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Baking and Bread Improvers

Test Kits for Baking and Bread Improvers IndustryEnzymes in Bread Making - In bread production, a knowledge of both the alpha-amylase content and the water absorption of the flour is essential. Heavy rainfall and high humidity at the time of harvesting leads to preharvest sprouting, and the synthesis of amylase. High levels of this enzyme in flour leads to excessive starch dextrinisation in the baking process, which results in a sticky loaf, which is difficult to slice. Water added to flour is absorbed by protein, pentosans and starch. The major variable affecting water absorption is the level of damaged starch granules which are produced during the milling of the grain.

In modern baking practices the endogenous flour enzymes are commonly supplemented with enzymes of microbial origin e.g. α-Amylase, xylanase, and in some cases, proteases. Xylanase, through the modification of wheat flour arabinoxylans, can give up to a 10% increase in loaf volume. Proteases can be added to soften, particularly tough (bucky) glutens. However, high protease levels will destroy the gluten properties.

Xylazyme AX finds widespread application in the measurement of xylanase in wheat flours and bread improvers mixtures. alpha-Amylase is routinely measured using Ceralpha: α-amylase assay reagent. The need for rapid and simple procedures for the measurement of protease in bread improvers mixtures led to the development, by Megazyme, of Protazyme AK Tablets and Azo-Casein (which is far superior to the Azo-Casein currently commercially available from other suppliers).

Analyte           Cat. No.        Analyte Significance Advantages of Megazyme Test Kits
Acetic Acid K-ACETRM
K-ACETAK
K-ACETGK
Common food component K-ACETAK (auto) / K-ACETRM (manual) are very rapid acetate kinase (AK) based kits with excellent linearity.
K-ACETGK is a new rapid, auto-analyser assay kit employing AK and phosphotransacetylase. Stable reagents
Ammonia K-AMIAR Common food component K-AMIAR has a very rapid reaction rate (~ 3 min at room temperature). Manual and auto-analyser applications
Amylose / Amylopectin K-AMYL Ratio of these components affects the rate of digestion and utilisation of starch Novel kit, stable reagents
L-Asparagine / L-Glutamine / Ammonia K-ASNAM Acrylamide precursors in the production of fried, roasted, toasted potato or other food products Novel product, enabling all three analytes to be determined in less than 20 min.
Manual and microplate format procedures given
L-Ascorbic Acid K-ASCO Naturally found in fruits and vegetables, or supplemented in processed foods Rapid reaction, stable reagents
Available Carbohydrates / Dietary Fiber K-ACHDF Sugars rapidly digested and absorbed, and dietary fibre Novel procedure, stable reagents
β-Glucan (Mixed linkage) K-BGLU Major cell-wall polysaccharide of barley and oats Rapid reaction, stable reagents, only enzymatic kit available. AOAC Method 995.16; AACC Method 32-23.01; ICC Standard No. 166; RACI Standard Method
Citric Acid K-CITR Common food component / additive Ideal for manual and auto-analyser applications
Ethanol K-ETOH Found in small amounts in many foods Rapid reaction, stable reagents (AlDH supplied as a stable suspension)
Fructan K-FRUC
K-FRUCHK
Common component in many foods such as onions and seeds Novel assays, rapid reaction, stable reagents; AOAC Method 999.03; AACC Method 32-32.01
D-Fructose / D-Glucose K-FRUGL
K-FRGLMQ
K-FRGLQR
Very common food sugars, e.g. from high fructose corn syrup supplementation Ideal for manual and auto-analyser applications. Stable reagents. Choice of spectrophotometric or simple colorimeter formats
D-Gluconic Acid K-GATE Food additive Rapid reaction, stable reagents
D-Glucose K-GLUC
K-GLUHK
Common food component, very important in certain situations, e.g. diabetic products Choice of simple formats available, based either on glucose oxidase / peroxidase, or hexokinase / G-6-PDH
L-Glutamic Acid K-GLUT Common natural food component, e.g. in cheese and tomatoes, or added as a flavouring agent, e.g. as monosodium glutamate (MSG) Diaphorase supplied as a stabilised suspension rather than a lyophilised powder, thus less wasted enzyme
Glycerol K-GCROL
K-GCROLGK
Common food component, or added as a sweetener or to improve “mouth feel” Novel tablet format offers superior stability, rapid reactions
D-Lactic Acid K-DATE
K-DLATE
Quality indicator of fruit and vegetable products Rapid reaction, stable reagents
L-Lactic Acid K-LATE Quality indicator of fruit, vegetable and egg products Rapid reaction, stable reagents. Ideal for manual and auto-analyser applications
Lactose K-LACGAR
K-LACSU
Common processed food component, exact amount important in “lactose free” products Very rapid reaction for K-LACGAR (~ 5 min even at room temperature), stable reagents
Maltose K-MASUG Common food component Rapid reaction, stable reagents
Resistant Starch K-RSTAR Starch that is not digested in the small intestine of monogastric animals Only kit available. Rapid and robust.
AOAC Method 2002.02; AACC Method 32-40.01
Sucrose K-SUFRG
K-SUCGL
Common food component Choice of simple formats available, based either on glucose oxidase / peroxidase, or hexokinase / G-6-PDH
Sweeteners K-ASPTM
K-MANOL
K-SORB
Aspartame, D-mannitol, D-sorbitol and xylitol are common sweeteners found in a variety of foods 1. K-ASPTM - novel method, only test kit available
2. K-MANOL - new method, only test kit available
3. K-SORB - diaphorase supplied as a stabilised suspension rather than a lyophilised powder, thus less wasted enzyme
Total Dietary Fiber K-TDFR
K-INTDF
Carbohydrate not digested in small intestine 1. K-TDFR: AOAC Methods 985.29, 991.42, 991.43 & 993.19; AACC Methods 32-05.01, 32-06.01, 32-07.01 & 32-21.01
2. K-INTDF is consistent with the CODEX Alimentarius definition of dietary fiber. AOAC Methods 2009.01 & 2011.25; AACC Methods 32-45.01 & 32-50.11
Total Starch K-TSTA
K-TSHK
Major food component Rapid assay formats with options of measuring D-glucose with GOPOD reagent or with hexokinase / G-6-PDH. Stable reagents. AOAC Method 996.11; AACC Method 76-13.01; ICC Standard No. 168; RACI Standard Method