 × 107 M−1) promotes the formation of protein oligomers. Computational studies involving homology modeling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations on the binding of chitooligosaccharides to CIA17 showed that the protein binding pocket accommodates up to three GlcNAc residues. Interestingly, docking studies with chitohexaose indicated that its two triose units could interact with binding sites on two protein molecules to yield dimeric complexes of the type CIA17-(GlcNAc)6-CIA17, which can extend in length by the binding of additional chitohexaose and CIA17 molecules. These results suggest that PP2 proteins play a role in plant defense against insect/pathogen attack by directly binding with the higher chain length chitooligosaccharides and forming extended, filamentous structures, which facilitate wound sealing.

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Heterologous expression and characterization of an antifungal chitinase (Chit46) from Trichoderma harzianum GIM 3.442 and its application in colloidal chitin conversion.

Deng, J. J., Shi, D., Mao, H. H., Li, Z. W., Liang, S., Ke, Y. & Luo, X. C. (2019). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 134, 113-121.

In this study, a chitinase gene, Chit46 from a mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma harzianum was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris with a high heterologous chitinase production of 31.4 U/mL, much higher than the previous reports. The active center and substrate binding pocket of the recombinant Chit46 (rChit46) were analyzed and the effects of pH, temperature, metal ions and glycosylation on its activity were tested. rChit46 effectively hydrolyzed colloidal chitin with a high conversion rate of 80.5% in 3 h and the chitin hydrolysates were mainly composed of (GlcNAc)2 (94.8%), which make it a good candidate for the green recycling of chitinous waste. rChit46 could also significantly inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea, which endowed it with the potential as a biocontrol agent.

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Purification and characterization of an extracellular thermo-alkali stable, metal tolerant chitinase from Streptomyces chilikensis RC1830 isolated from a brackish water lake sediment.

Ray, L., Panda, A. N., Mishra, S. R., Pattanaik, A. K., Adhya, T. K., Suar, M. & Raina, V. (2019). Biotechnology Reports, 21, e00311.

An extracellular thermo-alkali stable chitinase was obtained from Streptomyces chilikensis RC1830, a novel actinobacterial strain isolated from the sediments of Chilika lake, India. Purification of the enzyme was carried out by concentrating the enzyme with centrifugal device followed by chromatographic separation by DEAE Sepharose ion exchange resin.The molecular weight of the enzyme was 10.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature for the partially purified chitinase was pH 7 and 60°C. The chitinase showed 40% activity at pH 11 after 24 h exposure at room temperature. The chitinase exhibited Km and Vmax values are 0.02 mM and 3.184 mol/min/mg of enzyme respectively. The 6 residue N-terminal sequence of the enzyme was not found similar to any of the reported chitinase enzyme. Based on the SDS PAGE, zymogram analysis, activity assays and other characteristics, it is proposed that the purified enzyme from S.chilikensis RC1830 is a chitinase.

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An actinobacteria lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase acts on both cellulose and xylan to boost biomass saccharification.

Corrêa, T. L. R., Júnior, A. T., Wolf, L. D., Buckeridge, M. S., dos Santos, L. V. & Murakami, M. T. (2019). Biotechnology for Biofuels, 12(1), 117.

Background: Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) opened a new horizon for biomass deconstruction. They use a redox mechanism not yet fully understood and the range of substrates initially envisaged to be the crystalline polysaccharides is steadily expanding to non-crystalline ones. Results: The enzyme KpLPMO10A from the actinomycete Kitasatospora papulosa was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells in the functional form with native N-terminal. The enzyme can release oxidized species from chitin (C1-type oxidation) and cellulose (C1/C4-type oxidation) similarly to other AA10 members from clade II (subclade A). Interestingly, KpLPMO10A also cleaves isolated xylan (not complexed with cellulose, C4-type oxidation), a rare activity among LPMOs not described yet for the AA10 family. The synergistic effect of KpLPMO10A with Celluclast ® and an endo-β-1,4-xylanase also supports this finding. The crystallographic elucidation of KpLPMO10A at 1.6 Å resolution along with extensive structural analyses did not indicate any evident diference with other characterized AA10 LPMOs at the catalytic interface, tempting us to suggest that these enzymes might also be active on xylan or that the ability to attack both crystalline and non-crystalline substrates involves yet obscure mechanisms of substrate recognition and binding. Conclusions: This work expands the spectrum of substrates recognized by AA10 family, opening a new perspective for the understanding of the synergistic efect of these enzymes with canonical glycoside hydrolases to deconstruct ligno(hemi)cellulosic biomass.

