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Glucose Oxidase Assay Kit

Product code: K-GLOX

200 assays (manual) / 2000 assays (microplate) / 1960 assays (auto-analyser)

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Content: 200 assays (manual) / 2000 assays (microplate) / 1960 assays (auto-analyser)
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Storage Temperature: Short term stability: 2-8oC,
Long term stability: See individual component labels
Stability: > 2 years under recommended storage conditions
Analyte: Glucose Oxidase
Assay Format: Spectrophotometer, Microplate, Auto-analyser
Detection Method: Absorbance
Wavelength (nm): 510
Signal Response: Increase
Linear Range: 0.01 to 0.08 U/mL of glucose oxidase per assay
Limit of Detection: 10 U/L
Reaction Time (min): ~ 20 min
Application examples: Enzyme preparations, and other materials (e.g. biological cultures, samples, etc.).
Method recognition: Novel method

The Glucose Oxidase assay kit is a simple procedure for the rapid and reliable measurement and analysis of glucose oxidase activity in industrial enzyme preparations and bread improver mixtures.

View more of our assay kits for enzyme activities.

Scheme-K-GLOX GLOX Megazyme

  • Very competitive price (cost per test) 
  • All reagents stable for > 12 months after preparation 
  • Simple format 
  • Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing 
  • Standard included 
  • Suitable for manual, microplate and auto-analyser formats
Certificate of Analysis
Safety Data Sheet
FAQs Assay Protocol Data Calculator

Effect of pullulanase debranching and retrogradation on resistant starch yield and glycemic Index of Garri.

Ogbo, F. C. & Nwozor, N. C. (2020). Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 67-75.

Aims: This research is aimed at developing a method of processing to increase the quantity of resistant starch in garri and reduce its glycemic index using pullulanase-producing Bacillus subtilis organism. Place and Duration of Study: Department of applied microbiology and brewing, Nnnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka between January, 2018 and February, 2019. Methodology: The organism was isolated from different cassava processing sites in Anambra metropolis, Nigeria. It was then identified based on phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characteristics After which the pullulanase assay, the fermentation studies, resistant starch analysis and glycemic index was analysed. Results: Pullulanase assay result showed Bacillus subtilis as a very good pullulanase producing organism with a pullulanase quantity of. The resistant starch content was found to be higher for the samples fermented with the choice organism and retrograded at 10oC at 14.29%, than the control garri sample fermented without any organism and not retrograded at 4.73%. The glycemic index was relatively high in all the garri samples, however, the lowest glycemic index, 62% was observed in the garri sample produced with the choice organism. Conclusion: This research has been able to show that pullulanase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis is a very useful industrial raw material in production of functional foods with low glycemic index.

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Physicochemical and multi-scale structural alterations of pea starch induced by supercritical carbon dioxide+ ethanol extraction.

Vatansever, S., Whitney, K., Ohm, J. B., Simsek, S. & Hall, C. (2020). Food Chemistry, 344, 128699.

The objective of this study was to establish the impacts of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) processing on the physicochemical properties of pea flour and the structure of isolated pea starch. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in protein content and reduction in several pasting and thermal parameters as measured by rapid visco-analyzer and differential scanning calorimeter were observed after SFE. Additionally, SFE increased starch digestibility as determined by an in vitro starch digestion assay. An increased amylopectin content and crystallinity along with the loss of double helix content was supported by size exclusion chromatography and FT-IR data, respectively. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed minimal alterations of starch, by SFE, in long-range crystalline and morphological structure of starch granules, respectively. The data demonstrated SFE influenced the physicochemical and structural characteristics of pea starch. These outcomes illustrated that SFE might be a green and novel technology for starch modification.

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Quality Evaluation of ‘Fufu’ Produced from Sweet Cassava (Manihot Esculenta) and Guinea Corn (Sorghum Bicolor) Flour.

Awolu, O., Iwambe, V., Oluwajuyitan, T., Bukola Adeloye, J. & Ifesan, B. (2020). Journal of Culinary Science & Technology, 1-31

Sweet cassava and guinea corn were processed into flour using two different drying methods (sun and oven) to produce unfermented enriched fufu. Experimental design from which ten blends were selected for analyzes, sample F (100% traditional processed fufu) and sample C (commercial market sample - semolina) were used as control. In-vitro starch digestibility, glycemic index/load, antioxidant potential, and sensory attributes were evaluated, analyzed and mean were separated using Duncan New Multiple Range (DNMR) test at p ≤ 0.05. In-vitro starch digestibility of the experimental samples were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than 8.91% obtained for sample F in both sun- and oven-dried samples. Results of the estimated glycemic index/load of the experimental samples showed that enriched fufu can be classified as low glycemic foods and are significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than sample F (55%) and glucose (100%). The samples also had better ability to scavenge free radicals against DPPH and ABTS.

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Effect of different cooking methods and heating solutions on nutritionally‐important starch fractions and flatus oligosaccharides in selected pulses.

Liu, Y., Ragaee, S., Marcone, M. F. & Abdel‐Aal, E. S. M. (2020). Cereal Chemistry, 97(6), 1216-1226.

Background and objectives: Consumption of pulses is recommended by health organizations. Pulses are usually soaked and cooked in water before consumption which alters their nutrient composition and ultimately health benefits. This study investigated the effect of four cooking methods (boiling, pressure, microwave, and slow) and four heating solutions (water, salt, sugar, and citric acid) on composition of nutritionally‐important starch fractions and flatus oligosaccharides in faba bean, lentil, and pea. Findings: The three pulses had slowly digestible starch (SDS) as the highest fraction with faba bean and lentil exhibited higher SDS than pea, but pea contained the highest level of resistant starch (RS). Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) was comparable among the three pulses. Stachyose and verbascose were the dominant oligosaccharides in faba bean, lentil, and pea. Regardless of the heating solution, slow cooking was more effective in improving starch nutritional fractions, i.e., producing lowest RDS and highest SDS in the three pulses with some exceptions. The RS fraction increased in the three pulses subject to cooking method and pulse type. Pressure and slow cooking methods were effective in reducing oligosaccharides in the three pulses. Conclusions: The results suggest that slow cooking in water or salt solution has great potential to improve starch nutritional fractions and diminish flatus oligo‐sugars. Significance and novelty: This is the first study to demonstrate the effectiveness of slow cooking in enhancing starch nutritional fractions and reducing flatus oligo‐sugars in pulses. The method could hold a promise for implementation especially small‐ and large‐volume slow cookers are commercially available.

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Changes in physicochemical, nutritional characteristics and ATR-FTIR molecular interactions of cereal grains during germination.

Kaur, H. & Gill, B. S. (2020). Journal of Food Science and Technology, 1-12.

The cereal grains such as wheat, barley, sorghum, millets were evaluated before and after germination (24 h, 48 h and 72 h) and compared for their proximate composition, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, pasting properties, in vitro starch digestibility and FTIR spectroscopy. Germination inversely affected the protein, fat, and ash content of different cereal grains. The germinated flours have less water content and higher oil absorption capacities along with reduced starch content. The contents of rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) in the ungerminated cereal flours ranged from 20.7 to 32.1%, 26.9 to 38.0% and 6.2 to 17.6% respectively but after germination of 72 h, the RDS content increased from 26.5 to 36.2% while SDS and RS content decreased from 26.1% (sorghum) to 16% (barley) and 14.7% (barley) to 4.6% (wheat) respectively. The drought–tolerant crops (sorghum, millets and barley) are potential sources of antioxidants and phenolic content and yielded lower hydrolysis index and estimated glycaemic index upon germination. The highest section of antiparallal β-sheet, α-helix and β-turns were found in wheat flour followed by sorghum flour and their proportion decreased with continuous germination. The continuous reduction of viscosity was evaluated with the progress in germination. Overall, germination is a way to get health-promoting compounds from less utilizing cereal such as millets, sorghum and barley and enhance their uses to nourish the huge population with the aim to fulfill their nutritional requirements.

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Influence of resistant starch, xanthan gum, inulin and defatted rice bran on the physicochemical, functional and sensory properties of low glycemic gluten-free noodles.