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Comparative biocontrol ability of chitinases from bacteria and recombinant chitinases from the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus.

Okongo, R. N., Puri, A. K., Wang, Z., Singh, S. & Permaul, K. (2019). Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 127(6), 663-671.

Microbial chitinases (EC are known to hydrolyse the chitinous gut epithelium of insects and cell walls of many fungi. In this study, seven chitinases from different bacteria and fungi were produced, characterized and their biocontrol abilities against graminaceous stem borers Eldana saccharinaChilo partellus and Sesamia calamistis were assessed. All chitinases were stable over broad ranges of pH and temperature, however, recombinant fungal chitinases were more acid-stable than the bacterial counterparts. Chitinases from the thermophilic filamentous fungi Thermomyces lanuginosus SSBP (Chit1) and from Bacillus licheniformis (Chit lic) caused 70% and 80% mortality, respectively, in second instar larvae of E. saccharina. Six of the seven partially-purified microbial chitinases inhibited Aspergillus nigerA. flavusA. alliaceusA. ochraceusFusarium verticillioides and Mucor sp. Overall, microbial chitinases show promise as biocontrol agents of fungi and stalk–boring lepidopterans.

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β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase MthNAG from Myceliophthora thermophila C1, a thermostable enzyme for production of N-acetylglucosamine from chitin.

Krolicka, M., Hinz, S. W., Koetsier, M. J., Eggink, G., van den Broek, L. A. & Boeriu, C. G. (2018). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 102(17), 7441-7454.

Thermostable enzymes are a promising alternative for chemical catalysts currently used for the production of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) from chitin. In this study, a novel thermostable β-N-acetylglucosaminidase MthNAG was cloned and purified from the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila C1. MthNAG is a protein with a molecular weight of 71 kDa as determined with MALDI-TOF-MS. MthNAG has the highest activity at 50°C and pH 4.5. The enzyme shows high thermostability above the optimum temperature: at 55°C (144 h, 75% activity), 60°C (48 h, 85% activity; half-life 82 h), and 70°C (24 h, 33% activity; half-life 18 h). MthNAG releases GlcNAc from chitin oligosaccharides (GlcNAc)2-5p-nitrophenol derivatives of chitin oligosaccharides (GlcNAc)1-3-pNP, and the polymeric substrates swollen chitin and soluble chitosan. The highest activity was detected towards (GlcNAc)2MthNAG released GlcNAc from the non-reducing end of the substrate. We found that MtHNAG and Chitinase Chi1 from M. thermophila C1 synergistically degraded swollen chitin and released GlcNAc in concentration of approximately 130 times higher than when only MthNAG was used. Therefore, chitinase Chi1 and MthNAG have great potential in the industrial production of GlcNAc.

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Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Ionic Liquid-Extracted Chitin.

Berton, P., Shamshina, J. L., Ostadjoo, S., King, C. A. & Rogers, R. D. (2018). Carbohydrate Polymers, 199, 228-235.

Chitin, one of Nature’s most abundant biopolymers, can be obtained by either traditional chemical pulping or by extraction using the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. The IL extraction and coagulation process provides access to a unique chitin, with an open hydrated gel-like structure. Here, enzymatic hydrolysis of this chitin hydrogel, dried shrimp shell, chitin extracted from shrimp shells using IL and then dried, and commercial chitin was carried out using chitinase from Streptomyces griseus. The enzymatic hydrolysis of shrimp shells resulted only in the monomer N-acetylglucosamine, while much higher amounts of the dimer (N, N′-diacetylchitobiose) compared to the monomer were detected when using all forms of ‘pure’ chitin. Interestingly, small amounts of the trimer (N, N′,N′′-triacetylchitotriose) were also detected when the IL-chitin hydrogel was used as substrate. Altogether, our findings indicate that the product distribution and yield are highly dependent on the substrate selected for the reaction and its hydrated state.