Raungrusmee, S., Shrestha, S., Sadiq, M. B. & Anal, A. K. (2020). LWT, 126, 109279.

The study aims to evaluate the effects of xanthan gum (XG), inulin and defatted rice bran on the physicochemical, functional and sensory properties of the gluten-free noodle prepared from Pathumthani 80 rice (RD 31) native autoclaved resistant starch (NARS). The increase in concentration of XG (0.625-5%) in the formulation of gluten free noodles resulted a significant decrease (p ˂ 0.05) in resistant starch content whereas, the tensile strength was increased. RD 31-NARS gluten-free noodles with 2.5% XG received the high sensory scores and further selected for the addition of inulin and defatted rice bran (5%, w/w), separately. RD 31-NARS gluten free noodle with XG (2.5%) and defatted rice bran exhibited the highest protein (4.62%), fiber (0.35%) and ash content (1.45%). Further, addition of inulin and defatted rice bran significantly (p ˂ 0.05) decreased the glycemic index and increased the cooking time and firmness. The surface morphology of gluten free noodles showed relatively porous structure under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) after the addition of rice bran (5%) and inulin (5%). Thus, resistant starch along with gums and fibers can be used to develop gluten free functional foods with better acceptability.

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Low serum interleukin-6 is a differential marker of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in women and men.

Méndez-García, L. A., Cid-Soto, M., Aguayo-Guerrero, J. A., Carrero-Aguirre, M., Trejo-Millán, F., Islas-Andrade, S., Fragoso, J. M., Olivos-Garcia, A. & Escobedo, G. (2020). Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research, 40(3), 131-138.

There is scant information regarding the role of interleukin (IL)-6 in obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in humans. Thus, we studied the serum levels of IL-6 in normal weight, overweight, and obese subjects, and examined associations of IL-6 with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and systemic inflammation. One hundred three women and men were included in the study. Anthropometric parameters, blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-10, and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a 2.5-fold significant decrease in serum IL-6 in overweight and obese individuals when compared with normal weight controls. Serum IL-6 exhibited significant inverse correlations with body mass index (r = −0.39/P < 0.0001), waist circumference (r = −0.42/P < 0.001), blood glucose (r = −0.40/P < 0.0001), triglycerides (r = −0.34/P < 0.0001), and TNF-alpha (r = −0.48/P < 0.0001), whereas a strongly positive correlation was found with IL-10 (r = 0.77/P < 0.0001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that behavior of IL-6 was mainly influenced by IL-10 (beta = 0.28/P = 1.95 × 10−6), TNF-alpha (beta = −0.67/P = 0.0017), and body fat percentage (beta = −5.95/P = 7.67 × 10−5) in women. In contrast, IL-10 (beta = 0.37/P = 1.34 × 10−9), TNF-alpha (beta = −0.85/P = 0.0005), and triglycerides (beta = 1.07/P = 0.0007) were major influencing factors of IL-6 in men. This study demonstrates that IL-6 is a marker of metabolic dysfunction that is differentially regulated in obese women and men.

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Digestibility of branched and linear α-gluco-oligosaccharides in vitro and in ileal-cannulated pigs.

Hu, Y., Heyer, C. M., Wang, W., Zijlstra, R. T. & Gänzle, M. G. (2020). Food Research International, 127, 108726.

Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs) may promote health by modulating intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that the proportion of α–(1 → 6) linkages in IMOs determines their digestibility. Ileal-cannulated pigs were fed diets containing IMO, IMO-DP3 with a greater DP and more α-(1 → 4) linkages, and digestible or resistant maltodextrins. Oligosaccharides were analysed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Compared to IMO, IMO-DP3 contained more panose (18.6 vs. 10.3%) but less isomaltose (7.5 vs. 22.3%) and isomaltotriose (6.1 vs. 12.6%). The apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter were 3% greater for IMO-DP3 and digestible maltodextrin than resistant maltodextrin; the digestibility of IMO was not different from other oligosaccharides. Ileal propionate, isovalerate, and total SCFA was greater for IMO-DP3 and digestible maltodextrin than IMO. In conclusion, IMO was less digestible than IMO-DP3. Structural properties of IMOs are important determinants of their functional properties within the porcine digestive tract.

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Impact of annealing on the hierarchical structure and physicochemical properties of waxy starches of different botanical origins.

Samarakoon, E. R. J., Waduge, R., Liu, Q., Shahidi, F. & Banoub, J. H. (2020). Food Chemistry, 303, 125344.

The effect of annealing on structure and physicochemical properties of four different waxy starches were investigated to understand the mechanism of annealing in the absence of amylose. Granule morphology, X-ray pattern, molecular order, and gelatinization enthalpy remained unchanged upon annealing. Relative crystallinity of waxy corn starch increased from 42.4 to 46.1% on annealing, while it remained unchanged in other starches. Annealing increased the gelatinization temperatures, while it decreased the temperature range. Waxy potato starch showed the highest increase in To, where it was 8.1°C after 72 h of annealing. Viscosity profiles were only slightly affected by the annealing treatment. Susceptibility towards amylolysis increased in waxy corn and waxy barley, while it decreased in waxy potato and waxy rice. This study demonstrated that even in the absence of amylose, annealing caused changes in the structure and properties, however, the extents of these changes varied depending on the botanical origin.

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Influence of remote plasma on PEDOT: PSS‐coated carbon felt for improved activity of glucose oxidase.

Kahoush, M., Behary, N., Cayla, A., Mutel, B., Guan, J. & Nierstrasz, V. (2020). Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 137(14), 48521.

Increasing wettability of carbon felts is an important strategy to improve their efficiency in bio‐electrochemical applications. Herein, influence of cold remote plasma (N2 + O2) treatment on surface properties of carbon felts with poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) coating was tested, aiming to improve immobilizing of glucose oxidase enzyme (GOx). Spectra of N 1s and O 1s confirmed the integration of carbonyl and ether as well as amide and amine groups on bare carbon fiber surface, while on coated fibers, carbonyl groups were pre‐dominant. S 2p spectra confirmed oxidation of PEDOT:PSS coating with reduction of (S) compared to (SO3−) group. GOx immobilized on different samples showed highest activity for PEDOT:PSS coating subjected to plasma with 2% O2, maintaining up to 60% after immobilization, and 37% of its activity after six cycles for some samples. Enzymes immobilized on samples without plasma treatment lost their activity after four cycles.

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Nutritional quality of raw and cooked flours of a high β-glucan sorghum inbred line.

Hamad, S. A., Mustafa, A. I., Magboul, B. I., Qasem, A. A. & Ahmed, I. A. M. (2019). Journal of Cereal Science, 90, 102857.

This study investigated the protein fractions, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), in vitro starch digestibility (IVSD), antinutritional factors, hydrolysis index (HI), and estimated glycemic index (eGI) of the raw and cooked flours of a new sorghum inbred line (high β-glucan type I non-tannin sorghum) compared to two popular Sudanese sorghum cultivars (low β-glucan type 1 non-tannin and type II tannin sorghums). Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in protein fractions, antinutritional factors, IVPD, IVSD, rapidly digestible starch (RDS), resistant starch (RS), HI, and eGI. Low β-glucan type II tannin sorghum showed the highest antinutritional factors and RS values, whereas high β-glucan type I non-tannin and low β-glucan type 1 non-tannin sorghum cultivars showed the least values (P < 0.05). Low β-glucan type 1 non-tannin sorghum had the highest IVPD, RDS, HI, and eGI values. Cooking significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the protein fractions, antinutritional factors, IVPD, and RS and increased the IVSD, RDS, HI, and eGI of sorghums. Based on low eGI of high β-glucan type I non-tannin sorghum cultivar, it can be considered a low glycemic index sorghum and could thus be the best choice for diabetic people.

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Understanding the structural and digestion changes of starch in heat-moisture treated polished rice grains with varying amylose content.

Yang, X., Chi, C., Liu, X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, H. & Wang, H. (2019). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 139, 785-792.