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Characterization and synergistic action of a tetra‐modular lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase from Bacillus cereus.

Mutahir, Z., Mekasha, S., Loose, J. S., Abbas, F., Vaaje‐Kolstad, G., Eijsink, V. G. & Forsberg, Z. (2018). FEBS Letters, 592, 2562-2571.

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) contribute to enzymatic conversion of recalcitrant polysaccharides such as chitin and cellulose and may also play a role in bacterial infections. Some LPMOs are multimodular, the implications of which remain only partly understood. We have studied the properties of a tetra‐modular LPMO from the food poisoning bacterium Bacillus cereus (named BcLPMO10A). We show that BcLPMO10A, comprising an LPMO domain, two fibronectin‐type III (FnIII)‐like domains, and a carbohydrate‐binding module (CBM5), is a powerful chitin‐active LPMO. While the role of the FnIII domains remains unclear, we show that enzyme functionality strongly depends on the CBM5, which, by promoting substrate binding, protects the enzyme from inactivation. BcLPMO10A enhances the activity of chitinases during the degradation of α-chitin.

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Enzymatic properties and the gene structure of a cold-adapted laminarinase from Pseudoalteromonas species LA.

Mitsuya, D., Sugiyama, T., Zhang, S., Takeuchi, Y., Okai, M., Urano, N. & Ishida, M. (2018). Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 126(2), 169-175.

We isolated a laminarin-degrading cold-adapted bacterium strain LA from coastal seawater in Sagami Bay, Japan and identified it as a Pseudoalteromonas species. We named the extracellular laminarinase LA-Lam, and purified and characterized it. LA-Lam showed high degradation activity for Laminaria digitata laminarin in the ranges of 15-50°C and pH 5.0-9.0. The major terminal products degraded from L. digitata laminarin with LA-Lam were glucose, laminaribiose, and laminaritriose. The degradation profile of laminarioligosaccharides with LA-Lam suggested that the enzyme has a high substrate binding ability toward tetrameric or larger saccharides. Our results of the gene sequence and the SDS-PAGE analyses revealed that the major part of mature LA-Lam is a catalytic domain that belongs to the GH16 family, although its precursor is composed of a signal peptide, the catalytic domain, and three-repeated unknown regions.

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Differential scanning calorimetric and spectroscopic studies on the thermal and chemical unfolding of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) phloem exudate lectin.

Nareddy, P. K. & Swamy, M. J. (2017). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, In Press.

In plants, chitooligosaccharide-binding phloem exudate lectins play an important role in the defense mechanism against parasites. Here, we investigated the thermal and chaotrope-induced unfolding of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) phloem exudate lectin (CPL). Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic studies indicate that the secondary and tertiary structures of CPL are essentially unaltered up to 90°C. Consistent with this, differential scanning calorimetric studies revealed that CPL is highly thermostable and undergoes a cooperative thermal unfolding transition centered at 97.6°C. The unfolding process was calorimetrically irreversible, and could be described by a non-two-state model, suggesting that upon undergoing a reversible unfolding transition the protein attains a final state in an irreversible step. The ratio of calorimetric and van’t Hoff enthalpies (ΔHcHv/) was >1.0, suggesting that the two monomers in the dimeric protein unfold at the same temperature. CD spectra recorded at different pH indicated that the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein are nearly unaltered in the pH range 3.0-10.0. Guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding studies indicate that chemical denaturation of CPL can also be described by a two-state process, without involving any intermediate. The stability of CPL to high temperatures and large variations of pH appear to be particularly suited for its role in plant defense.

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