Although the effects of heat-moisture treatment on starch structures and digestibility have been evaluated, the changes in structures and digestion of starches in heat-moisture treated starch-based food systems with varying amylose contents are not well understood. In the present study, starches isolated from heat-moisture treated polished rice grains were characterized with multi-scale structures and digestibility to reveal the effect of amylose in rice grains on structures and digestibility of starch subjected to heat-moisture treatment. Results indicated that heat-moisture treatment contributed to the partial gelatinization of starch granules, but also significantly reinforced the molecular interactions between starch molecules and thus increased starch resistance to hydrothermal treatment and enzymes attack. The higher amylose content of the native starch was, the greater reduction in digestion was observed for heat-moisture treated starch. Pearson's correlation matrix showed that the amylose content highly correlated with the changes in structural features (e.g., molar mass, short-range ordered structure, crystalline structure, and lamellar structure) of starches followed by heat-moisture treatment. The amylose promoted the reinforcement of interactions between starch chains during heat-moisture treatment and then significantly contributed to the reduction in starch digestibility.

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The role of hydrogen peroxide in the antibacterial activity of different floral honeys.

Farkasovska, J., Bugarova, V., Godocikova, J., Majtan, V. & Majtan, J. (2019). European Food Research and Technology, 245(12), 2739-2744.

Because of its powerful therapeutic potential in wound care, honey has been given much attention. One of the most relevant and researched characteristics of honey is its multifactorial antibacterial activity. Several antibacterial compounds have been identified including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The goal of the study was to characterize the antibacterial potential of honeys from various botanical origins (n = 233) against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and establish the H2O2 content. Five types of honey were identified: acacia (n = 72), linden (n = 23), rapeseed (n = 9), sunflower (n = 8) and multi-floral (n = 121). The overall antibacterial activity of all the honey samples, expressed as a minimal inhibitory concentration of honey, strongly correlated with the level of H2O2. On the other hand, linden honey, which exhibited the strongest antibacterial effect, showed weak or no correlation between the antibacterial activity and the level of H2O2, depending on bacterial strain. The weakest antibacterial activity was documented in the rapeseed honey samples and it was associated with the low content of H2O2. These data suggest that antibacterial activity of honey is mainly H2O2-dependent; however, certain type of honey such as linden honey, showed a strong antibacterial effect which, may be, at least partially, attributed to non-peroxide factor(s).

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Surface modification of polyester fabric using plasma-dendrimer for robust immobilization of glucose oxidase enzyme.

Morshed, M. N., Behary, N., Bouazizi, N., Guan, J., Chen, G. & Nierstrasz, V. (2019). Scientific Reports, 9(1), 1-16.

Robust immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was achieved on poly(ethylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabric (PN) after integration of favourable surface functional groups through plasma treatments [atmospheric pressure-AP or cold remote plasma-CRP (N2 + O2)] and/or chemical grafting of hyperbranched dendrimers [poly-(ethylene glycol)-OH or poly-(amidoamine)]. Absorption, stability, catalytic behavior of immobilized enzymes and reusability of resultant fibrous bio-catalysts were comparatively studied. Full characterization of PN before and after respective modifications was carried out by various analytical, instrumental and arithmetic techniques. Results showed that modified polyester having amine terminal functional groups pledged better surface property providing up to 31% enzyme loading, and 81% active immobilized enzymes. The activity of the enzyme was measured in terms of interaction aptitude of GOx in a given time to produce hydrogen peroxide using colorimetric assay. The immobilized GOx retained 50% of its original activity after being reused six (06) times and exhibited improved stability compared with the free enzyme in relation to temperature. The reaction kinetics, loading efficiency, leaching, and reusability analysis of enzyme allowed drawing a parallel to the type of organic moiety integrated during GOx immobilization. In addition, resultant fibrous bio-catalysts showed substantial antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria strains (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli) in the presence of oxygen and glucose. These results are of great importance because they provide proof-of-concept for robust immobilization of enzymes on surface-modified fibrous polyester fabric for potential bio-industrial applications.

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A single 48 mg sucralose sip unbalances monocyte subpopulations and stimulates insulin secretion in healthy young adults.

Gómez-Arauz, A. Y., Bueno-Hernández, N., Palomera, L. F., Alcántara-Suárez, R., De León, K. L.,Méndez-García, L. A., .Carrero-Aguirre, M., Manjarrez-Reyna, A. N., Martínez-Reyes, C. P., Esquivel-Velázquez, M., Ruiz-Barranco, A., Baltazar-López, N., Islas-Andrade, S., Escobedo, G. & Meléndez, G. (2019). Journal of Immunology Research, 2019, 6105059.

Sucralose is a noncaloric artificial sweetener that is widely consumed worldwide and has been associated with alteration in glucose and insulin homeostasis. Unbalance in monocyte subpopulations expressing CD11c and CD206 hallmarks metabolic dysfunction but has not yet been studied in response to sucralose. Our goal was to examine the effect of a single sucralose sip on serum insulin and blood glucose and the percentages of classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes in healthy young adults subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Volunteers randomly received 60 mL water as placebo (n = 20) or 48 mg sucralose dissolved in 60 mL water (n = 25), fifteen minutes prior to an OGTT. Blood samples were individually drawn every 15 minutes for 180 minutes for quantifying glucose and insulin concentrations. Monocyte subsets expressing CD11c and CD206 were measured at -15 and 180 minutes by flow cytometry. As compared to controls, volunteers receiving sucralose exhibited significant increases in serum insulin at 30, 45, and 180 minutes, whereas blood glucose values showed no significant differences. Sucralose consumption caused a significant 7% increase in classical monocytes and 63% decrease in nonclassical monocytes with respect to placebo controls. Pearson’s correlation models revealed a strong association of insulin with sucralose-induced monocyte subpopulation unbalance whereas glucose values did not show significant correlations. Sucralose ingestion decreased CD11c expression in all monocyte subsets and reduced CD206 expression in nonclassical monocytes suggesting that sucralose does not only unbalance monocyte subpopulations but also alter their expression pattern of cell surface molecules. This work demonstrates for the first time that a 48 mg sucralose sip increases serum insulin and unbalances monocyte subpopulations expressing CD11c and CD206 in noninsulin-resistant healthy young adults subjected to an OGTT. The apparently innocuous consumption of sucralose should be reexamined in light of these results.

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Flexible and expeditious assay for quantitative monitoring of alpha-amylase and amyloglucosidase activities.

Oliveira, H. M., Pinheiro, A. Q., Fonseca, A. J., Cabrita, A. R. & Maia, M. R. (2019). MethodsX, 6, 246-258.

studying their role in the hydrolysis of starch. Here we introduced an improved method capable to measure the activity of alpha-amylase and amyloglucosidase from different sources based on a quantitative starch-iodine assay. The developments of the assay sought the consistent preparation of the reagents, the rescale of the assay and the adjustment of the sensitivity. This was complemented by a glucose yield assay for amyloglucosidase that allowed a secondary source of information when insoluble starches were studied. The proposed method showed high precision in long-term use (RSD < 6.3%). Furthermore, all experimental conditions can be adapted according to the equipment available at each laboratory, transforming this method in a broadband analytical tool for screening alpha-amylase and amyloglucosidase activities.

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Surface modification of carbon felt by cold remote plasma for glucose oxidase enzyme immobilization.

Kahoush, M., Behary, N., Cayla, A., Mutel, B., Guan, J. & Nierstrasz, V. (2019). Applied Surface Science, 476, 1016-1024.

Despite their chemical inertness and poor hydrophilicity, carbon-based materials are widely used in electrochemical applications due to their robustness, good electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance. The purpose of the work carried was to increase the wettability of nonwoven carbon fiber felts for improved efficiency in bio/electrochemical applications. Virgin Carbon Felt (VCF) was first treated with cold remote plasma (CRP) using a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen (1 or 2%) as plasma gas. Bio-functionalization of the carbon felts with glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was then carried using physical adsorption method. FTIR and XPS analysis showed an integration of new oxygenated functional groups (C-O and C=O) as well as amines and amides on the surface of VCF treated by the CRP treatment, which improved the wettability of the samples. Capillary uptake increased from around 0% (for VCF) to nearly 750% with 2% oxygen in plasma gas. GOx enzyme showed higher activity after immobilization at pH 5.5 on the CRP treated samples, maintaining up to 50% of its initial enzymatic activity after six cycles while with the VCF, no enzymatic activity was observed after the fourth cycle. These obtained felts can be used as electrodes in sustainable bioprocesses.

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The effect of different thermal modifications on slowly digestible starch and physicochemical properties of green banana flour (Musa acuminata colla).

Cahyana, Y., Wijaya, E., Halimah, T. S., Marta, H., Suryadi, E. & Kurniati, D. (2019). Food Chemistry, 274, 274-280.

The effect of heat moisture treatment (HMT), annealing (ANN), and dual retrogradation (DR) on functional and pasting properties, digestibility of starch components of banana flour comprising rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) has been investigated, using native banana flour (NBF) as a control. Crystal type, relative crystallinity and morphological changes were characterised by XRD and SEM. HMT has markedly modified the pasting properties and resulted in the highest SDS content. HMT and ANN increased the relative crystallinity but DR decreased it. HMT and DR altered XRD patterns from B to A and A + B type respectively, while ANN did not change the XRD patterns. The NBF compact granule surface remained unchanged with ANN but changed to a more porous surface with HMT and DR, thereby increasing the digestibility. Crystal type and granule morphology affected the digestibility while relative crystallinity might change the pasting point.

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In vitro digestibility of nanoporous wheat starch aerogels.

Ubeyitogullari, A., Brahma, S., Rose, D. J. & Ciftci, O. N. (2018). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 66(36), 9490-9497.

This study reports the in vitro digestibility of starch aerogels for the first time. The relative crystallinities of the wheat starch aerogels (WSAs) produced at gelatinization temperatures of 120 °C (WSA-120C), 130°C (WSA-130C), and 120°C with the addition of sodium metaphosphate (STMP) (WSA-STMP) and xerogel were similar. However, WSA-120C showed the highest amylose–lipid complex content. The addition of STMP created some cross-linked starch with a phosphorus content of 0.023%. Resistant starch (RS) contents of WSA-STMP (33.5%) and xerogel (26.9%) were higher than the other samples when they were uncooked prior to digestion. Nevertheless, the RS contents of WSA-STMP and xerogel decreased drastically with cooking. RS contents of WSA-120C and WSA-130C were stable with cooking and provided 4.5- and 3.0-fold increases in the RS content, respectively. WSA is a promising functional food ingredient with a high RS content, even after cooking.

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Fractionation of proteins and carbohydrates from crude microalgae extracts using an ionic liquid based-aqueous two phase system.

Garcia, E. S., Ruiz, C. A. S., Tilaye, T., Eppink, M. H., Wijffels, R. H. & van den Berg, C. (2018). Separation and Purification Technology, 204, 56-65.

Mild, simple and efficient recovery methods are required to obtain high-value microalgae proteins. As a promising extraction method, an Aqueous two phase system (ATPS) was used to partition proteins from crude microalgae extracts obtained from two green microalgae of industrial interest: Neochloris oleoabundans and Tetraselmis suecica. Furthermore, the Non-Random Two Liquids model (NRTL) was applied to describe both the phase diagram and the partition coefficient of total protein. It was observed that total protein preferentially concentrates in the top phase. Additionally, no significant effect on partition or extraction efficiency was noted at different tie lines. Experimental data indicate that proteins and sugars are selectively fractionated in top and bottom phases respectively. The model provided a good representation of the experimental data for the liquid-liquid equilibrium. Moreover, the model also led to a good representation of the partitioning data for two reference proteins, Rubisco and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), as well as for total protein from crude microalgae extracts.

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Symbol : GHS05, GHS07
Signal Word : Danger
Hazard Statements : H302, H315, H318, H319, H412
Precautionary Statements : P264, P270, P273, P280, P301+P312, P302+P352, P305+P351+P338, P310, P321, P330, P332+P313, P501
Safety Data Sheet
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Protazyme AK Tablets
Protease Subtilisin A from Bacillus licheniformis E-BSPRT
Protease (Subtilisin A from Bacillus licheniformis)
Xylanase Assay Kit XylX6 Method K-XylX6
Xylanase Assay Kit (XylX6 Method)
D-Xylose Assay Kit K-XYLOSE XYLOSE
D-Xylose Assay Kit